SSWM University Course

University Perspective cover image

SSWM University Course

In this perspective you can find all the cases, lectures, exercises, support material, etc. from the UMB course. Moreover, this material has been completed with factsheets on planning and implementation tools for software and hardware approaches in order to support students to deepen the gained knowledge and to work on the course’ case studies as well as in their professional daily life.

Module 1: Sustainability in Relation to Water and Sanitation

Module 2: Centralised and Decentralised Systems for Water and Sanitation

Module 3: Ecological Sanitation and Natural Systems for Wastewater Treatment

Module 4: Sustainable Water Supply

Module 5: Health and Hygiene

Module 6: Disaster Situations: Planning and Preparedness

Module 7: Socio-Economic Aspects

Module 8: Water and Sanitation for Future Challenges

Training of Trainers

In this perspective you can find all the cases, lectures, exercises, support material, etc. from the UMB course. Moreover, this material has been completed with factsheets on planning and implementation tools for software and hardware approaches in order to support students to deepen the gained knowledge and to work on the course’ case studies as well as in their professional daily life.

Module 1: Sustainability in Relation to Water and Sanitation

Module 2: Centralised and Decentralised Systems for Water and Sanitation

Module 3: Ecological Sanitation and Natural Systems for Wastewater Treatment

Module 4: Sustainable Water Supply

Module 5: Health and Hygiene

Module 6: Disaster Situations: Planning and Preparedness

Module 7: Socio-Economic Aspects

Module 8: Water and Sanitation for Future Challenges

Training of Trainers

The "SSWM for Universities" Perspective was developed by the SSWM team in collaboration with the Norwegian University of Lifesciences (UMB), Tribhuvan University in Nepal and COMSATS University in Abbottabad, Pakistan.

It has been designed for the students of the web based training course “Introduction to sustainable water and sanitation” conducted by these three universities. But it can also be used by a larger audience learning or teaching in higher-education institutions from all over the world involved or interested in Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management (SSWM).

The training course “Introduction to sustainable water and sanitation” gives an insight into the major water and sanitation challenges of the world. It gives an overview on centralised and decentralised sustainable water and sanitation options working in the field of water and sanitation in a variety of situations, including developing countries and disaster situations. The duration of the course is four month with weekly attendance on the web. It utilises problem-based learning and a selection of real life cases. The different cases will introduce participants to different physical, technical, economic, managerial and social challenges in different locations worldwide and introduce corresponding technical solutions.

Main Contributor:

Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB)
http://www.umb.no

Logo UMB

 

Other partners:

Tribhuvan University in Nepal:
http://tribhuvan-university.edu.np/

COMSATS University in Abbottabad (Pakistan):
http://www.ciit-atd.edu.pk/

Created by:

seecon international gmbh
http://www.seecon.ch

Main reviewers: Franka Voss, Janek Hermann-Friede, Dorothee Spuhler, Sarah Achermann

    

seecon Logo

 

Sustainability can be defined as: “Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (UN WCED 1987). Viewing water and sanitation through the spectacles of sustainability means to consider more than the pure technical aspects. Water and sanitation must also be connected to institutional, cultural and ecological aspects. This means that sustainable water or sanitary systems are not fixed to any one system, but essentially considers all available systems. In order to design or select a sustainable system for a given situation a holistic systems approach based on ecological thinking is important. This module will familiarise the student with the “Concept of Sustainability in Relation to Water and Sanitation” through lectures, texts, examples and exercises. 

The history of modern water and wastewater handling started with the health challenges in large cities and towns. To provide safe water supply when the local sources ran dry or became polluted, water was piped from reservoirs outside the city (see also [7083-man-made reservoirs]). To transport wastewater out of the city, large collection and drainage systems were constructed (see lecture 2: [7908-transport systems for wastewater]). About 150 years ago, the [8247-flush toilet] was introduced and human excreta was flushed out through the sewers into receiving water bodies (see also [8233-conventional sewers]). The discharge of untreated wastewater resulted in a local and often regional deterioration of water quality (see also [7609-water pollution]). However, it took almost a century before wastewater treatment became standard practice in rich countries and still 90% of the world’s wastewater is discharged untreated (Corcoran et al. 2010). We can expect that the discharge of untreated sewage will have growing detrimental effects on global environments as world population increases. Reasons for the lack of action are many, complex and intertwined and include high costs of traditional systems, lack of competence, political ignorance and socio-cultural factors (see also [7049-strengthening enforcement bodies], [7617-policies and legal framework] and [7620-water sanitation and culture]).

How can we provide sufficient water and appropriate sanitation to a growing world population? Shall we continue to build long connecting sewers and centralized treatment plants? We know that such systems are becoming increasingly expensive. Should we rather go for smaller decentralized systems (see also [7190-decentralisation]) or start to source separate our wastewater as we have been doing with solid waste? The answer lies not in one system or the other, but in the appropriate use of each system (see also [7543-sanitation systems], [7561-sustainable sanitation]). In this module, we focus on the large centralized systems, where these systems are appropriate and how new decentralized solutions are now challenging the traditional wisdom of large scale, centralized systems (semi-centralised wastewater treatments and advanced systems).

Ecological engineering for wastewater treatment or ecological sanitation (ecosan) implies that principles of ecology are applied to design and implementation of wastewater treatment systems (see aso [7561-sustainable sanitation], [7564-linking up sustainable sanitation water management and agriculture]). In nature, everything operates in cycles (see also [7593-the water cycle] and [7510-the nutrient cycle]). For wastewater treatment, reuse and recycling therefore become important issues when ecological thinking is applied. Minimising the reliance on fossil fuels is another criteria, which may influence design and selection of system type. Ecological thinking also means tailoring the wastewater treatment system to local contexts including natural, economic, social, and/or religious conditions (see also module 7: [7868-socioeconomic aspects] and economic, [7618- socio-cultural issues] and [7625-development issues]). Ecological sanitation is not fixed to any one system, but emphasizes the need for a holistic systems approach based on ecological thinking in order to design sustainable treatment systems (see also [7564-linking up sustainable sanitation with water management and agriculture] and [7543-sanitation systems]).

Recycling may be facilitated if the wastewater is source separated into blackwater (toilet waste – urine and faeces) and greywater (water from showers, sinks, kitchen) because the majority of resources (plant nutrients as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic matter) in wastewater are present in our excreta. Hygienising excreta opens interesting possibilities for co-treatment with other organic waste from households and/or agriculture, and the generation of bioenergy.

The simplest natural systems ([8199-ponds], [8257-wetlands], soil infiltration, see also [8201-soak pits] and [7248-nonplanted filters]) can operate by gravity alone and may not need mechanical devices; hence, they are often favoured because of low energy requirements. Ecological sanitation is therefore often associated with natural systems and systems that utilize source separation (i.e. urine diversion, such as [8245-urine diversion flush toilet], [8225-UDDTs]) in order to reclaim and recycle resources in wastewater as plant nutrients, organic matter and water. The main focus of wastewater research at UMB is connected to natural and source separating recycling systems.

Conventional sanitary systems (centralized collection system and technically complex treatment processes) can produce a better ecological result by optimising resource gains and minimising resource use. Energy can be obtained from wastewater through the use of heat pumps and biogas generation from sludge (see also energy from sludge). When optimised in this way, conventional systems are not necessarily ecologically inferior solutions.

