solution finder

19 June 2018

Water, Sanitation and Dignity

Author/Compiled by
Risch Tratschin (seecon international gmbh)
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What does dignity in relation to water and sanitation mean?
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The term dignity signifies that a being has an innate right to respect and ethical treatment. Subject of historic philosophical debate, today dignity is often used to critique the situation of vulnerable groups (WIKIPEDIA 2011).

As the access to water and sanitation facilities is essential for human life, its improvement is also related to respect and dignity for those in need. For example, every human being deserves to be protected from the many health problems posed by poor disposal of excreta (GNANAKAN et al. 2004). But in 2010, still 2.6 billion people lack improved sanitation facilities, and 884 million people still do not use improved sources of drinking-water (WHO UNICEF 2010) (see also access to water and sanitation).

Direct contact to excreta is more or less unacceptable in different cultures all over the world (see also water sanitation and culture). The poor often must be content with polluted water and unhealthy and unsafe sanitation facilities. Not only do they face the pollution of their own defecation, but often have to live beside water bodies that have been released from urban sewers. While the rich can be identified with their bottles of mineral water, the poor must be content with polluted water from any source, mostly contaminated by the rich. Regarding sanitation, unsheltered or far away defecation options leave especially women exposed with a sense of shame (GNANAKAN et al. 2004).

This situation highlights the inequalities caused by the different access to water and sanitation. To fight these inequalities is a precondition to ensure a life in dignity for everybody.

Expanding access to water and sanitation is a moral and ethical imperative rooted in the cultural and religious traditions of societies around the world and enshrined in international human rights instruments (UNMP-TWS 2005). Both the right to water and sanitation are contained in important international legal documents. Particularly the right to sanitation entitles every person to access to, and use of, excreta and wastewater facilities and services that ensure privacy and dignity (see also right to water and sanitation).

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Groups vulnerable to indignity
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Especially in developing countries, various societal groups are facing everyday life circumstances in relation to their access to water and sanitation which do not correspond to the concept of a life in dignity:

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The poor
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(Adapted from GNANAKAN et al. 2004 & UNICEF 2006)

Due to absence of waste management, these community members in a semi-formal settlement in Kaolack, Senegal, are cleaning their water streamfrom solid waste. As access to clean water also has to do with dignity, this can also be seen as an act to restore their own dignity. (Source: R. TRATSCHIN)

Due to absence of waste management, these community members in a semi-formal settlement in Kaolack, Senegal, are cleaning their water stream from solid waste. As access to clean water also has to do with dignity, this can also be seen as an act to restore their own dignity. Source: TRATSCHIN (2007)

Conventional toilets have been guilty of converting massive quantities of clean water into blackwater (see also water pollution). In developing countries, 90 % of this sewage is flushed into surface waters, polluting rivers, lakes and coastal areas. This has contributed to the spread of diseases mainly amongst the poor.


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Women and girls
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Heeb 2004 Girl Dirty Water

A still too common picture in the absence of proper sanitation: a girl defecating openly and unsheltered. Source: HEEB (2007)

The impact of poor water supply and sanitation services on poor women’s physical security, opportunities for adult education, overall productivity, income-generating capacity, nutritional status, time, and overall health and well-being is severe (UNMP-TWS 2005).

In many cultures, girls and women wait until after dark to defecate if they have no latrine in the household, walk to a place distant from their home for excreta disposal, particularly at night, they are vulnerable to harassment and assault. Women often refrain from drinking so that they do not have to go to toilet. This practice leads to severe health consequences i.e. bladder infections, constipation, or kidney problems (GNANAKAN et al. 2004).

Girls also commonly miss out on an education if school sanitation facilities provoke sexual harassment or hamper girls going to school during menstruation. If adequate sanitation is provided in schools, attendance of girls will rise, thus enabling them to get school education (BRUECHER et al. 2005). Studies show that girls’ attendance at school is increased through improved sanitation (UNMP-TWS 2005).

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Children
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Inadequate access to safe water and sanitation services, coupled with poor hygiene practices, kills about 4’500 children and sickens thousands more every day. Countless others suffer from poor health, diminished productivity and missed opportunities for education (UNICEF 2006).

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Sick and elderly people
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Sick and elderly people face special difficulty and a loss of dignity when sanitation facilities are not available nearby. This loss of dignity is especially acute for elders, for whom honour and respect are important (GNANAKAN et al. 2004).

