2018 أبريل 27

الري

Application level

City

Household

Neighborhood

Management level

Household

Public

Shared

المُدخلات

Effluent Stormwater
+ Stored Urine

المُخرَجات

Biomass
المؤلف*
Eawag المعهد الفيدرالي السويسري لعلوم وتقنيات المياه
ترجمة وتعريب مؤسسة بناء

المُلخص التنفيذي

يمكن استخدام مياه الصرف متفاوتة الجودة في الزراعة؛ للحد من الاعتماد على المياه العذبة، ولضمان مصدر دائم للمياه لأغراض الري على مدار السنة. ومع ذلك، ينبغي أن تُستخدم المياه التي خضعت للمُعالجة الثانوية فقط (أي المُعالجة الفيزيائية والمُعالجة الحيوية) للحد من مخاطر تلوث المحاصيل والمخاطر الصحية على العاملين.

هناك نوعان من تقنيات الري المناسبة لمياه الصرف الصحي المُعالجة:

1) الري بالتنقيط فوق أو تحت سطح الأرض؛ حيث يتم تنقيط الماء ببطء على الجذور أو بالقرب من منطقة الجذور.

2) الري السطحي؛ حيث يتم غمر الأرض بالمياه في سلسلة من قنوات الري أو الأخاديد.

ولتقليل التبخر ونشر مسببات الأمراض في الهواء ينبغي تجنب الري بالرش.

إن استخدام مياه الصرف المُعالجة بشكل صحيح يُمكن أن يقلل -إلى حد كبير- من الاعتماد على المياه العذبة، و/أو تحسين إنتاجية المحاصيل الزراعية من خلال توفير المياه والمُغذيات اللازمة للنباتات. ولا ينبغي أن تُستخدم مياه الصرف أو المياه السوداء غير المُعالجة في الري، كما أن المياه المُعالجة بشكل جيد يجب أن تُستخدم بحذر. والاستخدام طويل المدى للمياه المُعالجة بشكل غير صحيح أو المياه رديئة المُعالجة قد يُسبب ضررًا طويل المدى على تكوين وبِنية التربة وقدرتها على الاحتفاظ بالماء.

المزايا
يقلل من استنزاف المياه الجوفية، ويوفر المياه للشرب.
يقلل الحاجة للأسمدة.
إمكانية إيجاد فرص عمل محلية، وتوليد مصدر للدخل.
تخفيض خطر انتقال مسببات الأمراض إذا تم مُعالجة المياه بشكل صحيح.
تخفيض تكاليف رأس المال والتشغيل، وذلك حسب التصميم.
العيوب
قد يتطلب الخبرة في التصميم والتركيب.
قد لا تكون جميع قطع الغيار والمواد متوفرة محليًّا.
الري بالتنقيط حساس جدًّا للانسداد؛ لذلك يجب أن تكون مياه الري خالية تمامًا من العوالق.
خطر تملح التربة إذا كانت التربة عُرضة لتراكم الأملاح.
القبول المجتمعي قد يكون منخفضًا في بعض مناطق الري خالية تمامًا من المواد الصلبة العالقة.
المُدخلات المُخرَجات

التدفقات السائلة الخارجة , مياة الامطار, البول المخزن

الكتلة الحيوية

Introduction

Factsheet Block Body

There are two kinds of irrigation technologies appropriate for treated wastewater:

 

To minimize evaporation and contact with pathogens, spray irrigation should be avoided.

Properly treated wastewater can significantly reduce dependence on fresh water, and/or improve crop yields by supplying increased water and nutrients to plants. Raw sewage or untreated blackwater should not be used, and even well-treated water should be used with caution. Long-term use of poorly or improperly treated water may cause long-term damage to the soil structure and its ability to hold water.