It is unlikely that one single system can solve all future sewerage problems. Large investments have been made in [8233-conventional sewage systems] which will be in operation for decades, but conventional systems will evolve as the principles of ecological thinking are communicated to the engineering society. Totally new systems, as well as hybrid or combination systems, will appear. Schools that teach ecological engineering and consultants and companies that implement ecological engineering will have advantages in the market because they can offer a broader range of solutions, solutions that more easily fulfil local requirements. A variety of systems are needed to meet the natural constraints of different regions, differing legislations, different sociological conditions, different budgets, health considerations and personal needs and preferences (see also module 7: [7868-socioeconomic aspects]). This module gives an overview of source separating and natural systems.

Sustainable water supply means to find reliable and resilient approaches to various human needs for water for that does neither exhaust the water sources and the local economy nor have long term negative impact on the environment. Agriculture consume about 70% of the current world water supply, whereas domestic and industrial use is about 8% and 22% respectively (WBCSD 2009). Read more about the [7593-water cycle here]. This course focuses on domestic water supply. Potable water for domestic use is normally derived from surface or groundwater sources or from rainwater harvesting (RWH). Other sources are harvesting of fog or air moisture, bottled water or even melting of snow or ice or sea water desalination. Methods for desalination of seawater have improved, but are still requiring substantial energy input and are thus not sustainable from an energy perspective. This module will mainly focus on ground- or surface-water sources and RWH and give the student knowledge that aids selection and design of sustainable water supply options in different parts of the world including crisis situations (disaster situations will be discussed in [7865-Module 6]). Cases are used to illustrate different water supply and treatment options and to motivate the learning process.

Lack of provision of safe water and proper sanitation is the major cause of outbreak of water borne diseases (see also [7673-water sanitation and health]). According to the WHO, 1.8 million people die every year from diarrheal diseases (including cholera); 90% are children under five years of age, mostly in developing countries. However, providing drinking water and constructing toilets does not guarantee the prevention and control of these diseases. The low level of hygiene understanding and poor hygiene practices can increase the risk of transmission of diseases (see also [7671-health risk management], [7013-participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation] and [7275-child hygiene and sanitation training]). The main objective of this module is to conceptualise and integrate environmental health and water and sanitation. This module will cover the technical engineering control of pathogens and its relationship to water quality and health aspects (see also [7672-pathogens and contaminants]). The students will learn to characterise and estimate potential adverse health effects associated with exposure of individuals or populations to hazardous materials or situations related to water and sanitation.

The factsheets under "further resources" are taken from the section Waste Water Treatment (WWT) under the Water & Nutrient Cycle perspective.

Water and sanitation are, in addition to power supply, considered as the three top critical areas when a natural disaster hits. Decentralised water and sanitary systems are more resilient in stress situations (see also [7252-decentralised supply]). Planning and implementation of resilient water and sanitary systems that, to a best possible degree, can withstand the climate challenges and effects of natural disasters, particularly for the poorer parts of the population, are therefore needed. The objective of this module is to provide knowledge and to be able to plan and prepare water and sanitation system for pre- and post-disaster situations. The module will help to assess and prioritise water and sanitation needs for a population in an emergency situation, how to be prepared for an emergency and how to take appropriate measures to prevent and control disease outbreak (see also [7695-sanitation in emergencies], [7693-water purification in emergencies], [7045-POU water purification in emergencies], and [7355-community and camp water supply]).

While planning and designing water and sanitation system for a community both technical and socio-cultural aspects should be taken into account. Systems that are planned and designed without considering the cultural and behavioral aspect of the community often fail (see also [7618-socio cultural issues]). This module gives an overview of the importance of socio-cultural aspects in the selection of a technology. The methodological steps for planning community water and sanitary systems are elaborated with case examples.

The climate is changing and whether this is man-made or natural it will affect water and sanitation (see also [7610-climate change]). Some areas will experience warmer and drier climate and some a wetter one. Changing climate will cause stress both for water and sanitation and also affect existing infrastructure (floods, higher rain intensity, etc.). The mineral phosphorus reserves of the world are running out (see also [7686-peak phosphorus]). It is debated how long this will take, but it is likely that, due to limited resources, we will see a large price increase on phosphorus fertiliser in the coming decades. One solution to the phosphorus challenge is to recycle phosphorus that already is in different kind of biological material (see also [7254-advanced nutrient recovery]). Human excreta can become the largest source of organic based fertiliser in the future and we must start to plan for that today. The module will give an overview of a changing climate and its effect on water and sanitary systems. The students will identify measures to make water and sanitation infrastructure more resilient so that it can better withstand the challenges of a changing climate. The module will also give a short overview of why recycling of phosphorus and other resources in human excreta is important (see also [7594-reuse of urine and faeces in agriculture]). What type of technologies can we use if we want to recycle phosphorus from human excreta? What are some of the main challenges regarding the use of these technologies?

Introduction

This chapter completes the STEP University, a web-based course offered by the Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences (IPM) of the Norwegian University of Lifescience (UMB) together with Tribhuvan University in Nepal and COMSATS University in Abbottabad (Pakistan).

Read more about the course

Read more about the University programme

Training of Trainers

How can trainings be planned, organised and carried out by using the SSWM Toolbox? This specific section is a [7680-module for trainers] supporting them to carry out trainings and capacity development courses based on the SSWM Toolbox. It contains material about [7477-pre-training preparation], [7487-facilitation], [7504-training methods] and [7499-post training activities].

SSWM Training Courses

In addition to this Toolbox, there are regular [7603-training courses] that build on the SSWM Toolbox. Simultaneously to the development of the online and offline version of the Toolbox (including this STEP University), it is applied by seecon and its partnering organisations to conduct of [7603-for trainings of experts and trainers] The trainings aim at capacitating people not only with knowledge, but also with application skills in the field of SSWM. They enable participants to fully exploit the benefits of the SSWM Toolbox, develop a thorough understanding of Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management, and to build a strong network of partnering organisations working in the same field. Moreover, the training of trainers courses enable the participants from all over the world to carry out SSWM Courses based on the Toolbox and others own their own.

 SEECON 2009 Field Trip Course Buthan Greenhouse

Participants of a SSWM course in Buthan visitng a greenhouse. Source: SEECON (2009)

Course Material

Exercise Grunnvåg Waterworks

Further Readings

Linking Technology Choice with Operation and Maintenance in the context of community water supply and sanitation. A reference Document for Planners and Project Staff

This document is addressed to planners and staff of water supply and sanitation projects on household and community level. The reader is guided through the main steps of informed choices regarding the main proven technologies for water supply, purification and water treatment at household and community level. Each technology is described in a small factsheet, regarding its functioning, actors and their roles, the main operation and maintenance (O&M) requirements and problems, which can occur.

BRIKKE, F. BREDERO, M. (2003): Linking Technology Choice with Operation and Maintenance in the context of community water supply and sanitation. A reference Document for Planners and Project Staff. Geneva: World Health Organization and IRC Water and Sanitation Centre URL [Accessed: 03.06.2018] PDF

Case: Water Supply in Rural Eritrea

Further Readings

Water Profile of Eritrea

An article on the water situation in Eritrea based on publications of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

KUNDELL, J. (2008): Water Profile of Eritrea. (= Encyclopedia of Earth ). Washington D.C.: Environmental Information Coalition & National Council for Science and the Environment URL [Accessed: 04.12.2012]

Case: Groundwater Supply in Elverum

Further Readings

Vyredox - In Situ Purification of Ground Water

The abundance and relative purity of ground water guarantees its increase in usage. In some localities, the content of iron and manganese in ground water is so high that these metals must be removed before the water can be used for drinking or industrial purposes. The Vyredox method developed in Finland and used now also in Sweden and some other countries oxidises the ferrous ion (which is soluble in water) to the ferric ion (which is insoluble), before the water enters the well, making use of iron-oxidizing bacteria and aeration wells.