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People with disabilities
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Attempts to increase coverage of basic services such as water and sanitation have too often marginalised or excluded the needs of disabled people. This neglect can have negative impacts on health, dignity and economic and social exclusion, especially on women. For dignity reasons, people with disabilities should not rely on anyone – not even their family – for their intimate needs (HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL 2008).

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Forced manual excreta scavengers
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A toilet emptier passes the bucket full of faecal sludge to his assistant. The man works without gloves, boots and mask, because these are too expensive. This is an extremely undignified task that poses severe health risks. Source: SuSanA on Flickr (2007)

A toilet emptier passes the bucket full of faecal sludge to his assistant. The man works without gloves, boots and mask, because these are too expensive. This is an extremely undignified task that poses severe health risks. Source: SuSanA on Flickr (2007)

Inadequate sanitation solutions also maintain inequalities within societies. Mainly in India, but as well other parts of South Asia, several hundred thousands of people are forced to do the extremely degrading and inhumane practice of manual excreta scavenging – the practice of manually cleaning and removing human excreta from dry (non-flush) toilets. (Watch the short movie “Lesser Humans” on this topic here).

The work is done with the most archaic equipment, sometimes with nothing else but bare hands. This inhumane and degrading practice continues to exist due to the absence of adequate sanitation systems. Nearly all of the estimated 800’000 scavengers (the so called “Dalit” or “Untouchables”) in India are women (GNANAKAN et al. 2004).

Under some circumstances also municipal workers charged with manually emptying and/or transporting faeces, excreta and sludge are subject to indignity – especially when working unprotected or in dangerous situations or when they are forced to do the work because of their social status or economic need (see also invalid link).


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Sustainable sanitation as contribution to restoring human dignity
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(Adapted from GNANAKAN et al. 2004; BRUECHER et al. 2005)

By promoting sustainable sanitation, human dignity can be restored in many aspects of human life:

Health & Safety: Provision of safe toilets increases health and safety especially for women and girls and cuts back on time spent walking to sanitary installations. More and more safely constructed toilets can enable people to leave the vicious cycle of diseases and poverty.

Economy: If waste can be turned into useful resources such as compost or fertiliser, it increases the value of human excreta and the dignity of those dealing with it will be restored. Hence, ecological and healthy sanitation systems can foster economic development.

Exploitation: Sustainable sanitation technologies can help to eliminate the degrading practice of manual scavenging by proposing sanitation options which foreclose the direct handling of human faeces. The saying “Water is life. Sanitation is dignity” reflects the aim that decent sanitation can promote a life in dignity.

Education: Evidence from Alwar District, India, showed that school sanitation increased girls’ enrolment by one-third, and improved academic performance for boys and girls by 25%. Similar results from Bangladesh showed that the provision of girls’ bathrooms increased girls’ enrolment by 11% (WSSCC 2011).

Library References

Ecological Sanitation - A Sustainability Approach. With an Indian Case Study on Social Aspects and a Critical Think Piece on Economic Aspects. Seminar “Socially Acceptable Technical Innovations”, Programme MGU (Mensch-Gesellschaft-Umwelt)

BRUECHER, J. CONRADIN, K. KROPAC, M. WILLARETH, M. (2005): Ecological Sanitation - A Sustainability Approach. With an Indian Case Study on Social Aspects and a Critical Think Piece on Economic Aspects. Seminar “Socially Acceptable Technical Innovations”, Programme MGU (Mensch-Gesellschaft-Umwelt). Basel: University of Basel

How To Build an Accessible Environment in Developing Countries. Manual No. 2 – Access to Water and Sanitation Facilities. Part 1 – Toilets and Closed Showers

This booklet is the first technical manual of a three-part set called “How to build an accessible environment in developing countries” for people with disabilities. It can be used for learning more about standards and general principles; drawings and pictures will enhance the general understanding. This part of the manual focuses on how to build accessible water and sanitation facilities, which comprise toilets, closed showers, washing areas and access to clean water.

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL (2008): How To Build an Accessible Environment in Developing Countries. Manual No. 2 – Access to Water and Sanitation Facilities. Part 1 – Toilets and Closed Showers. Phnom Pemh: Handicap International France Cambodia Program URL [Accessed: 06.04.2011]

Ecological Sanitation and Reuse of Wastewater. Ecosan. A Thinkpiece on ecological sanitation

This paper shows that there are comprehensive experiences and available technologies that meet new and sustainable sanitation requirements. Ecological sanitation constitutes a diversity of options for both rich and poor countries, from household level up to wastewater systems for mega-cities and needs to become recognised by decision-makers at all levels.

