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Sanitation Systems Perspective

Sanitation Systems Perspective

What is the Sanitation Systems Perspective?

It is an interactive version of eawag's Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies, a compilation of appropriate sanitation technologies, plus a tool for combining technologies in a full system.

The Perspective's popularity is its brevity - ordering and structuring a huge range of information on tried and tested technologies in a single document. As in the first edition we present only proven technologies that are appropriate for low- and middle-income settings. Also, we include only "improved" sanitation technologies, featuring safe, hygienic, and accessible sanitation. In this eCompendium edition we present the whole range of urban, peri-urban and rural technologies (e.g. from simple pits to conventional sewers).

The Compendium is also available in French, Spanish, Vietnamese and Nepalese – check the Eawag-Sandec page regularly for the publication of the Russian and Arabic editions!

Who is the target audience?

Engineers, planners, decision-makers, NGO staff and students concerned with sanitation in low and middle income countries.

What is the purpose?

A digital platform that offers easily accessible information and facilitates decision-making on sanitation systems and technologies.

How to Use

The eCompendium is divided into two main parts which are cross-referenced:
  • The Sanitation System Templates;
  • The Technology…
5 Factsheets
View Section

Terminology

This Compendium defines sanitation as a multi-step process in which human excreta and wastewater are managed from the point of generation to the…
4 Factsheets
View Section

Sanitation Systems

This part of the Compendium explains in detail how the system templates are read and used, and includes a presentation of the different templates.…
9 Factsheets
View Section

Sanitation Technologies

54 Factsheets
View Section

Application of Stored Urine

Stored urine is a concentrated source of nutrients that can be applied as a liquid fertilizer in agriculture and replace all or some commercial…

Aerated Pond

An aerated pond is a large, mixed aerobic reactor. Mechanical aerators provide oxygen and keep the aerobic organisms suspended and mixed with water…

Fill and Cover / Arborloo

To decommission a pit, it can simply be filled with soil and covered. Although there is no received benefit, the full pit poses no immediate health…

Leach Field

A leach field, or drainage field, is a network of perforated pipes that are laid in underground gravel-filled trenches to dissipate the effluent…

Waste Stabilization Ponds (WSP)

Waste Stabilization Ponds (WSPs) are large, man-made water bodies. The ponds can be used individually, or linked in a series for improved treatment…

Soak Pit

A soak pit, also known as a soakaway or leach pit, is a covered, porous-walled chamber that allows water to slowly soak into the ground. Pre-settled…

Fish Pond (Aquaculture)

Fish can be grown in ponds that receive effluent or sludge where they can feed on algae and other organisms that grow in the nutrient-rich water.…

Application of Dehydrated Faeces

When faeces are stored in the absence of moisture (i.e., urine), they [8251-dehydrate] into a crumbly, white-beige coarse, flaky material or powder…

Anaerobic Filter

An anaerobic filter is a fixed-bed biological reactor with one or more filtration chambers in series. As wastewater flows through the filter,…

Activated Sludge

An activated sludge process refers to a multi-chamber reactor unit that makes use of highly concentrated microorganisms to degrade organics and…

Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor (UASB)

The upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) is a single tank process. Wastewater enters the reactor from the bottom, and flows upward. A…

Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR)

An anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) is an improved [8217-septic tank] with a series of baffles under which the wastewater is forced to flow. The…

Trickling Filter

A trickling filter, is a fixed-bed, biological reactor that operates under (mostly) aerobic conditions. Pre-settled wastewater is continuously ‘…

Septic Tank

A septic tank is a watertight chamber made of concrete, fibreglass, PVC or plastic, through which blackwater and greywater flows for primary…

Biogas Reactor

A biogas reactor or anaerobic digester is an anaerobic treatment technology that produces (a) a digested slurry (digestate) that can be used as a…

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies

The Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies was first published in 2008 during the International Year of Sanitation, and the Second Edition will be published in 2014. The document's popularity is its brevity - ordering and structuring a huge range of information on tried and tested technologies in a single document. As in the first edition we present only proven technologies that are appropriate for low- and middle-income settings. Also, we include only "improved" sanitation technologies, featuring safe, hygienic, and accessible sanitation. In this eCompendium edition we present the whole range of urban, peri-urban and rural technologies (e.g. from simple pits to conventional sewers).
Downloadable versions of the compendium are available in English, French, Spanish, Vietnamese, Korean (DPRK), Nepali and Arabic.
You can order a hardcopy or download the PDF here.
 