HALLBERG, R.O. ; MARTINELL, R. (2006): Vyredox - In Situ Purification of Ground Water. In: Ground Water: Volume 14 , 88-93. URL [Accessed: 21.11.2012]

Lecture 3: Advanced Water Treatment Systems, Villages & Emergency

Further Readings

Report on Mobile Emergency Water Treatment and Disinfection Units

This report from 1989 reviewed the emergency water treatment equipment from the US A.I.D. and its performance. It also suggests some valuable design criteria on specifications of water treatments units. However the market survey is obviously not up to date.

HOLLAND, F. GARLAND, M. (1989): Report on Mobile Emergency Water Treatment and Disinfection Units. (= WASH Field Report No. 271 ). Arlington: Water and Sanitation for Health Project URL [Accessed: 25.05.2011]

Water, Sanitation, and Shelter Equipment

These equipment packages have been devised by the Oxfam Public Health Engineering Team and others to help provide a reliable water supply, primarily for emergency situations such as in refugee camps and disaster-relief operations. The equipment is designed to be readily available, easily transported, simple to use, rapidly assembled, and fully self-contained, to provide an adequate water supply at moderate cost.

OXFAM (2000): Water, Sanitation, and Shelter Equipment. For Emergencies and Longer Term Use. Oxford: OXFAM URL [Accessed: 21.05.2019]

Lecture 1: Surface and Groundwater Sources

Case Studies
Further Readings

Protecting Water Resources: Pollution Prevention

This thematic background paper for the International Conference on Freshwater in Bonn in December 2001 is a collection and analysis of relevant information on pressures, state and responses of both groundwater and surface water pollution with special emphasis given to regional conditions, frames and problems. To point out success stories and lessons learnt, case studies have been selected.

KRAEMER, A. CHOUDHURY, K. KAMPA, E. (2001): Protecting Water Resources: Pollution Prevention. (= Thematic Background Paper ). International Conference on Freshwater in Bonn URL [Accessed: 21.04.2012]

Interaction of Ground Water and Surface Water in Different Landscapes

The interaction of ground water with surface water depends on the physiographic and climatic setting of the landscape. The five general types of terrain discussed are mountainous, riverine, coastal, glacial and dune, and karst.

USGS (2001): Interaction of Ground Water and Surface Water in Different Landscapes. Washington D.C.: U.S. Geological Survey; U.S. Department of the Interior URL [Accessed: 09.10.2012]

Lecture 4: Water and Wastewater Treatment Hydraulics

Further Readings

F200 Projection of Flows and Hydraulics of Sewers

This chapter covers the following topics related to the design of sewers: projection of flows, hydraulics of sewers, planning and design criteria, hydraulic calculations, sewer conduits, inverted siphons, elements of sanitary sewers other than conduits.

HORII, R. S. (1992): F200 Projection of Flows and Hydraulics of Sewers. In: HORII, R. S. ; (1992): Sewer Design. Part F. Los Angeles, USA: . URL [Accessed: 20.11.2012]

Lecture 2: Rainwater Harvesting

Further Readings

Rainwater Harvesting and Utilisation: An Environmentally Sound Approach for Sustainable Urban Water Management: An Introductory Guide for Decision-Makers

This document serves as guide for decision-makers. It explains the importance of rainwater harvesting in urban areas and includes examples and technology description.

GDRC (2002): Rainwater Harvesting and Utilisation: An Environmentally Sound Approach for Sustainable Urban Water Management: An Introductory Guide for Decision-Makers. Kobe: Global Development Research Centre (GDRC) URL [Accessed: 14.03.2011] PDF

Water Harvesting

Water harvesting has been practiced successfully for millennia in parts of the world – and some recent interventions have also had significant local impact. Yet water harvesting’s potential remains largely unknown, unacknowledged and unappreciated. These guidelines cover a wide span of technologies from large-scale floodwater spreading to practices that collect and store water from household compounds.

MEKDASCHI STUDER, R. LINIGER, H. (2013): Water Harvesting. Guidelines to Good Practice. Bern/Amsterdam/Wageningen/Rome: Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), Rainwater Harvesting Implementation Network (RAIN), MetaMeta, The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) URL [Accessed: 12.03.2019] PDF

Case: Rural Norway (Frogn Case)

Further Readings

Exceeding Tertiary Standards with a Pond/Reed Bed System in Norway

Case study about a combined pond / constructed wetland system in cold climate for 160 peoples, a dairy and food processing workshop, a bakery and a laundry. A vertical flow constructed wetlands was installed for pre-treatment, followed by a deep enhanced facultative pond, three aerated stabilization ponds, a planted sand filter and finally tow horizontal-flow constructed wetlands.

BROWNE, P.D. ; JENSSEN, P.D. (2005): Exceeding Tertiary Standards with a Pond/Reed Bed System in Norway. In: Journal of Water Science and Technology: Volume 51 , 299-306. URL [Accessed: 03.06.2019]

Decentralized Systems Technology Fact Sheet - Mound Systems

Mounds are decentralised wastewater treatment systems whose main purpose is to provide sufficient treatment to the natural environment to produce an effluent equivalent to, or better than, a conventional onsite disposal system. Mounds are pressure-dosed sand filters that discharge directly to natural soil. They lie above the soil surface and are designed to overcome site restrictions such as: slow or fast permeability soils, shallow soil cover over creviced or porous bedrock, or a high water table.

EPA (1999): Decentralized Systems Technology Fact Sheet - Mound Systems. Washington D.C.: United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) URL [Accessed: 06.09.2012]

Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

This document presents a technical review of subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands as a decentralised wastewater treatment system. It supports that SF constructed wetlands can be a reliable and cost-effective treatment method for a wide range of wastewaters, with applications ranging from single family dwellings, parks, schools, and other public facilities to municipalities and industries.

EPA (1993): Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment. A Technology Assessment. Washington D.C.: United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) URL [Accessed: 06.09.2012]

Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet - Intermittent Sand Filters

This factsheet describes the use of intermittent sand filters (ISF) for decentralised wastewater treatment, including the different types of intermittent sand filters, their advantages and disadvantages, performance, applicability, operation and maintenance, and cost.

EPA (1999): Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet - Intermittent Sand Filters. Washington D.C.: United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) URL [Accessed: 06.09.2012]

Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet - Package Plants

Package plants are pre-manufactured treatment facilities used to treat wastewater in small communities or on individual properties. The most common types of package plants are extended aeration plants, sequencing batch reactors, oxidation ditches, contact stabilization plants, rotating biological contactors, and physical/chemical processes. This fact sheet focuses on the first three, all of which are biological aeration processes.

EPA (2000): Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet - Package Plants. Washington D.C.: United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) URL [Accessed: 06.09.2012]

Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet - Free Water Surface Wetlands

Free water surface (FWS) wetlands are defined as wetland systems where the water surface is exposed to the atmosphere. FWS wetlands are natural wastewater treatment systems which can effectively remove pollutants like particulates, nitrogen, phosphorus, and complex organic compounds. This factsheet provides an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of using FWS wetlands for wastewater treatment.