Schematic of the Irrigation. Source: TILLEY et al. 2014
Schematic of the Irrigation. Source: TILLEY et al. 2014 

 

اعتبارات التصميم

Factsheet Block Body

 يجب أن يكون معدل استخدام مياه الصرف الصحي المُعالجة للري مناسبًا للتربة والمحاصيل والمناخ، وإلا يصبح الاستخدام مضرًّا. ولزيادة قيمة العناصر المغذية في مياه الري؛ فإنه من الممكن أن يُخلط )يُحقن( البول مع مياه الري، وهذا ما يسمىالتسميد في الري )أو الري المُسَمَّد( Fertigation” )أي التسميد + الري.( و يجب أن تتناسب نسبة تخفيف البول في المياه مع الاحتياجات الخاصة للمحصول ومقاومته.

ويجب مراعاة وجود ضغط تشغيل مناسب في أنظمة الري بالتنقيط ومراعاة الصيانة الدورية؛ للحد من احتمالية انسداد نظام الري )خصوصًا مع البول الذي سوف يترسب منه الستروفايت Struvite تلقائيًّا).

 

الجوانب الصحية / القبول

Factsheet Block Body

يجب أن تَسبِق المُعالجة المناسبة )أي الحد من العوامل المسببة للأمراض بشكل كافٍ( منظومة الري للحد من المخاطر الصحية للأشخاص الذين يعملون باتصال مباشر مع المياه. علاوة على ذلك، فإن المياه قد لا تزال ملوثة بمواد كيميائية مختلفة قد تم صرفها في نظام المُعالجة، وذلك اعتمادًا على درجة المُعالجة التي خضعت لها التدفقات السائلة الخارجة. وعند استخدام التدفقات السائلة المُعالجة للري، ينبغي على المنازل والمصانع المتصلة بالنظام أن تكون على دراية بالمخلّفات المناسبة وغير المناسبة التي يمكن صرفها بالنظام. والري بالتنقيط هو نوع الري الوحيد الذي يجب أن يُستخدم مع المحاصيل الصالحة للأكل، ومع ذلك يجب توخي الحذر لمنع العمال والمحاصيل المحصودة من ملامسة التدفقات السائلة المُعالجة. وينبغي الاستعانة بإرشادت منظمة الصحة العالمية WHO لاستخدام مياه الصرف؛ وذلك من أجل الحصول على معلومات مُفصَّلة وتوجيهات محددة.

 

التشغيل والصيانة

Factsheet Block Body

يجب أن يتم عمل غسيل دوري لأنظمة الري بالتنقيط؛ لتجنب نمو الغشاء الحيوي Biofilm، ولتجنب انسدادها بسبب جميع أنواع المواد الصلبة. ويجب الكشف عن التسريبات في الأنابيب؛ لأنها عُرضة للتلف من قِبل القوارض أو البشر. والري بالتنقيط أكثر تكلفة من الري التقليدي، ولكن يُحسِّن الإنتاج ويُقلل تكاليف المياه والتشغيل. كما يجب على العاملين ارتداء الملابس الواقية المناسبة.

Media PPT
المراجع

تقييم مياة الصرف الصحى المعالجة والمخصصة للزراعة فى لبنان

الهدف من هذه الدراسة في توفير قاعدة بيانات محدثة وشاملة تضم معلومات حول حالة مياه الصرف الصحي المعالجة والتطور الحاصل على هذا الصعيد في لبنان، وكذلك تسليط الضوء على الفجوات في البيانات وعدم اتساقها، وتقييم احتمالات معالجة مياه الصرف الصحي باستخدام نهج دراسة الحالة داخل قضاء معين عن طريق تحليل متعدد الطبقات لنظام المعلومات الجغرافية

منظمة الاغذية والزراعة الامم المتحدة (2016): تقييم مياة الصرف الصحى المعالجة والمخصصة للزراعة فى لبنان . لبنان: منظمة الاغذية والزراعة . URL [Accessed: 26.05.2017]

Language: Arabic

استعمال مياه الصرف الصحي المعالجة في الزارعة

محمد منهل الزعبى واخرون (2014): استعمال مياه الصرف الصحي المعالجة في الزارعة . ألجمهورية العربية السورية: الهئية العامة للبحوث العلمية الزراعية وزارة الزراعة والإصلاح الزراعي سوريا PDF

