Sludge and septage emptied from on-site sanitation systems needs to be transferred to (semi-)centralised infrastructures for further treatment, reuse or appropriate discharge. Transfer stations or (sometimes called underground holding tanks) act as intermediate dumping points sludge when it cannot be easily transported to the treatment facility. A vacuum truck must empty transfer stations when they are full. Sewer discharge stations are similar to transfer stations, but instead of simply being a holding tank, the stations are connected to the sewer and can be legally accessed and used for discharging septage and sludge into the sewer so that it can be transported to a (semi-)centralised treatment facility. Thus, transfer and sewer discharge stations reduce transport distance, may encourage more community-level emptying solutions and prevent illegal dumping.