EPA (2000): Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet - Free Water Surface Wetlands. Washington D.C.: United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) URL [Accessed: 06.09.2012]

Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet - Wetlands: Subsurface Flow

A subsurface flow (SF) wetland is specifically designed for the treatment or polishing of some type of wastewater and are typically constructed as a bed or channel containing appropriate media. The main advantages of this subsurface water level are prevention of mosquitoes and odors, and elimination of the risk of public contact with the partially treated wastewater.

EPA (2000): Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet - Wetlands: Subsurface Flow. Washington D.C.: United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) URL [Accessed: 06.09.2012]

The Centralized Alternative

This document outlines aspects of the proposed centralised water and wastewater system in Frogn. Information is provided regarding the characteristics of the system for both water supply and wastewater collection and treatment, as well an estimate of the costs involved in installing such a system.

JENSSEN, P.D. (n.y): The Centralized Alternative. Frogn Case - Water Pollution. Aas: Norvergian University of Life Science (UMB)

Technology Assessment of Wastewater Treatment by Soil Infiltration Systems

Infiltration of wastewater in buried soil infiltration systems has been promoted as a low cost, effective alternative for treatment and disposal of wastewater flows from commercial developments and small communities. However, design and performance relationships are not always well defined and systems are often implemented based on local tradition and empiricism. This paper describes design criteria especially for large subsurface wastewater treatment systems.

JENSSEN, P.D. ; SIEGRIST, R.L. (1990): Technology Assessment of Wastewater Treatment by Soil Infiltration Systems. In: Water Science & Technology: Volume 22 , 83-92. URL [Accessed: 23.01.2019]

High Performance Constructed Wetlands for Cold Climates

In 1991, the first subsurface flow constructed wetland for treatment of domestic wastewater was built in Norway. Today, this method is rapidly becoming a popular method for wastewater treatment in rural Norway. This is due to excellent performance even during winter and low maintenance. The systems can be constructed regardless of site conditions.

JENSSEN, P.D. ; MAEHLUM, T. ; KROGSTAD, T. ; VRALE, L. (2005): High Performance Constructed Wetlands for Cold Climates. In: Journal of Environmental Science and Health: Volume 40 , 1343-1353.

A Complete Recycling (Ecosan) System at Student Dormitories in Norway

This document describes an ecosan recycling system that was implemented in a dormitory of 48 students. It reduced water consumption by 30%, nearly eliminated pollution, and produced valuable plant fertiliser and soil amendment product from the waste material.

JENSSEN, P.D. (2005): A Complete Recycling (Ecosan) System at Student Dormitories in Norway. In: BOHEMEN, H. (2005): Ecological Engineering. Bridging Between Ecology and Civil Engineering. Netherlands: 81-83. URL [Accessed: 06.09.2012]

Decentralized Urban Greywater Treatment at Klosterenga Oslo

Today it is possible to foresee completely decentralized wastewater treatment systems in urban areas where the blackwater fractions (urine and faecal matter) is reclaimed for fertilizer and potentially energy production. The water from kitchen sinks and showers (greywater) is treated locally in compact low maintenance systems that constitute attractive landscape elements. These systems can coexist with decentralized water supply.

JENSSEN, P. (2005): Decentralized Urban Greywater Treatment at Klosterenga Oslo. In: Ecological Engineering-Bridging between Ecology and Civil Engineering: , 84-86. URL [Accessed: 21.02.2012]

Urine Separation - Closing the Nutrient Cycle

This report presents the present state of knowledge about urine-separating toilets and systems for the recirculation of urine as an agricultural fertilizer. It contains a description of urine separation technology and how a system can be constructed for recirculating urine from residential districts to farmland. It also contains concrete recommendations about planning and management of the various components of the system.

JOHANSSON, M. (2000): Urine Separation - Closing the Nutrient Cycle. Final Report of the R&D Project: Source-Separated Human Urine - A Future Source of Fertilizer for Agriculture in the Stockholm Region. Stockholm: Stockholm Vatten, Stockholmshem & HSB National Federation URL [Accessed: 31.05.2019]

Energy and Sewage

Water and energy management are important and interrelated issues. While sewage treatment has improved significantly over the past 20 years, the energy required to treat sewage to this standard is high, leading to high treatment costs. This document evaluates options for sewage treatment in terms of energy conservation and renewable energy generation.

POST (2007): Energy and Sewage. (= postnote , 282 ). London, U.K.: Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (POST) URL [Accessed: 06.09.2012]

Design Manual: Constructed Wetlands for the Treatment of Black Water

Constructed wetlands are natural, decentralised wastewater treatment systems that can be used in a variety of contexts. This document provides practical information on the implementation of constructed wetlands for treating wastewater, including design, materials, construction, and maintenance.

SETTY, K. (n.y): Design Manual: Constructed Wetlands for the Treatment of Black Water. Santa Barbara, California: URL [Accessed: 06.09.2012]

Design and Performance of Onsite Wastewater Soil Absorption Systems

This document describes onsite wastewater soil absorption systems (WSAS), which have the potential to achieve high treatment efficiencies over a long life service at low cost. Information is given on the function and performance of WSAS, the current state of knowledge, and identifying major gaps in predicting system performance.

SIEGRIST, R.L. TYLER, E.J. JENSSEN, P.D. (2000): Design and Performance of Onsite Wastewater Soil Absorption Systems. (= National Research Needs Conference, May 2000 ). St. Louis, MO:

Waste Stabilization Ponds and Constructed Wetlands Manual.

Design manual for designers, builders and operators on the design and operation of artificially constructed wetlands and waste stabilization ponds. The supporting information includes a standard systems approach which can be adopted universally; the theoretical background on the biological, chemical and physical processes of each method, the current state of the technology and technical knowledge on how to design, operate and maintain them; and theoretical knowledge on how best the models may be used to describe the systems.

UNEP (n.y): Waste Stabilization Ponds and Constructed Wetlands Manual. . United Nations Environmental Programme International Environmental Technology Center (UNEP-IETC) and the Danish International Development Agency (Danida) URL [Accessed: 19.04.2010]

Case: Rural Water Supply, Munag Village, Nepal

Further Readings

Local Responses to Too Much and Too Little Water in the Greater Himalayan Region

The Himalayan region has always had either too much or too little water. Today, however, it experiences a large range of changes due to climatic shifts. This report presents people’s efforts to respond, cope, and adapt to those alterations.

ICIMOD (2009): Local Responses to Too Much and Too Little Water in the Greater Himalayan Region. Kathmandu, Nepal: International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) URL [Accessed: 27.09.2012]

Engineers Without Borders

A case study of a rural village in the Indian state Tamil Nadu focusing on alternative sources of water because of depleting groundwater and pollution of the nearby rivers.

OLSEN, D. CAMPBELL, C. (2009): Engineers Without Borders. Rainwater Harvesting Case Study. Ontario, Canada: Waterloo Faculty of Engineering

Water Related Stress in Nepal

Even though Nepal is considered as one of the most water rich countries in the world, it faces diverse problems related to water stress. This one-page summary shows why there are such problems.

PANDEY, M. K. (n.y): Water Related Stress in Nepal.

Application of Appropriate Technology for Rural Water Supply

Application of appropriate rural water supply methods is an important precondition to achieve universal access to safe water for all. This paper gives an overview on low cost traditional techniques experiences by UNICEF operations in developing countries.