JENSSEN, P.D. HEEB, J. HUBA-MANG, E. GNANAKAN, K. WARNER, W. REFSGAARD, K. STENSTROEM, T.A. GUTERSTRAM, B. ALSEN, K.W. (2004): Ecological Sanitation and Reuse of Wastewater. Ecosan. A Thinkpiece on ecological sanitation. Norway: The Agricultural University of Norway URL [Accessed: 19.04.2010]

Health, Dignity and Development: What Will it Take?

The UN Millennium Project Task Force on Water and Sanitation published this extensive report in 2005 with two main aims: First, it highlights which specific policies and resources are needed to meet the MDGs and who needs to take reasonability for ensuring they are in place. And secondly, it identifies the specific policies and resources required to meet the MDGs as part of a larger UN Millennium Project. It also pinpoints actions required in other sectors, emphasising that advances in a number of other areas strongly affect the ability of countries to meet the MDG water and sanitation target (7c) and to optimise water use.

UN MILLENNIUM PROJECT TASK FORCE ON WATER AND SANITATION (UNMP-TWS) (2005): Health, Dignity and Development: What Will it Take?. London: United Nations Development Programme URL [Accessed: 28.03.2011]

Progress on Sanitation and Drinking-Water. 2010 Update

This well illustrated report describes the status and trends with respect to the use of safe drinking-water and basic sanitation, and progress made towards the MDG drinking-water and sanitation target. It presents some striking disparities: the gap between progress in providing access to drinking-water versus sanitation; the divide between urban and rural populations in terms of the services provided; differences in the way different regions are performing, bearing in mind that they started from different baselines; and disparities between different socioeconomic strata in society. Each JMP report assesses the situation and trends anew and so this JMP report supersedes previous reports (e.g. from 2004, 2006 and 2008).

WHO ; UNICEF (2010): Progress on Sanitation and Drinking-Water. 2010 Update. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) / New York: UNICEF URL [Accessed: 16.05.2019]
Further Readings

Ecological Sanitation and Reuse of Wastewater. Ecosan. A Thinkpiece on ecological sanitation

This paper shows that there are comprehensive experiences and available technologies that meet new and sustainable sanitation requirements. Ecological sanitation constitutes a diversity of options for both rich and poor countries, from household level up to wastewater systems for mega-cities and needs to become recognised by decision-makers at all levels.

JENSSEN, P.D. HEEB, J. HUBA-MANG, E. GNANAKAN, K. WARNER, W. REFSGAARD, K. STENSTROEM, T.A. GUTERSTRAM, B. ALSEN, K.W. (2004): Ecological Sanitation and Reuse of Wastewater. Ecosan. A Thinkpiece on ecological sanitation. Norway: The Agricultural University of Norway URL [Accessed: 19.04.2010]

Sanitation for All. Promoting Dignity and Human Rights

The 20-page UNICEF sanitation brochure was developed as a tool for generating new sanitation and hygiene policy and programme actions at country, regional and international levels. It explains how promotion of sanitation can contribute to more dignity especially among the poor and other neglected groups. The document contains good illustrations.

UNICEF (2000): Sanitation for All. Promoting Dignity and Human Rights. New York: UNICEF URL [Accessed: 05.04.2011]

Health, Dignity and Development: What Will it Take?

The UN Millennium Project Task Force on Water and Sanitation published this extensive report in 2005 with two main aims: First, it highlights which specific policies and resources are needed to meet the MDGs and who needs to take reasonability for ensuring they are in place. And secondly, it identifies the specific policies and resources required to meet the MDGs as part of a larger UN Millennium Project. It also pinpoints actions required in other sectors, emphasising that advances in a number of other areas strongly affect the ability of countries to meet the MDG water and sanitation target (7c) and to optimise water use.

UN MILLENNIUM PROJECT TASK FORCE ON WATER AND SANITATION (UNMP-TWS) (2005): Health, Dignity and Development: What Will it Take?. London: United Nations Development Programme URL [Accessed: 28.03.2011]

Equity of Access to WASH in Schools: A Comparative Study of Policy and Service Delivery

This study presents findings from a six-country study conducted by UNICEF and the Center for Global Safe Water at Emory University in collaboration with UNICEF country offices in Kyrgyzstan, Malawi, the Philippines, Timor-Leste, Uganda and Uzbekistan and their partners. The six case studies presented together contribute to the broader understanding of inequities in WASH in Schools access by describing various dimensions that contribute to equitable or inequitable access across regions, cultures, gender and communities.

