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27 April 2018
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"Aquaculture (Fish)"

Aquaculture (Fish)

Author/Compiled by
Eawag
Robert Gensch (Xavier University)
Niels Sacher (Xavier University)
Dhawal Patil (seecon international gmbh)
Executive Summary

The term aquaculture refers to the controlled cultivation of aquatic plants and animals by making use of various types of wastewater as a source for nutrients and/or warm temperatures for plants and fish to grow. Fish can be grown in ponds that receive effluent or sludge where they can feed on algae and other organisms that grow in the nutrient-rich water. The fish, thereby, remove the nutrients from the wastewater and are eventually harvested for consumption. You can also read the description of plant aquacultures.

Advantages
Can provide a cheap, locally available protein source
Potential for local job creation and income generation
Relatively low capital costs; operating costs should be offset by production revenue
Can be built and maintained with locally available materials
Disadvantages
Requires abundance of fresh water
Requires large land (pond) area
May require expert design and installation
Fish may pose a health risk if improperly prepared or cooked
Social acceptance may be low in some areas
In Out

Blackwater, Faecal Sludge, Greywater, Brownwater, Fertigation Water

Food Products

Applicability

A fish pond is only appropriate where there is a sufficient amount of land (or pre-existing pond), a source of fresh water and a suitable climate. The water used to dilute the waste should not be too warm, and the ammonium levels should be kept low or negligible because of its toxicity to fish.

This technology is appropriate for warm or tropical climates with no freezing temperatures, and preferably with high rainfall and minimal evaporation.

Library References

Wastewater-fed aquaculture.

EWARDS, P. ; PULLIN, R. (1990): Wastewater-fed aquaculture. . (= Proceedings of the international seminar on wastewater reclamation and reuse for aquaculture. ). Calcutta, India: International seminar on wastewater reclamation and reuse for aquaculture URL [Accessed: 18.01.2011]

Duckweed Aquaculture

This literature review provides a first overview of the possibilities, potentials and limits of duckweed aquaculture and its combined use in wastewater treatment and animal feed production in low and middle-income countries. It is somewhat limited as critical literature on duckweed field use is scarce and difficult to obtain (e.g. unpublished internal documents).

IQBAL, S. (1999): Duckweed Aquaculture. Potentials, Possibilities and Limitations for Combined Wastewater Treatment and Animal Feed Production in Developing Countries. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 15.04.2014]

Aquaculture with Treated Wastewater

This study has shown that significant quantities of protein for either human consumption or livestock feed could be produced from wastewater—based aquaculture, which could be integrated with sewage stabilization lagoon systems. Reuse of treated sewage to fertilize the microbial food chain for aquaculture presents one of the most economic resource recovery options for cities in developing countries.

JOHNSON COINTREAU, S. (1987): Aquaculture with Treated Wastewater. A Status Report on Studies Conducted in Lima, Peru. (= Integrated Resource Recovery Project Technical Note , 3 ). Washington: The World Bank URL [Accessed: 15.04.2014]

Food Safety Issues Associated with Products from Aquaculture

This is the report of a Study Group that considered food safety issues associated with farmed finfish and crustaceans. The principal conclusion was that an integrated approach — involving close collaboration between the aquaculture, agriculture, food safety, health and education sectors — is needed to identify and control hazards associated with products from aquaculture.

FAO ; NACA ; WHO (1999): Food Safety Issues Associated with Products from Aquaculture. (= WHO Technical Report Series , 883 ). Washington: World Health Organization (WHO) URL [Accessed: 15.04.2014]

Domestic Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries

The primary emphasis of the book is on low-cost, high-performance, sustainable domestic wastewater treatment systems. Most of the systems described are ‘natural’ systems – so called because they do not require any electromechanical power input. The secondary emphasis is on wastewater re-use in agriculture and aquaculture.

MARA, D. (2003): Domestic Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries. London: Earthscan URL [Accessed: 15.04.2014]

Community-Based Technologies for Domestic Wastewater Treatment and Reuse- options for urban agriculture

The report suggests that emerging trends in low-cost, decentralised naturally-based infrastructure and urban wastewater management which promote the recovery and reuse of wastewater resources are increasingly relevant. Technologies for these sanitation options are presented. The concept of managing urban wastewater flows at a decentralised or "intermediate" level, based on micro watersheds, is explored. Effluent treatment standards that are currently accepted in order to protect public health and safety are reviewed.

