The alkalinity measures the capacity of water to neutralise acids. The alkalinity depends on amount of carbonates, bicarbonates, hydroxides, and occasionally borates, silicates and phosphates. Alkalinity stabilises water at pH levels around 7 (neutral). However, high water acidity decreases alkalinity and may cause harmful conditions for aquatic life. Alkalinity is expressed in ppm or mg of calcium carbonate per litre (mg/L CaCO3).