UNICEF (2013): Equity of Access to WASH in Schools: A Comparative Study of Policy and Service Delivery. New York: UNICEF URL [Accessed: 17.04.2013]

Language: Spanish

Case Studies

Life and Dignity at Risk

Liberia’s water and sanitation policy states that “water is life” and “sanitation is dignity”. These powerful statements signal a welcome commitment in a country where safe water and decent sanitation have long been absent for the vast majority of the population, with catastrophic impacts on life and social welfare.This report details the current situation before focusing on the questions that will be crucial in the success of improving access to water and sanitation in the West-African country.

LIBERIA WASH CONSORTIUM (2010): Life and Dignity at Risk. Liberia: The Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Sector in Liberia URL [Accessed: 17.04.2011]

Creating User-friendly Water and Sanitation Services for the Disabled: The Experience of WaterAid Nepal and its Partners

This case study from Nepal explores what implications the phrase “services for all” can have and elaborates on needs related to water and sanitation services of people with disabilities. Within rural Nepal, disability is a significant issue with many people experiencing impairments of all natures and traditional water and sanitation project approaches have inadvertently excluded disabled people.

PRADHAN, A. JONES, O. (2008): Creating User-friendly Water and Sanitation Services for the Disabled: The Experience of WaterAid Nepal and its Partners. In: WICKEN, J. ; VERHAGEN, J. ; SIJBESMA, C. ; SILVA, C. da ; RYAN, P. (2008): Beyond Construction: Use by All. A Collection of Case Studies from Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion Practitioners in South Asia. London / Delft: . URL [Accessed: 05.04.2011]

Reaching the Marginalised and Socially Isolated Sex Worker and Sweeper Communities of Tangail, Bangladesh

Sex workers and sweepers are socially isolated in Bangladesh. WaterAid in ist Inclusion Programme included both these communities and provided special support to ensure their WASH rights in the respective communities.

AHMED, S. (2013): Reaching the Marginalised and Socially Isolated Sex Worker and Sweeper Communities of Tangail, Bangladesh. (= WEDC International Conference, Nakuru, Kenya , 36 ). Leicestershire: Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC) URL [Accessed: 11.01.2014]
Training Material

M2: Ecosan – an Approach to Human Dignity, Community Health and Food Security. M2-3: Ecosan and Human Dignity. PDF presentation (tutorial)

This presentation is adapted from the Ecosan Curriculum 2.3. The ecosan curriculum was created in order to compile the large amount of information in a structured and comprehensive way. This is the tutorial on ecological sanitation and human dignity.

GNANAKAN, K. CONRADIN, K. HEEB, J. JENSSEN, P. (2008): M2: Ecosan – an Approach to Human Dignity, Community Health and Food Security. M2-3: Ecosan and Human Dignity. PDF presentation (tutorial). In: HEEB, J. ; JENSSEN, P. ; GNANAKAN ; CONRADIN, K. ; (2008): Ecosan Curriculum 2.3. Switzerland, India and Norway: .
Awareness Raising Material

How To Build an Accessible Environment in Developing Countries. Manual No. 2 – Access to Water and Sanitation Facilities. Part 1 – Toilets and Closed Showers

This booklet is the first technical manual of a three-part set called “How to build an accessible environment in developing countries” for people with disabilities. It can be used for learning more about standards and general principles; drawings and pictures will enhance the general understanding. This part of the manual focuses on how to build accessible water and sanitation facilities, which comprise toilets, closed showers, washing areas and access to clean water.

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL (2008): How To Build an Accessible Environment in Developing Countries. Manual No. 2 – Access to Water and Sanitation Facilities. Part 1 – Toilets and Closed Showers. Phnom Pemh: Handicap International France Cambodia Program URL [Accessed: 06.04.2011]

This module introduces the importance of market-based RRR solutions. At the end of this module you have identified key challenges in your local sanitation and waste management system and a RRR-related business idea.

Cover image Module  1

This module sheds light on the importance of studying the business environment and its components like waste supply, market demand, competition and the institutional framework. At the end of this module you have gained insights to evaluating the potential of your business idea.

Cover image Module  2

This module shows how a business idea can be turned into a business model while putting a specific focus on understanding the customer and designing products that meet their needs. At the end of this module you will have developed a business model and positioned your offer in the market.