Language: Arabic

Fertigation

BURT, C. O’CONNOR, K. RUEHR, T. (1998): Fertigation. San Luis Obispo: California : Polytechnic State University, Irrigation Training and Research Center

Wastewater Irrigation and Health

This book is written for practitioners, researchers and graduate students in environmental and public health, sanitary and agricultural engineering, and wastewater irrigation management in developing countries. In particular, it should be useful for all those working to assess and mitigate health risks from the use of wastewater and faecal sludge in agriculture, under conditions where wastewater treatment is absent or inadequate to safeguard public health. In this respect, the book builds on and complements the international Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater published in 2006 by the World Health Organization in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the United Nations Environment Programme.

DRECHSEL, P. ; SCOTT, C.A. ; RASCHID-SALLY, L. ; REDWOOD, M. ; BAHRI, A. (2010): Wastewater Irrigation and Health. Assessing and Mitigating Risk in Low-Income Countries. London: Earthscan URL [Accessed: 07.05.2019]

Short Rotation Plantations: Opportunities for Efficient Biomass Production with the Safe Application of Wastewater and Sewage Sludge

This two-page factsheet by the European Biomass Industry Association gives a brief and concise overview on the topic of Short Rotation Plantations. Especially the benefits of this technology are highlighted.

EUBIA (2008): Short Rotation Plantations: Opportunities for Efficient Biomass Production with the Safe Application of Wastewater and Sewage Sludge. Brussels: European Biomass Industry Association (EUBIA) URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]

On-Farm Practices for the Safe Use of Wastewater in Urban and Peri-Urban Horticulture

This training handbook is a field guide for training urban and peri-urban vegetable farmers in safe practices when using wastewater in vegetable production. It is designed to provide complete information, knowledge and skills for safer and successful production of vegetables in urban and peri-urban farming systems.

FAO (2012): On-Farm Practices for the Safe Use of Wastewater in Urban and Peri-Urban Horticulture. A Training Handbook for Farmer Field Schools. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) URL [Accessed: 15.04.2014]

Struvite Production from Source Separated Urine in Nepal

This thesis explores the potential reuse of struvite effluent in Siddhipur Nepal. The hypotheses being investigated are that preliminary struvite precipitation prevents clogging during drip fertigation with urine and that drip-fertigation with urine is superior to bucket spreading, because the ammonia volatilization is strongly reduced.

KASHEKYA, E.J. (2009): Struvite Production from Source Separated Urine in Nepal. MSc Thesis. Delft: UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education URL [Accessed: 05.12.2011]

More Crop Per Drop

Simple low-cost drip irrigation is practical and affordable for smallholder farmers. It has been successfully used in India and is becoming more popular in other southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. It can reduce both water and labor use by as much as 20-50%. Yield of vegetables also can be increased by at least 10%. Our farm trials in Cambodia showed yield increases of 20-50% compared to traditional hand watering. Low pressure irrigation is also a key component of the African Market Garden concept jointly developed in west Africa with ICRISAT. This 10-chapter drip irrigation manual provides basic, step-by-step procedures for installing simple drip irrigation systems for different crops, climates, and soils.

PALADA, M. BHATTARAI, S. WU, D. ROBERTS, M. BHATTARAI, M. KIMSAN, R. MIDMORE, D. (2011): More Crop Per Drop. Using Simple Drip Irrigation Systems for Small-scale Vegetable Production. Shanhua, Tainan: AVRDC - The World Vegetable Center URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]

Wastewater Treatment and Use in Agriculture

This Irrigation and Drainage Paper is intended to provide guidance to national planners and decision-makers, agricultural and municipal managers, field engineers and scientists, health and agricultural field workers, wastewater treatment plant operators and farmers. Consequently, it covers a broad range of relevant material, some in considerable depth but some more superficially. It is meant to encourage the collection, treatment and use of wastewater in agriculture in a safe manner, with maximum advantage taken of this resource. Informal, unplanned and unorganized wastewater use is not recommended, nor is it considered adviseable from the health or agricultural points of view.