ROSE, D.G. (1999): Community-Based Technologies for Domestic Wastewater Treatment and Reuse- options for urban agriculture. (= Cities Feeding People (CFP) Report Series. , 27 ). Ottawa: International Development Research Center Canada (IDRC) URL [Accessed: 23.05.2018]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture

Volume III of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater deals with wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture and describes the present state of knowledge regarding the impact of wastewater-fed aquaculture on the health of producers, product consumers and local communities. It assesses the associated health risks and provides an integrated preventive management framework.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 26.02.2010]

Volume III: Wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture.

This presentation gives a detailed overview on the 3. volume of the WHO guidelines on the safe use of wastewater and excreta in aquaculture including many pictures of existing wastewater-fed aquaculture and fish pond technologies all over the world. Apart from the health risk and appropriate health protection measures, a lot of information on socio-cultural, environmental and economic aspects is given as well as supporting information on planning and implementation of sewage-fed fish ponds.

EDWARDS, P. (2008): Volume III: Wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture.. (pdf presentation). Bangkok, Thailand: Asian Institute of Technology

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF
Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

Key Issues in the Safe Use of Wastewater and Excreta in Aquaculture

This document is a guidance note for program managers and engineers that summarises the key issues of the 3. Volume of the WHO Guidelines that focuses on the safe use of wastewater and excreta in aquaculture.

EDWARDS, P. Asian Institute of Technology (2008): Key Issues in the Safe Use of Wastewater and Excreta in Aquaculture. (pdf presentation). (= Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater in Agriculture and Aquaculture , 3 ). Bangkok, Thailand: World Toilet Organisation URL [Accessed: 19.02.2010]

Wastewater-fed aquaculture.

EWARDS, P. ; PULLIN, R. (1990): Wastewater-fed aquaculture. . (= Proceedings of the international seminar on wastewater reclamation and reuse for aquaculture. ). Calcutta, India: International seminar on wastewater reclamation and reuse for aquaculture URL [Accessed: 18.01.2011]

Duckweed Aquaculture

This literature review provides a first overview of the possibilities, potentials and limits of duckweed aquaculture and its combined use in wastewater treatment and animal feed production in low and middle-income countries. It is somewhat limited as critical literature on duckweed field use is scarce and difficult to obtain (e.g. unpublished internal documents).

IQBAL, S. (1999): Duckweed Aquaculture. Potentials, Possibilities and Limitations for Combined Wastewater Treatment and Animal Feed Production in Developing Countries. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 15.04.2014]

Aquaculture with Treated Wastewater

This study has shown that significant quantities of protein for either human consumption or livestock feed could be produced from wastewater—based aquaculture, which could be integrated with sewage stabilization lagoon systems. Reuse of treated sewage to fertilize the microbial food chain for aquaculture presents one of the most economic resource recovery options for cities in developing countries.

JOHNSON COINTREAU, S. (1987): Aquaculture with Treated Wastewater. A Status Report on Studies Conducted in Lima, Peru. (= Integrated Resource Recovery Project Technical Note , 3 ). Washington: The World Bank URL [Accessed: 15.04.2014]

Food Safety Issues Associated with Products from Aquaculture

This is the report of a Study Group that considered food safety issues associated with farmed finfish and crustaceans. The principal conclusion was that an integrated approach — involving close collaboration between the aquaculture, agriculture, food safety, health and education sectors — is needed to identify and control hazards associated with products from aquaculture.

FAO ; NACA ; WHO (1999): Food Safety Issues Associated with Products from Aquaculture. (= WHO Technical Report Series , 883 ). Washington: World Health Organization (WHO) URL [Accessed: 15.04.2014]

Possibilities and Limits of Wastewater-fed Aquaculture

At the University of Applied Sciences Waedenswil, Switzerland, wastewater-fed aquaculture is a research focus since 1993. This paper summarises some of the results and insights gained since then.

JUNGE-BERBEROVIC, R. University of Applied Sciences Waedenswil. (2001): Possibilities and Limits of Wastewater-fed Aquaculture. Waedenswil: University of Applied Sciences Waedenswil URL [Accessed: 19.02.2010]

Domestic Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries

The primary emphasis of the book is on low-cost, high-performance, sustainable domestic wastewater treatment systems. Most of the systems described are ‘natural’ systems – so called because they do not require any electromechanical power input. The secondary emphasis is on wastewater re-use in agriculture and aquaculture.