ZELENIKA, M. (1991): Application of Appropriate Technology for Rural Water Supply. In: Rudarsko-geolosko-naftni zbornik: Volume 3 , 85-88. URL [Accessed: 27.09.2012]

Lecture 1: Introduction to Sustainable Sanitation

Further Readings

Sick Water? The central role of wastewater management in sustainable development

This book not only identifies the threats to human and ecological health that water pollution has and highlights the consequences of inaction, but also presents opportunities, where appropriate policy and management responses over the short and longer term can trigger employment, support livelihoods, boost public and ecosystem health and contribute to more intelligent water management.

CORCORAN, E. ; NELLEMANN, C. ; BAKER, E. ; BOS, R. ; OSBORN, D. ; SAVELLI, H. (2010): Sick Water? The central role of wastewater management in sustainable development. A Rapid Response Assessment. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), UN-HABITAT, GRID-Arendal URL [Accessed: 05.05.2010] PDF

Lecture 2: The WOW! Case

Further Readings

Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Humanitarian Response

The Sphere Project is an initiative to determine and promote standards by which the global community responds to the plight of people affected by desasters. This handbook contains a humanitarian charter, protection principles and core standards in four disciplines: Water, sanitation and hygiene; food security and nutrition; shelter, settlements and non-food items; and health action.

THE SPHERE PROJECT (2011): Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Humanitarian Response. Bourton on Dunsmore: Practcal Action Publishing URL [Accessed: 31.05.2019]

Water and War

This publication looks at some vital issues associated with water and sanitation in conflict-affected countries where the ICRC is working.

ICRC (2009): Water and War. Geneva: International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) URL [Accessed: 15.05.2012]

Emergency Sanitation: Assessment and Programme Design

This book has been written to help all those involved in planning and implementing emergency sanitation programmes. The main focus is a systematic and structured approach to assessment and programme design. There is a strong emphasis on socio-cultural issues and community participation throughout.Includes an extensive “guidelines” section with rapid assessment instructions and details on programme design, planning and implementation.

HARVEY, P. BAGHRI, S. REED, B. (2002): Emergency Sanitation: Assessment and Programme Design. Loughborough: Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC) URL [Accessed: 31.05.2019]

Excreta Disposal in Emergencies. A Field Manual

In this manual existing, innovative and new technologies and approaches for excreta disposal in emergency situations are investigated. It provides practical guidance on how to select, design, construct and maintain appropriate excreta disposal systems to reduce faecal transmission risks and protect public health in emergency situations.

HARVEY, P.A. (2007): Excreta Disposal in Emergencies. A Field Manual. Leicestershire: WEDC Loughborough University URL [Accessed: 29.07.2011]

Handbook for Emergencies. Third Edition

This extensive handbook from the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) on emergency responses reflects the multiple dimensions of an emergency response, ranging from emergency management to emergency operations and their support. The handbook mainly looks at emergencies where populations have been displaced from their former living environment.

UNHCR (2007): Handbook for Emergencies. Third Edition. Geneva: UNHCR Emergency Preparedness and Response Section URL [Accessed: 21.05.2019]

Technical Notes on Drinking-Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Emergencies

These technical notes are relevant to a wide range of emergency situations, including both natural and conflict-induced disasters. They are suitable for field technicians, engineers and hygiene promoters, as well as staff from agency headquarters.

WHO ; WEDC (2013): Technical Notes on Drinking-Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Emergencies. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO) URL [Accessed: 27.08.2013]

Philippine Emergency Sanitation Reference Toolkit. Excreta Disposal

This toolkit is a compilation of existing relevant sanitation focused emergency response mechanisms, technologies and experiences to support institutions and local government units in disaster response. It was developed in the aftermath of cyclone Ketsana in 2009.

PEN (2010): Philippine Emergency Sanitation Reference Toolkit. Excreta Disposal. Manila: The Philippine Ecosan Network (PEN)

Environmental Health in Emergencies and Disasters. Chapter 7: Water Supply

Contains all necessary information related to water needs, quality, testing, catchment, treatment, storage and distribution in emergencies, as well as health related issues. Well structured, not too long, good illustrations and graphics.

WISNER, B. ; ADAMS, J. (2002): Environmental Health in Emergencies and Disasters. Chapter 7: Water Supply. A Practical Guide. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO) URL [Accessed: 21.05.2019]

Lessons Learned in WASH Response During Urban Flood Emergencies

This paper identifies various lessons that can be learned from urban flood emergencies, with a focus on the WASH sector. It includes urban flood management issues in emergencies related to water, sanitation, hygiene and various crosscutting issues.

GLOBAL WASH LEARNING PROJECT (2008): Lessons Learned in WASH Response During Urban Flood Emergencies. New York: Global WASH Cluster URL [Accessed: 23.04.2012]

Lecture 2: Transport Systems for Wastewater

Further Readings

Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems

Decentralised wastewater management presents a comprehensive approach to the design of both conventional and innovative systems for the treatment and disposal of wastewater or the reuse of treaded effluent. Smaller treatment plants, which are the concern of most new engineers, are the primary focus of this book.

CRITES, R. TCHOBANOGLOUS, G. (1998): Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc

F200 Projection of Flows and Hydraulics of Sewers

This chapter covers the following topics related to the design of sewers: projection of flows, hydraulics of sewers, planning and design criteria, hydraulic calculations, sewer conduits, inverted siphons, elements of sanitary sewers other than conduits.

HORII, R. S. (1992): F200 Projection of Flows and Hydraulics of Sewers. In: HORII, R. S. ; (1992): Sewer Design. Part F. Los Angeles, USA: . URL [Accessed: 20.11.2012]

Case: Centralised Wastewater Treatment Plant "Bekkelaget"

Further Readings

Bekkelaget, Norway

Description of the Bekkelaget wastewater treatment plant in Oslo, Norway.

WATER-TECHNOLOGY.NET (n.y): Bekkelaget, Norway. WATER-TECHNOLOGY.NET URL [Accessed: 27.11.2012]

Case: Decentralised Urban Greywater Treatment Plant "Klosterenga"

Further Readings

Design and Performance of Ecological Sanitation Systems in Norway

Experience from Norway shows that separate treatment of blackwater and greywater nearly achieves "zero emission" and almost complete recycling. Organic household waste can be treated in the same process as the blackwater and yield a fertiliser/soil amendment and energy. The water consumption can be reduced by up to 50%. Compact and technically simple greywater treatment systems facilitate decentralised treatment even in urban areas, reducing the need for a secondary piping and pumping system for transport of untreated wastewater.

JENSSEN, P.D. (2002): Design and Performance of Ecological Sanitation Systems in Norway. (= (=Proceedings of the Proceedings of the First International Conference on Ecological Sanitation 5-8 November 2001) ). Nanning, China: EcoSanRes URL [Accessed: 21.11.2012]

Greywater Treatment in Combined Biofilter/Constructed Wetlands in Cold Climate

In Norway systems consisting of an aerobic biofilter followed by a subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetland have been very successful in reducing organic matter, indicator bacteria, nitrogen and phosphorus in greywater. This paper describes design details and performance of biofilter/constructed wetland systems for greywater treatment in cold climates.