PESCOD, M.B. (1992): Wastewater Treatment and Use in Agriculture. (= FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper , 47 ). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) URL [Accessed: 25.10.2011]

Practical Guidance on the Use of Urine in Crop Production

This practical guideline on the use of urine in agricultural productions gives some background information on basic plant requirements and how they can be met with urine as a liquid fertiliser.

RICHERT, A. GENSCH, R. JOENSSON, H. STENSTROEM, T.A. DAGERSKOG, L. (2010): Practical Guidance on the Use of Urine in Crop Production. (= EcoSanRes Publication Series, Report No. 2010-1 ). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019] PDF

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture

Volume II of the Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater provides information on the assessment and management of risks associated with microbial hazards and toxic chemicals. It explains requirements to promote the safe use of wastewater in agriculture, including minimum procedures and specific health-based targets, and how those requirements are intended to be used. It also describes the approaches used in deriving the guidelines, including health-based targets, and includes a substantive revision of approaches to ensuring microbial safety.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019] PDF

The Wealth of Waste

This report presents an economic framework for the assessment of the use of reclaimed water in agriculture, as part of a comprehensive planning process in water resource allocation strategies to provide for a more economically efficient and sustainable water utilization.

WINPENNY, J. HEINZ, I. KOO-OSHIMA, S. SALGOT, M. COLLADO, J. HERNANDEZ, F. TORRICELLI, R. (2010): The Wealth of Waste. The Economics of Wastewater Use in Agriculture. (= FAO Water Reports , 35 ). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) URL [Accessed: 15.04.2014]
قراءات أخرى

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

Wastewater Irrigation and Health

This book is written for practitioners, researchers and graduate students in environmental and public health, sanitary and agricultural engineering, and wastewater irrigation management in developing countries. In particular, it should be useful for all those working to assess and mitigate health risks from the use of wastewater and faecal sludge in agriculture, under conditions where wastewater treatment is absent or inadequate to safeguard public health. In this respect, the book builds on and complements the international Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater published in 2006 by the World Health Organization in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the United Nations Environment Programme.

DRECHSEL, P. ; SCOTT, C.A. ; RASCHID-SALLY, L. ; REDWOOD, M. ; BAHRI, A. (2010): Wastewater Irrigation and Health. Assessing and Mitigating Risk in Low-Income Countries. London: Earthscan URL [Accessed: 07.05.2019]

On-Farm Practices for the Safe Use of Wastewater in Urban and Peri-Urban Horticulture

This training handbook is a field guide for training urban and peri-urban vegetable farmers in safe practices when using wastewater in vegetable production. It is designed to provide complete information, knowledge and skills for safer and successful production of vegetables in urban and peri-urban farming systems.

FAO (2012): On-Farm Practices for the Safe Use of Wastewater in Urban and Peri-Urban Horticulture. A Training Handbook for Farmer Field Schools. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) URL [Accessed: 15.04.2014]

Small-scale Irrigation for Arid Zones. Principles and Options

This publication is an attempt to distil current information on irrigation methods that might be appropriate, and to offer some ideas on the possible adoption and adaptation of such methods by small-scale farmers in the semi-arid areas of sub-Saharan Africa.

FAO (1997): Small-scale Irrigation for Arid Zones. Principles and Options. Rom: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) URL [Accessed: 23.06.2011]

Guidelines on the Use of Urine and Faeces in Crop Production

These guidelines provide a thorough background on the use of urine (and faeces) for agricultural purposes. Aspects discussed are requirements for plant growth, nutrients in excreta, hygiene aspects, and recommendations for cultivation. It provides detailed guidance on the use of urine for purposes.

