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An unplanted drying bed is a simple, permeable bed that, when loaded with sludge, collects percolated leachate and allows the sludge to dry by…
Last updated 27 April 2018
The upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) is a single tank process. Wastewater enters the reactor from the bottom, and flows upward. A…
Last updated 27 April 2018
At the end of 2015, about six out of ten refugees lived in urban areas (UNHCR 2016). Refugees and Internally Displaced People (IDPs) move to cities…
Last updated 27 April 2018
Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM) aims at designing and managing the urban water system in a holistic manner. This section provides a basic…
Last updated 27 April 2018
An urinal is used only for collecting urine. Urinals are generally for men, although models for women have also been developed. Most urinals use…
Last updated 27 April 2018
The separate collection of urine allows to reduce water used in toilets for flushing and to collect the nutrients contained in the urine in order to…
Last updated 27 April 2018
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Last updated 07 February 2018
Separately collected and hygienised urine is a concentrated source of nutrients which can be applied as a liquid fertilizer in agriculture to replace…
Last updated 27 April 2018
Urine makes up less than 0.5 % of household wastewater but contains most of the essential plant nutrients N, P and K. Waterless urinals or urine…
Last updated 27 April 2018
When urine cannot be used immediately or transported using a conveyance technology (i.e. [8287-jerrycans]) it can be stored onsite in containers or…
Last updated 27 April 2018
A urine-diverting dry toilet (UDDT) is a toilet that operates without water and has a divider so that the user, with little effort, can divert the…
Last updated 07 June 2018
The urine-diverting flush toilet (UDFT) is similar in appearance to a cistern flush toilet except for the diversion in the bowl. The toilet bowl has…
Last updated 27 April 2018
Progress and performance must be measured to attest a development in a (long term) project. With few, but carefully selected indicators, it is…
Last updated 27 April 2018
Last updated 27 April 2018
Last updated 27 April 2018