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In this module a general overview of wastewater constituents is given. Evidence on levels and trends in raw wastewater is provided and linked to contamination sources and water bodies into which it is discharged. Fate and environmental effects of constituents such as organics, nutrients, metals, medical residues and health care products are discussed in terms of the Arctic context and referred to local, regional and global environmental challenges. An introduction to the microbiota including pathogenic and antibiotic resistant bacteria and virus of raw wastewater as well as recipients in the Arctic is given. Health effects and risk assessments are provided in module 3.
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