JOENSSON, H. RICHERT, A. VINNERAAS, B. SALOMON, E. (2004): Guidelines on the Use of Urine and Faeces in Crop Production. (= EcoSanRes Publications Series , 2004 ). Stockholm: EcoSanRes URL [Accessed: 17.04.2012]

Struvite Production from Source Separated Urine in Nepal

This thesis explores the potential reuse of struvite effluent in Siddhipur Nepal. The hypotheses being investigated are that preliminary struvite precipitation prevents clogging during drip fertigation with urine and that drip-fertigation with urine is superior to bucket spreading, because the ammonia volatilization is strongly reduced.

KASHEKYA, E.J. (2009): Struvite Production from Source Separated Urine in Nepal. MSc Thesis. Delft: UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education URL [Accessed: 05.12.2011]

More Crop Per Drop

Simple low-cost drip irrigation is practical and affordable for smallholder farmers. It has been successfully used in India and is becoming more popular in other southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. It can reduce both water and labor use by as much as 20-50%. Yield of vegetables also can be increased by at least 10%. Our farm trials in Cambodia showed yield increases of 20-50% compared to traditional hand watering. Low pressure irrigation is also a key component of the African Market Garden concept jointly developed in west Africa with ICRISAT. This 10-chapter drip irrigation manual provides basic, step-by-step procedures for installing simple drip irrigation systems for different crops, climates, and soils.

PALADA, M. BHATTARAI, S. WU, D. ROBERTS, M. BHATTARAI, M. KIMSAN, R. MIDMORE, D. (2011): More Crop Per Drop. Using Simple Drip Irrigation Systems for Small-scale Vegetable Production. Shanhua, Tainan: AVRDC - The World Vegetable Center URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]

Wastewater Treatment and Use in Agriculture

This Irrigation and Drainage Paper is intended to provide guidance to national planners and decision-makers, agricultural and municipal managers, field engineers and scientists, health and agricultural field workers, wastewater treatment plant operators and farmers. Consequently, it covers a broad range of relevant material, some in considerable depth but some more superficially. It is meant to encourage the collection, treatment and use of wastewater in agriculture in a safe manner, with maximum advantage taken of this resource. Informal, unplanned and unorganized wastewater use is not recommended, nor is it considered adviseable from the health or agricultural points of view.

PESCOD, M.B. (1992): Wastewater Treatment and Use in Agriculture. (= FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper , 47 ). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) URL [Accessed: 25.10.2011]

Practical Guidance on the Use of Urine in Crop Production

This practical guideline on the use of urine in agricultural productions gives some background information on basic plant requirements and how they can be met with urine as a liquid fertiliser.

RICHERT, A. GENSCH, R. JOENSSON, H. STENSTROEM, T.A. DAGERSKOG, L. (2010): Practical Guidance on the Use of Urine in Crop Production. (= EcoSanRes Publication Series, Report No. 2010-1 ). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019] PDF

The Wealth of Waste

This report presents an economic framework for the assessment of the use of reclaimed water in agriculture, as part of a comprehensive planning process in water resource allocation strategies to provide for a more economically efficient and sustainable water utilization.

WINPENNY, J. HEINZ, I. KOO-OSHIMA, S. SALGOT, M. COLLADO, J. HERNANDEZ, F. TORRICELLI, R. (2010): The Wealth of Waste. The Economics of Wastewater Use in Agriculture. (= FAO Water Reports , 35 ). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) URL [Accessed: 15.04.2014]

The Characterization of Feces and Urine: A Review of the Literature to Inform Advanced Treatment Technology

Development of on-site sanitation facilities that treat excreta require knowledge of the waste stream entering the system. This paper contains data regarding the generation rate and the chemical and physical composition of fresh feces and urine. In addition, the impact on biological and thermal processes, physical separators, and chemical reactions is also assessed.