Cover image Module  3

This module focusses on planning the operations of a RRR related business. During this part RRR technologies will be introduced for different waste streams and tools for planning the production process. At the end of this module you will have blueprinted your production process and the required technology and production inputs.

Cover image Module  4

This module covers key aspects of financial planning and analysis. At the end of this module you will have forecasted your profits, cash flows, required investment and evaluated the financial viability of your business model.

Cover image Module  5

This module enables you to set objectives and plan activities for the launch of your RRR business and identify potential financing sources. At the end of this module you will have developed an action plan for launch and identified appropriate financing sources.

Cover image Module  6

Week 1: Identify challenges in your local sanitation & waste management

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Further Readings

SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles

This AGUASAN publication illustrates how the water and nutrient cycles can be used as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system and aligning it with SDG 6.

BROGAN, J., ERLMANN, T., MUELLER, K. and SOROKOVSKYI, V. (2017): SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles. Using the water and nutrient cycles as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system - including workshop material. Bern (Switzerland): AGUASAN and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

Why shit matters [Video File]

TEDX TALKS (2019): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d4yD0kz34jg [Accessed: 28.03.2019]

"3 billion people worldwide live in cities without sewers or wastewater treatment plant infrastructure. This forces them to dump their waste into open waters, contaminating the drinking water for others downstream. Imagine if we could harness nutrients in wastewater instead of harming human and environmental health. Christoph Lüthi sees a renewable, locally produced and growing resource where others see only human waste. Watch his talk to learn why shit matters! "

Week 2: Identify RRR products and business opportunities

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Further Readings

A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Week 1: Analyse waste supply

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 2: Analyse market demand

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3: Analyse your competition

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 4: Analyse the institutional environment

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 1: Meet the Business Model Canvas

Download Materials
Further Readings

A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Week 1: Plan your production process

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Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Week 2: Understand the treatment process

Further Readings

Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings

LOHRI, C. R., DIENER, S., ZABALETA, I. MERTENAT, A. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2017): Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings. In: Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 81–130. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

Week 3A: Design technology systems for nutrient recovery

Further Readings

Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery

COFIE, O., NIKIEMA, J., IMPRAIM, R., ADAMTEY, N., PAUL, J. and KONÉ, D. (2016): Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 3. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Decentralized composting in India

DRESCHER, S. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2004): Decentralized composting in India. In: Harper et al. Sustainable Composting: Case Studies in Guidelines for Developing Countries. Loughborough (UK): Water Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), Loughborough University, Part2: Case Studies, Chapter 3, pp.15-27. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives

KARANJA, N., KWACH, H. and NJENGA, M. (2005): Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives. Nairobi (Kenya): UN-Habitat. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3B: Design technology systems for energy recovery

Further Readings

Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market

FERGUSON, H. (2012): Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market. London (UK): Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) International. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3C: Design technology systems for water recovery

Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Chapter 3 - Technology Selection

VEENSTRA, S., ALAERTS, G. and BIJLSMA, M. (1997): Chapter 3 - Technology Selection. In: Helmer, R. and Hespanhol, I. (Eds). Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles. London (UK): World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects

Volume I of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater focuses on policy, regulation and institutional arrangements. Accordingly, its intended readership is made up of policy-makers and those with regulatory responsibilities. It provides guidance on policy formulation, harmonisation and mainstreaming, on regulatory mechanisms and on establishing institutional links between the various interested sectors and parties. It also presents a synthesis of the key issues from Volumes II, III, and IV and the index for all four volumes as well as a glossary of terms used in all four volumes is presented in Annex 1.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 10.04.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture

Volume II of the Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater provides information on the assessment and management of risks associated with microbial hazards and toxic chemicals. It explains requirements to promote the safe use of wastewater in agriculture, including minimum procedures and specific health-based targets, and how those requirements are intended to be used. It also describes the approaches used in deriving the guidelines, including health-based targets, and includes a substantive revision of approaches to ensuring microbial safety.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019] PDF

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture

Volume III of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater deals with wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture and describes the present state of knowledge regarding the impact of wastewater-fed aquaculture on the health of producers, product consumers and local communities. It assesses the associated health risks and provides an integrated preventive management framework.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019] PDF

Week 3: Analyse financial viability

Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 1: Set objectives and plan activities for launch

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Further Readings

Week 2: Finance the launch

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