JENSSEN, P.D. VRALE, L. (2004): Greywater Treatment in Combined Biofilter/Constructed Wetlands in Cold Climate. In: WERNER, C. (2004): Ecosan - Closing the Loop. Lübeck, Germany: 875-881. URL [Accessed: 21.11.2012]

Decentralized Urban Greywater Treatment at Klosterenga Oslo

Today it is possible to foresee completely decentralized wastewater treatment systems in urban areas where the blackwater fractions (urine and faecal matter) is reclaimed for fertilizer and potentially energy production. The water from kitchen sinks and showers (greywater) is treated locally in compact low maintenance systems that constitute attractive landscape elements. These systems can coexist with decentralized water supply.

JENSSEN, P. (2005): Decentralized Urban Greywater Treatment at Klosterenga Oslo. In: Ecological Engineering-Bridging between Ecology and Civil Engineering: , 84-86. URL [Accessed: 21.02.2012]

Lecture 1: Water Treatment Processes

Further Readings

Sick Water? The central role of wastewater management in sustainable development

This book not only identifies the threats to human and ecological health that water pollution has and highlights the consequences of inaction, but also presents opportunities, where appropriate policy and management responses over the short and longer term can trigger employment, support livelihoods, boost public and ecosystem health and contribute to more intelligent water management.

CORCORAN, E. ; NELLEMANN, C. ; BAKER, E. ; BOS, R. ; OSBORN, D. ; SAVELLI, H. (2010): Sick Water? The central role of wastewater management in sustainable development. A Rapid Response Assessment. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), UN-HABITAT, GRID-Arendal URL [Accessed: 05.05.2010] PDF

Case: Tegen Roadside Rest Area

Further Readings

Tegens rastplats bäst i Sverige

Newspaper article on the Tegen roadside rest area in Sweden, which is an excellent example of how a roadside stop with toilet facilities can be designed. This article is in Swedish.

EKLUND, A-K. (2012): Tegens rastplats bäst i Sverige. Sweden: Bohusläningen URL [Accessed: 21.11.2012]

Language: Swedish

Reduction Efficiency of Index Pathogens in Dry Sanitation Compared with Traditional and Alternative Wastewater Treatment Systems

Bad water, sanitation and personal hygiene combinedglobally considered as the second major threats to human health. Poor water supply, sanitation, and personal hygiene accounted for 2.6 million deaths and 93 million DALYs in 1990. These were considered the top 2 of risk factor groups for the total global burden of disease. It is therefore of importance to define the efficiency of different treatment and exposure barriers to safeguard against disease transmission.

STENSTRØM, T.A. ECOSANRES (2002): Reduction Efficiency of Index Pathogens in Dry Sanitation Compared with Traditional and Alternative Wastewater Treatment Systems. Solna, Sweden: EcoSanRes URL [Accessed: 28.11.2012]

Lecture 1: Source Separating Systems

Further Readings

Greywater Treatment in Combined Biofilter/Constructed Wetlands in Cold Climate

In Norway systems consisting of an aerobic biofilter followed by a subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetland have been very successful in reducing organic matter, indicator bacteria, nitrogen and phosphorus in greywater. This paper describes design details and performance of biofilter/constructed wetland systems for greywater treatment in cold climates.

JENSSEN, P.D. VRALE, L. (2004): Greywater Treatment in Combined Biofilter/Constructed Wetlands in Cold Climate. In: WERNER, C. (2004): Ecosan - Closing the Loop. Lübeck, Germany: 875-881. URL [Accessed: 21.11.2012]

A Complete Recycling (Ecosan) System at Student Dormitories in Norway

This document describes an ecosan recycling system that was implemented in a dormitory of 48 students. It reduced water consumption by 30%, nearly eliminated pollution, and produced valuable plant fertiliser and soil amendment product from the waste material.

JENSSEN, P.D. (2005): A Complete Recycling (Ecosan) System at Student Dormitories in Norway. In: BOHEMEN, H. (2005): Ecological Engineering. Bridging Between Ecology and Civil Engineering. Netherlands: 81-83. URL [Accessed: 06.09.2012]

Decentralized Urban Greywater Treatment at Klosterenga Oslo

Today it is possible to foresee completely decentralized wastewater treatment systems in urban areas where the blackwater fractions (urine and faecal matter) is reclaimed for fertilizer and potentially energy production. The water from kitchen sinks and showers (greywater) is treated locally in compact low maintenance systems that constitute attractive landscape elements. These systems can coexist with decentralized water supply.

JENSSEN, P. (2005): Decentralized Urban Greywater Treatment at Klosterenga Oslo. In: Ecological Engineering-Bridging between Ecology and Civil Engineering: , 84-86. URL [Accessed: 21.02.2012]

Bridging the Disconnect Between Dwindling Global Phosphorus Reserves, Agricultural and Sanitation Practices and Eutrophication

Abstract to a seminar held by EAWAG, the aquatic research institute based in Switzerland, on challenges faced with phosphorus usage.

ROSEMARIN, A. (2010): Bridging the Disconnect Between Dwindling Global Phosphorus Reserves, Agricultural and Sanitation Practices and Eutrophication. Eawag Seminar Invitation. Dübendorf: Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden URL [Accessed: 05.12.2012]

Energy Utilization in Crop and Dairy Production in Organic and Conventional Livestock Production Systems

Searching for livestock production systems with a high energy utilization is of interest because of resource use and pollution aspects and because energy use is an indicator of the intensification of production processes. Due to interactions between crop and livestock enterprises and between levels of different input factors and their effects on yields, it is proposed to analyse agricultural energy utilization through system modelling of data from farm studies. Energy use in small grains, grass-clover and fodder beets registered in organic and conventional mixed dairy farms was analysed and used together with crop yields in order to model energy prices on three Danish soil types.

REFSGAARD, K. ; HALBERG, N. ; KRISTENSEN, E.S. (1998): Energy Utilization in Crop and Dairy Production in Organic and Conventional Livestock Production Systems. In: Agricultural Systems: Volume 57 , 599-630. URL [Accessed: 05.12.2012]

Reduction Efficiency of Index Pathogens in Dry Sanitation Compared with Traditional and Alternative Wastewater Treatment Systems

Bad water, sanitation and personal hygiene combinedglobally considered as the second major threats to human health. Poor water supply, sanitation, and personal hygiene accounted for 2.6 million deaths and 93 million DALYs in 1990. These were considered the top 2 of risk factor groups for the total global burden of disease. It is therefore of importance to define the efficiency of different treatment and exposure barriers to safeguard against disease transmission.

STENSTRØM, T.A. ECOSANRES (2002): Reduction Efficiency of Index Pathogens in Dry Sanitation Compared with Traditional and Alternative Wastewater Treatment Systems. Solna, Sweden: EcoSanRes URL [Accessed: 28.11.2012]

Composting Human Waste from Waterless Toilets

Slides from a presentation held at the 3rd. International Conference on Ecological Sanitation. The presentation describes the concept of professional collection and treatment in a small rural community and the technology involved.

HANSSEN, J.F. PARUCH, A. JENSSEN, P.D. (2005): Composting Human Waste from Waterless Toilets. (= (= Presentation at the 3rd. International Conference on Ecological Sanitation) ). Durban: URL [Accessed: 05.12.2012]

Case: Rena Wastewater Infiltration

Further Readings

Technology Assessment of Wastewater Treatment by Soil Infiltration Systems

Infiltration of wastewater in buried soil infiltration systems has been promoted as a low cost, effective alternative for treatment and disposal of wastewater flows from commercial developments and small communities. However, design and performance relationships are not always well defined and systems are often implemented based on local tradition and empiricism. This paper describes design criteria especially for large subsurface wastewater treatment systems.