ROSE, C. ; PARKER, A. ; JEFFERSON, B. ; CARTMELL, E. (2015): The Characterization of Feces and Urine: A Review of the Literature to Inform Advanced Treatment Technology. المُدخلات: Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology: Volume 45 , 1827-1879. URL [Accessed: 25.11.2015]
حالات دراسية

Low-Cost Drip Irrigation. On Farm Implantation in South Africa

Small-scale rural farmers’ perceptions, attitudes and preferences of low-cost drip irrigation systems were investigated through a series of interviews conducted before, during and following their use of such systems. Responses were analysed to determine the technological, socioeconomic and cultural suitability of the systems.

ANDERSSON, L. (2005): Low-Cost Drip Irrigation. On Farm Implantation in South Africa. Lulea: Lulea University of Technology URL [Accessed: 23.06.2011]

Drip Irrigation and Fertigation Prospective

The study aimed at assessing the feasibility of using urine as a fertilizer and drip irrigation technology to address food scarcity that has hit Uganda as a country of late. The study revealed high rates of return for a farmer who chooses to practice drip irrigation and fertigation. This however gives best results with effective disease control.

BAMUTAZE, A.B.N. BABIRYE, V. (2013): Drip Irrigation and Fertigation Prospective. A Case Study of Cabbage Growing at the ATC, Mukono District. Mukono: Appropriate Technology Centre (ATC) for Water and Sanitation URL [Accessed: 21.10.2013]

Urine diversion sanitation in Olympic Forest Park

Urine diversion low-flush toilets where installed in public toilet blocks of the Olympic park. Urine was collected for reuse and brownwater was treated in a septic tank and moving bed reactor before being transformed into compost. The aim of the system was to interlink the sanitation material flows as a water and nutrient source with the green areas of the park as a water and nutrient sink. Reduced water and energy demand as well as the substitution of fertilizer by urine and faeces-derived manure were expected advantages.

GERMER, J. KANGNING, X. (2009): Urine diversion sanitation in Olympic Forest Park. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 07.07.2010]

Water Management Strategies for Year Round Vegetable Production in Cagayan de Oro City

This paper contains information about strategies on how to manage water for a year-round production using fertigation as one of the options.

HOLMER ROBERT J. (2003): Water Management Strategies for Year Round Vegetable Production in Cagayan de Oro City. (= Paper presented at the MILAMDEC Vegetable Training Seminar, Bonbon, Cagayan de Oro City Philippines, March 12, 2003 ). URL [Accessed: 13.08.2010]

Water Reuse

To meet the challenges extremely efficient water use is necessary to achieve overall improvements in water productivity. Multi-use systems will therefore be crucial in integrated water management. Different examples show how water can be reused and recycled and thus increasing water efficiency in urban, peri-urban and rural areas. Issue 11 of Sustainable Sanitation Practice (SSP) on „Water reuse“ shows 3 examples for the use of treated wastewater for irrigation in agriculture: (1.) The first paper presents results from a long-term study (agricultural wastewater reuse) carried out in Sicily, Italy. (2.) The second paper presents activities on water management in the Oasis of Figuig, Morocco. (3.) The third paper presents practical experiences from a feasibility study on technology selection for wastewater treatment and effluent reuse schemes in Anza village, Palestine.

MUELLEGGER, E. ; LANGERGRABER, G. (2012): Water Reuse. Vienna: EcoSan Club URL [Accessed: 18.07.2012]

Wastewater irrigation in Gujarat: An exploratory study

Sewage farming, as it is called by farmers, is the use of untreated or partially treated wastewater for irrigation. This paper explores the prevalance of wastewater use and also the benefits and threats posed by this practice. Wastewater reuse conserves fresh water and nutrients, is inexpensive, and reduces pollution of water systems. The paper brings out several recommendations by farmers to increase the benefits of this system, one of which is planning STPs to maximise the amount of land that can be cultivated.