Funding Partners

Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC)
www.deza.admin.ch

SDC Logo

 

Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC)
http://www.wsscc.org

WSSCC Logo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Created by

Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
http://www.eawag.ch/forschung/sandec/index_EN
seecon international gmbh
http://www.seecon.ch
 
seecon Logo
The Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management Toolbox http://www.sswm.info
SSWM Logo

 

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies

The Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies was first published in 2008 during the International Year of Sanitation, and the Second Edition will be published in 2014. The document's popularity is its brevity - ordering and structuring a huge range of information on tried and tested technologies in a single document. As in the first edition we present only proven technologies that are appropriate for low- and middle-income settings. Also, we include only "improved" sanitation technologies, featuring safe, hygienic, and accessible sanitation. In this eCompendium edition we present the whole range of urban, peri-urban and rural technologies (e.g. from simple pits to conventional sewers).
Downloadable versions of the compendium are available in English, French, Spanish, Vietnamese, Korean (DPRK), Nepali and Arabic.
You can order a hardcopy or download the PDF here.
 

Funding Partners

Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC)
www.deza.admin.ch

SDC Logo

 

Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC)
http://www.wsscc.org

WSSCC Logo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Created by

Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
http://www.eawag.ch/forschung/sandec/index_EN
seecon international gmbh
http://www.seecon.ch
 
seecon Logo
The Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management Toolbox http://www.sswm.info
SSWM Logo

 

The eCompendium is divided into two main parts which are cross-referenced:

  • The Sanitation System Templates;
  • The Technology Information Sheets

Indications on how to read and use them are provided below.

 

ينقسم كتاب "نظم وتقنيات الصرف الصحي " الى قسمين رئيسين والتى يمكن الرجوع اليهم :

  • نماذج الأنظمة للصرف الصحي
  •  ملفات معلومات التقنيات

ويعرض بالاسفل المؤاشرات عن كيفية قراءتها واستخدامها .

This Compendium defines sanitation as a multi-step process in which human excreta and wastewater are managed from the point of generation to the point of use or ultimate disposal. A Sanitation System is a context-specific series of technologies and services for the management of these wastes (or resources), i.e. for their collection, containment, transport, transformation, utilisation or disposal. A sanitation system is comprised of [8185-Products] (wastes) which travel through [8186-Functional Groups] which contain [8187-Technologies] which can be selected according to the context. By selecting a [8187-Technologies]for each [8185-Products]from each applicable [8186-Functional Groups], one can design a logical [8188-Sanitation Systems].

A sanitation system also includes the management, operation and maintenance (O&M) required to ensure that the system functions safely and sustainably. A [8188-Sanitation Systems] defines a suite of compatible technology combinations from which a system can be designed. In Part 1 of this Compendium nine different sanitation system templates are described. A detailed explanation how system templates function and how they are used is given in the section “[8181-Using the System Templates]”.

أنظِمة الصرف الصحي

يُعرَّف الصرف الصحي في سياق هذا الكتاب بأنَّه عملية مُتعدّدة الخطوات تتم فيها إدارة فضلات الإنسان ومياه الصرف من المنبع إلى نقطة الاستخدام أو حتى عملية التخلُّص النهائي. ونظام الصرف الصحي هو سلسلة مُتتابعة من تقنيات وخدمات إدارة هذه المخلفات (أو الموارد)؛ بعبارة أخرى: جمع المخلفات، وتخزينها، ونقلها، وتحويلها إلى شكل آخر، واستخدامها أو التخلص منها. يتألَّف نظام الصرف الصحي من [7785-المُنتجات] التي تنتقل عبرعدة مجموعات وظيفية تحتوي على تقنيات يُمكن اختيارها وفقًا للسياق. فيُمكن للمرء أن يقوم بتصميم نظام منطقي للصرف الصحي، عن طريق اختيار التقنية المناسبة من إحدى المجموعات الوظيفية التطبيقية، للتعامل مع كل نوع من المخلّفات. ويشمل نظام الصرف الصحي أيضًا عمليات الإدارة والتشغيل والصيانة المطلوبة للتأكُّد من أنَّ جميع وظائف النظام تعمل بشكل آمن ومُستدام.