JENSSEN, P.D. ; SIEGRIST, R.L. (1990): Technology Assessment of Wastewater Treatment by Soil Infiltration Systems. In: Water Science & Technology: Volume 22 , 83-92. URL [Accessed: 23.01.2019]

Design and Performance of Onsite Wastewater Soil Absorption Systems

This document describes onsite wastewater soil absorption systems (WSAS), which have the potential to achieve high treatment efficiencies over a long life service at low cost. Information is given on the function and performance of WSAS, the current state of knowledge, and identifying major gaps in predicting system performance.

SIEGRIST, R.L. TYLER, E.J. JENSSEN, P.D. (2000): Design and Performance of Onsite Wastewater Soil Absorption Systems. (= National Research Needs Conference, May 2000 ). St. Louis, MO:

Integrert landskapsdesign I naturbasert renseteknologi

Today, climate change, environmental problems and a growing amount of waste and pollution are major challenges in all areas and must be dealt. In the fields of landscaping and architecture, however, there is the tendency to focus more on aesthetics and less on basic ecological functionality. This paper shows how to combine aesthetic quality with ecological functionality.

SORENSEN, E.T. (2010): Integrert landskapsdesign I naturbasert renseteknologi. med temaark om fire natur- og kretsløpsbaserte renseanlegg på Østlandet. Ås, Norway: University of Life Sciences Norway (UMB) URL [Accessed: 27.11.2012]

Language: Norwegian

Case: Indian Slum

Further Readings

New Toilets for Indian Slums

The eco-toilet and co-composting pilot project in Bangalore is considered a good example for the implementation of separating toilets in slums. This diploma thesis shows the successes achieved in the toilet implementation and possibilities for improvement for the co-composting site.

BAUMEYER, A (2003): New Toilets for Indian Slums. Nutrients Mass Balance of a Co-Composting Plant in Bangalore, India. URL [Accessed: 20.09.2012]

Design Principles for Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Systems (DEWATS)

Why are decentralised wastewater treatment systems (DEWATS) needed? This powerpoint presentation follows this question, arguing, that decentralisation as an approach is necessary to overcome problems related to wastewater treatment.

BORDA (2003): Design Principles for Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Systems (DEWATS). Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA)

Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, India

Project description of a decentralised wastewater treatment and reuse system for a college in Badlapur, INDIA. The system was built for 2600 students, the treated water and excavated nutrients being reused for agriculture and irrigation purposes. Furthermore, the treatment process is done without need for energy. This project shows that there are cost effective, sustainable and reuse-oriented sanitation alternatives for non-rural settings in developing countries.

IEES (2008): Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, India. Decentralized Wastewater Treatment and Reuse System for a College in Badlapur, India. International Ecological Engineering Society (IEES) URL [Accessed: 20.09.2012]

Lecture 2: Natural Systems - Overview

Further Readings

Exceeding Tertiary Standards with a Pond/Reed Bed System in Norway

Case study about a combined pond / constructed wetland system in cold climate for 160 peoples, a dairy and food processing workshop, a bakery and a laundry. A vertical flow constructed wetlands was installed for pre-treatment, followed by a deep enhanced facultative pond, three aerated stabilization ponds, a planted sand filter and finally tow horizontal-flow constructed wetlands.

BROWNE, P.D. ; JENSSEN, P.D. (2005): Exceeding Tertiary Standards with a Pond/Reed Bed System in Norway. In: Journal of Water Science and Technology: Volume 51 , 299-306. URL [Accessed: 03.06.2019]

The Effects of Effluents on Groundwater

Counts of indicator bacteria and pathogens can serve as parameters of purification. This paper addresses the topic of bacterial content of sewage and of key stages of treatment related to the quality of the effluents and their potential danger to groundwater.

MCCOY, E. ZIEBEL, W.E. (1975): The Effects of Effluents on Groundwater. Bacteriological Aspects. (= (= Proceedings of the National Sanitation Foundation: Second National Conference on Individual Onsite Wastewater Systems in Ann Arbor, 5th-7th November 1975) ). Ann Arbor: URL [Accessed: 27.11.2012]

Design and Performance of Onsite Wastewater Soil Absorption Systems

This document describes onsite wastewater soil absorption systems (WSAS), which have the potential to achieve high treatment efficiencies over a long life service at low cost. Information is given on the function and performance of WSAS, the current state of knowledge, and identifying major gaps in predicting system performance.

SIEGRIST, R.L. TYLER, E.J. JENSSEN, P.D. (2000): Design and Performance of Onsite Wastewater Soil Absorption Systems. (= National Research Needs Conference, May 2000 ). St. Louis, MO:

Case: Kathmandu Earthquake

Further Readings

A Model Road for New Nepal

Newsletter by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) Nepal Office on the Kathmandu-Bhaktapur road project, initiated after the preliminary study by JICA team in December 2005 upon a request made by the Government of Nepal (GoN).

JICA (2011): A Model Road for New Nepal. The Kathmandu-Bhaktapur Road. (= Quarterly Newsletter , 61 ). Kathmandu, Nepal: Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) Nepal Office URL [Accessed: 03.01.2013]

Lecture 1: Sanitation in Emergency Situation

Further Readings

Development in Conflict

This report outlines the Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment methodology, a planning and management tool to assist development and humanitarian organisations in analysing situations of (potential) conflict and identifying strategic opportunities for conflict prevention and peace-building.

NYHEIM, D. LEONHARDT, M. GAIGALS, C. (2001): Development in Conflict. A Seven Step Tool for Planners. FEWER, International Alert & Saferworld URL [Accessed: 27.12.2012]

Case: Haiti

Further Readings

Secondary Data Review

This document was prepared by the ECB Project and The Assessment Capacities Project (ACAPS) based on secondary data review, available assessment reports and consultation with key field staff. It provides an update (23 September – December 15, 2011) of the current situation in Eastern Africa.

ECB (2011): Secondary Data Review. Horn of Africa. Geneva, Switzerland: Emergency Capacity Building Project (EBC) URL [Accessed: 29.11.2012]

Guidelines for Assessment in Emergencies

Assessments are key to understanding problems, their sources and consequences. As such, they are an essential basis for making decisions and planning any type of programme. The guidelines provide advice on how to conduct assessments, describing the different types and techniques, on data collection and analysis and, ultimately, on the decision to act or not. The handbook is designed as a companion for the Assessment Training Module.

ICRC ; IFRC (2008): Guidelines for Assessment in Emergencies. Geneva, Switzerland: International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) URL [Accessed: 29.11.2012]

The International Federation Software Tools for Long-term Water and Sanitation Programming

This water and sanitation software guide and the tools included should be used in conjunction with a water and sanitation project in which the software component has to be developed. The package contains a technical guide which provides the basic and generic guidelines to implement the software programme and a set of general references and tools to better accomplish the different steps of the process.

IFRC (2007): The International Federation Software Tools for Long-term Water and Sanitation Programming. Geneva, Switzerland: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) URL [Accessed: 29.11.2012]

Haiti from Tragedy to Opportunity

The disaster of Haiti is not the earthquake. What we are seeing is what happens when an extreme natural event occurs in the lives of people who are already frighteningly vulnerable. The challenge is to help Haiti recover from the earthquake and to overcome its past deprivation. This is also a rare opportunity to effect large-scale change where it is desperately needed. It is also an opportunity to put power into the hands of the people affected by the disaster.