PALRECHA, A. KAPOOR, D. MALLADI, T. (2012): Wastewater irrigation in Gujarat: An exploratory study. (= Water Policy Research Highlight , 30 ). Gujarat, India: IWMI-Tata Water Policy Program URL [Accessed: 15.01.2013]

Development of Guidance for Sustainable Irrigation Use of Greywater In Gardens and Small-Scale Agriculture in South Africa

There are presently no formal guidelines for the use of greywater in South Africa. This paper presents the rationale and framework of a guidance document for the sustainable use of greywater to irrigate gardens and small-scale agriculture in South Africa, developed under the auspices of the Water Research Commission.

RODDA, N. CARDEN, K. ARMITAGE, N. PLESSIS, H.M. du (2011): Development of Guidance for Sustainable Irrigation Use of Greywater In Gardens and Small-Scale Agriculture in South Africa. Pretoria: Water Research Commission (WRC) URL [Accessed: 07.05.2019]

Drip Irrigation Options for Smallholder Farmers in Eastern and Southern Africa

Smallholder farmers in the semi-arid regions of eastern and southern Africa have to depend on erratic, unreliable and low rainfall for their livelihoods. Subsistence staple food crops are generally grown under rainfed conditions. Consequently there is a growing interest in complementing this risky rainfed food production with cultivation of high-value vegetable crops and fruits. But in most cases this means these small-scale vegetable gardens and orchards must be irrigated in order to assure an economic return. Drip irrigation methods minimize the non-productive water losses associated with conventional irrigation, e.g. from evaporation and soil runoff, and thus can make more efficient use of the already minimal water supplies in these arid areas. But until recently drip irrigation technology had been associated with costly investments available only to large commercial farmers. Now there is growing interest in the technique and many efforts are being made around the world to develop low-cost, simple, drip irrigation systems suitable for smallholder farmers. This handbook presents some of these drip irrigation options that can be promoted by extension officers in eastern and southern Africa. It describes the most interesting small-scale low-cost drip irrigation methods of which the author and the other contributors have practical experience. It also gives a brief overview of methods that have been used successfully in other parts of the world with details of how to obtain further information about them or order equipment.

SIJALI, I.V. (2001): Drip Irrigation Options for Smallholder Farmers in Eastern and Southern Africa. Stockholm: Sida's Regional Land Management Unit URL [Accessed: 29.02.2012]
مواد تدريبية

Irrigation Manual. Planning, Development Monitoring and Evaluation of Agriculture with Farmer Participation

This manual, being directed to the irrigation practitioner, does not provide an in-depth analysis of the social, health and environmental aspects in irrigation development. It only attempts to introduce the irrigation practitioner to these areas, providing a bridge between the various disciplines involved in irrigation development.

FAO (1992): Irrigation Manual. Planning, Development Monitoring and Evaluation of Agriculture with Farmer Participation. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

Simple Drip Irrigation

This PDF-presentation shows photos of drip system components and installations in Nepal.

IDE (n.y): Simple Drip Irrigation. Golden: International Development Enterprises (iDE). [Accessed: 30.11.2011] PDF
مواد لنشر الوعي

Fertigation: Optimizing the Utilization of Water and Nutrients

The papers in these proceedings demonstrate the many uses of fertigation and highlight the opportunities created by effectively managing water and nutrients.

IMAS, P. (2005): Fertigation: Optimizing the Utilization of Water and Nutrients. (= Fertigation Proceedings: Selected papers presented at the joint IPI-NATESC-CAU CAAS International Symposium on Fertigation Optimizing the utilization of water and nutrients Beijing ). [Accessed: 13.08.2010] PDF

Short Rotation Plantations: Opportunities for Efficient Biomass Production with the Safe Application of Wastewater and Sewage Sludge

This two-page factsheet by the European Biomass Industry Association gives a brief and concise overview on the topic of Short Rotation Plantations. Especially the benefits of this technology are highlighted.

EUBIA (2008): Short Rotation Plantations: Opportunities for Efficient Biomass Production with the Safe Application of Wastewater and Sewage Sludge. Brussels: European Biomass Industry Association (EUBIA) URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]

This is the compact version of the factsheet.

Read Extended Version

Alternative Versions to

No Structure Described.