"Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers are infections caused by bacteria which are transmitted from faeces through ingestion. Clean water, hygiene and good sanitation prevent the spread of typhoid and paratyphoid. Contaminated water is one of the pathways of transmission of the disease.
Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection of the intestinal tract and bloodstream. Symptoms can be mild or severe and include sustained fever as high as 39°-40° C, malaise, anorexia, headache, constipation or diarrhoea, rose-coloured spots on the chest area and enlarged spleen and liver. Most people show symptoms one to three weeks after exposure. Paratyphoid fever has similar symptoms to typhoid fever but is generally a milder disease."