IFRC (2010): Haiti from Tragedy to Opportunity. Special Report, One Month on. Geneva, Switzerland: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) URL [Accessed: 29.11.2012]

PHAST Base-Line Survey

This is an example of a participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) survey for household level by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC).

IFRC (n.y): PHAST Base-Line Survey. Example of a Red Cross/Red Crescent Base-Line Survey at Household Level. URL [Accessed: 29.11.2012]

Haiti. From Sustaining Lives to Sustainable Solutions: the Challenge of Sanitation. Special Report - Six Months on

This special report lines out the challenges faced related to sanitation during the emergency response to the devastating earthquake in Haiti in January 2010. It also emphasises the importance of planning improved sanitation in the longer term to effectively reduce disease and to ensure dignity of the affected population.

IFRC (2010): Haiti. From Sustaining Lives to Sustainable Solutions: the Challenge of Sanitation. Special Report - Six Months on. Geneva: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies URL [Accessed: 28.11.2011]

Haiti Earthquake Flash Appeal 2010

This is the flash report to the Haiti earthquake in 2010. It delivers an overview on the case specific context, on humanitarian consequences and needs, response plans to different fields of implementation as well as responsibilities and roles.

UN OCHA (2010): Haiti Earthquake Flash Appeal 2010. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs URL [Accessed: 29.11.2012]

Humanitarian Bulletin

This bulletin covers the trend of cholera cases and mortality rates in Haiti after the earthquake in 2010. It also covers the troubles related to food insecurity, missing shelter, etc.

UN OCHA (2011): Humanitarian Bulletin. 19 August - 20 September. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA) URL [Accessed: 29.11.2012]

Haiti Earthquake Situation Report #5

This situation report delivered an overview on the situation in Haiti shortly after the earthquake in 2010.

UN OCHA (2010): Haiti Earthquake Situation Report #5. 16 January 2010. (= Situation Report ). New York: United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA) URL [Accessed: 29.11.2012]

Haiti Earthquake Situation Report #17

This situation report delivered an overview on the situation in Haiti shortly after the earthquake in 2010.

UN OCHA (2010): Haiti Earthquake Situation Report #17. 3 February 2010. (= Situation Report , 17 ). New York: United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA) URL [Accessed: 29.11.2012]

Lecture 1: Socio-cultural Issues and Local Participation in Sustainable Sanitation

Further Readings

Hygiene and Sanitation Software. An Overview of Approaches

In sanitation and hygiene programme and service delivery, several methods are used to engage target groups in development programmes to enable behavioural change and/or create a demand for services. These methods or approaches are generally referred to as ‘software’, to distinguish them from the provision of ‚hardware‘. This publication takes an in-depth look at the various hygiene and sanitation software approaches that have been deployed over the last 40 years in all types of settings – urban, informal-urban and rural, and aims to address such issues as what a particular approach is designed to achieve, what it actually comprises, when and where it should be used, how it should be implemented and how much it costs, etc.

PEAL, A. EVANS, B. VAN DER WOORDEN, C. (2010): Hygiene and Sanitation Software. An Overview of Approaches. Geneva: Water Supply & Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) URL [Accessed: 16.06.2019]

Lecture 2: Economy for Engineers

Further Readings

Institutions and Sustainable Development

This paper was prepared for the Seminar “Food and Water – resources in crises!” at Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute 28. November 2008. The paper puts emphasis on the fact that institutional structures and path dependency can be and are major constraints for development and dissemination of many innovations that have obvious environmental benefits in the long run. Facilitation and arrangement of appropriate institutional regimes are therefore of great importance for “big ideas” to come through. Ecological sanitation is an example.

BRYDEN, J. REFSGAARD, K. (2009): Institutions and Sustainable Development. The Case of Water, Waste and Food. Oslo, Norway: Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute (NILF) URL [Accessed: 05.12.2012]

Exercise: Sanitation and Water for All

Further Readings

Global costs and benefits of drinking-water supply and sanitation interventions to reach the MDG target and universal coverage

The present study aimed to estimate global, regional and country-level costs and benefits of drinking-water supply and sanitation interventions to meet the MDG target in 2015, and to attain universal coverage. This report updates previous economic analyses conducted by the World Health Organization, using new WSS coverage rates, costs of services, income levels and health indicators.

HUTTON, G. (2012): Global costs and benefits of drinking-water supply and sanitation interventions to reach the MDG target and universal coverage. (= WHO/HSE/WSH , 1 / 12 ). Geneva: World Health Organization URL [Accessed: 01.11.2012]

The MDG Target on Water and Sanitation Reader. UN-Water Decade Programme on Advocacy and Communication (UNW-DPAC)

Compiled by the UN-Water Decade Programme on Advocacy and Communication (UNW-DPAC), this reader is intended for all those interested in getting familiar with issues related to the achievement of target 7c of the MDGs. It provides basic references for easy reading and some of the latest and most relevant United Nations publications on issues related to the accomplishment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as they relate to water and sanitation. Link is provided when the publication is available online.

UNW-DPAC (2010): The MDG Target on Water and Sanitation Reader. UN-Water Decade Programme on Advocacy and Communication (UNW-DPAC). Zaragoza: UN Office to Support the International Decade for Action ‘Water for Life’ 2005-2015 URL [Accessed: 31.03.2011]

Exercise: Water, Sanitation and Climate Change

Further Readings

CDP: Global Water Report 2017

This report is aimed at companies and investors seeking to understand how they can play their part in delivering a water-secure world. It presents analysis of the 2017 CDP water response data from a sample of 742 of the world’s largest publicly-listed companies. It sets out what a water-secure world looks like, the private sector actions that will contribute to its achievement, and how companies are overcoming the barriers to water security – most importantly, the failure to properly value our fresh water resources in today’s economy.

(2017): CDP: Global Water Report 2017. Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) URL PDF

Climate Change and Water. Technical Paper of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

This extensive technical paper addresses the observed and projected changes in climate as they relate to water, discusses impacts of climate change and water resources on sectors and systems, analyses regional aspects of climate change and water resources, discusses climate change mitigation measures and water, and policy implications. It is the sixth paper in the IPCC Technical Paper series.

BATES, B.C. ; KUNDZEWICZ, Z.W. ; WU, S. ; PALUTIKOF, J.P. (2008): Climate Change and Water. Technical Paper of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva: IPCC Secretariat URL [Accessed: 24.07.2011]

Water Management, Water Security and Climate Change Adaptation: Early Impacts and Essential Responses

This paper argues that water resources management should be a focus for climate change adaptation and that IWRM is the most suitable approach to adaptive action. It outlines the likely social, economic and environmental impacts of climate change; the challenges climate change poses for water resources management; the actions needed to address those challenges – investments in infrastructure, institutions and information; and approaches to financing IWRM for adaptation.

SADOFF, C. MULLER, M. (2009): Water Management, Water Security and Climate Change Adaptation: Early Impacts and Essential Responses. Stockholm: Global Water Partnership Technical Committee (TEC) URL [Accessed: 10.05.2010]

Links between Sanitation, Climate Change and Renewable Energies

This factsheet of Sustainable Sanitation Alliance describes the impact of greenhouse gases on climate change and focuses on the advantages of renewable energies. Therefore many different technologies like production of biogas or short-rotation-plantations are mentioned.

SUSANA (2009): Links between Sanitation, Climate Change and Renewable Energies. Eschborn. (= SuSanA fact sheet 09/2009 ). Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]