MARA, D. (2003): Domestic Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries. London: Earthscan URL [Accessed: 15.04.2014]

Wastewater Re-use in Aquaculture

This chapter gives a comprehensive overview on what is aquaculture, including some examples and elements useful for dimensioning.

MARA, D.D. (2004): Wastewater Re-use in Aquaculture. In: Domestic Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries: , 252-261. URL [Accessed: 17.02.2011]

Wastewater Treatment and Use in Agriculture

This Irrigation and Drainage Paper is intended to provide guidance to national planners and decision-makers, agricultural and municipal managers, field engineers and scientists, health and agricultural field workers, wastewater treatment plant operators and farmers. Consequently, it covers a broad range of relevant material, some in considerable depth but some more superficially. It is meant to encourage the collection, treatment and use of wastewater in agriculture in a safe manner, with maximum advantage taken of this resource. Informal, unplanned and unorganized wastewater use is not recommended, nor is it considered adviseable from the health or agricultural points of view.

PESCOD, M.B. (1992): Wastewater Treatment and Use in Agriculture. (= FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper , 47 ). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) URL [Accessed: 25.10.2011]

Community-Based Technologies for Domestic Wastewater Treatment and Reuse- options for urban agriculture

The report suggests that emerging trends in low-cost, decentralised naturally-based infrastructure and urban wastewater management which promote the recovery and reuse of wastewater resources are increasingly relevant. Technologies for these sanitation options are presented. The concept of managing urban wastewater flows at a decentralised or "intermediate" level, based on micro watersheds, is explored. Effluent treatment standards that are currently accepted in order to protect public health and safety are reviewed.

ROSE, D.G. (1999): Community-Based Technologies for Domestic Wastewater Treatment and Reuse- options for urban agriculture. (= Cities Feeding People (CFP) Report Series. , 27 ). Ottawa: International Development Research Center Canada (IDRC) URL [Accessed: 23.05.2018]

Health (Pathogen) Considerations Regarding the Use of Human Waste in Aquaculture

This study reviews the potential health risks and current epidemiological evidence for actual risks from pathogen transmission through wastewater aquaculture.

STRAUSS, M. (n.y): Health (Pathogen) Considerations Regarding the Use of Human Waste in Aquaculture. (pdf presentation). Switzerland: Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries at the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Waste Stabilisation Ponds

This document provides information and instructions on waste stabilisation ponds. Various case studies are mentioned, e.g. the wastewater-fed fishponds in Calcutta in India.

VARON, M. P. MARA, D. D. (2004): Waste Stabilisation Ponds. Delft: International Water and Sanitation Centre URL [Accessed: 17.05.2012]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture

Volume III of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater deals with wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture and describes the present state of knowledge regarding the impact of wastewater-fed aquaculture on the health of producers, product consumers and local communities. It assesses the associated health risks and provides an integrated preventive management framework.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 26.02.2010]
Case Studies

Traditional Aquaculture Practice at East Calcutta Wetland. The Safety Assessment.

Case study on the traditional aquaculture practise at the East Kolkata Wetlands, India with special focus on the risk assessment in fish cultivation and subsequent consumption in terms of metal accumulation in the fish.

RAYCHAUDHURI, S. MISHRA, M. SALODKAR, S. SUDARSHAN, M. THAKUR, A. R. (2008): Traditional Aquaculture Practice at East Calcutta Wetland. The Safety Assessment.. (pdf presentation). (= American Journal of Environmental Sciences , 2 / 4 ). Calcutta: American Journal of Environmental Sciences URL [Accessed: 22.02.2010]
Training Material

Volume III: Wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture.

This presentation gives a detailed overview on the 3. volume of the WHO guidelines on the safe use of wastewater and excreta in aquaculture including many pictures of existing wastewater-fed aquaculture and fish pond technologies all over the world. Apart from the health risk and appropriate health protection measures, a lot of information on socio-cultural, environmental and economic aspects is given as well as supporting information on planning and implementation of sewage-fed fish ponds.

EDWARDS, P. (2008): Volume III: Wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture.. (pdf presentation). Bangkok, Thailand: Asian Institute of Technology

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