نموذج النظام

هوعبارة عن مجموعة من التقنيات المتوافقة التي يُمكن استخدامها لتصميم نظام صرف صحي متكامل. في الجزء الأول من هذا الكتاب تم شرح تِسعة نماذج مُختلفة لأنظمة الصرف الصحي. ويُوجد شرح مُفصَّل لتوضيح كيفية عمل واستخدام كل نموذج من تلك النماذج في فصل خاص بعنوان “[7780-كيفية استخدام النسخة الإلكترونية للكتاب]” 

This part of the Compendium explains in detail how the system templates are read and used, and includes a presentation of the different templates. It describes what the main considerations are, and what type of applications each system template is appropriate for.

A system template defines a suite of compatible technology combinations from which a system can be designed. This Compendium includes nine different system templates which range from simple (with few technology choices and products) to complex (with multiple technology choices and products).

Each system template is distinct in terms of the characteristics and the number of products generated and processed. The system templates present logical combinations of technologies, but the planner must not lose a rational engineering perspective. It must also be noted that although this Compendium is thorough, it is not an exhaustive list of technologies and/ or associated systems.

Although the system templates are predefined, the Compendium user must select the appropriate technology from the options presented. The choice is context specific and should be made based on the local environment (temperature, rainfall, etc.), culture (sitters, squatters, washers, wipers, etc.) and resources (human, financial and material).

يُعرَّف الصرف الصحي في سياق هذا الكتاب بأنَّه عملية مُتعدّدة الخطوات تتم فيها إدارة فضلات الإنسان ومياه الصرف من المنبع إلى نقطة الاستخدام أو حتى عملية التخلُّص النهائي. ونظام الصرف الصحي هو سلسلة مُتتابعة من تقنيات وخدمات إدارة هذه المخلفات (أو الموارد)؛ بعبارة أخرى: جمع المخلفات، وتخزينها، ونقلها، وتحويلها إلى شكل آخر، واستخدامها أو التخلص منها. يتألَّف نظام الصرف الصحي من المُنتجات (المُخلفات) التي تنتقل عبرعدة مجموعات وظيفية تحتوي على تقنيات يُمكن اختيارها وفقًا للسياق. فيُمكن للمرء أن يقوم بتصميم نظام منطقي للصرف الصحي، عن طريق اختيار التقنية المناسبة من إحدى المجموعات الوظيفية التطبيقية، للتعامل مع كل نوع من المخلّفات. ويشمل نظام الصرف الصحي أيضًا عمليات الإدارة والتشغيل والصيانة المطلوبة للتأكُّد من أنَّ جميع وظائف النظام تعمل بشكل آمن ومُستدام.

 

نموذج النظام هوعبارة عن مجموعة من التقنيات المتوافقة التي يُمكن استخدامها لتصميم نظام صرف صحي متكامل. في الجزء الأول من هذا الكتاب تم شرح تِسعة نماذج مُختلفة لأنظمة الصرف الصحي. ويُوجد شرح مُفصَّل لتوضيح كيفية عمل واستخدام كل نموذج من تلك النماذج في فصل خاص بعنوان “استخدام نماذج الأنظمة” 

How to Use

System 1: Single Pit System

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 1: Single Pit System

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 2: Waterless Pit System without Sludge Production

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 2: Waterless Pit System without Sludge Production

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 3: Pour Flush Pit System without Sludge Production

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 3: Pour Flush Pit System without Sludge Production

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 4: Waterless System with Urine Diversion

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 4: Waterless System with Urine Diversion

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 5: Biogas System

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 5: Biogas System

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 6: Blackwater Treatment System with Infiltration

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 6: Blackwater Treatment System with Infiltration

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 7: Blackwater Treatment System with Effluent Transport

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 7: Blackwater Treatment System with Effluent Transport

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 8: Blackwater Transport to (Semi-) Centralized Treatment System

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 8: Blackwater Transport to (Semi-) Centralized Treatment System

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 9: Sewerage System with Urine Diversion

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 9: Sewerage System with Urine Diversion

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 1: Single Pit System

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 1: Single Pit System

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 2: Waterless Pit System without Sludge Production

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 2: Waterless Pit System without Sludge Production

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 3: Pour Flush Pit System without Sludge Production

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 3: Pour Flush Pit System without Sludge Production

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 4: Waterless System with Urine Diversion

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 4: Waterless System with Urine Diversion

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 5: Biogas System

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 5: Biogas System

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 6: Blackwater Treatment System with Infiltration

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 6: Blackwater Treatment System with Infiltration

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

System 7: Blackwater Treatment System with Effluent Transport

Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF