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2018 أبريل 27

الحمأة المُنشطة

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المُدخلات

Blackwater Brownwater Greywater Effluent

المُخرَجات

Sludge Effluent
المؤلف*
Eawag المعهد الفيدرالي السويسري لعلوم وتقنيات المياه
ترجمة وتعريب مؤسسة بناء
المُلخص التنفيذي

عملية الحمأة المُنشطة Activated Sludge تُشير إلى وحدة مُعالجة تتكون من مُفاعل مُتعدد الغُرَف، والذي يتَستخدم الكائنات الحيَّة الدقيقة المُركزة لتحلل المواد العضوية، ولإزالة المُغذيات من مياه الصرف؛ وذلك من أجل إنتاج تدفقات سائلة خارجة عالية الجودة. وللحفاظ على الظروف الهوائية، ولإبقاء الحمأة النشطة مُعلّقة، فإن إمدادت الأكسجين المُستمرة والمنتظمة مطلوبة.

يُمكن استخدام العديد من التجهيزات المختلفة لعملية الحمأة المُنشطة لضمان مزج وتهوية مياه الصرف جيدًا في حَوْض التهوية، ويُمكن القيام بعمليتي التهوية والمزج عن طريق ضخ الهواء أو الأكسجين إلى الخزَّان، أو باستخدام أجهزة التهوية السطحية. تُؤكسد الكائنات الحية الدقيقة الكربون العضوي الموجود في مياه الصرف، مما يؤدي إلى إنتاج خلايا جديدة، وثاني أكسيد الكربون والماء. على الرغم من أن البكتريا الهوائية هي الكائنات الحية الأكثر تواجدًا داخل المُفاعل، فإن البكتريا الاختيارية Facultative Bacterial -بالإضافة إلى بعض الكائنات الحية الأكبر- ممكن أن تتواجد. التكوين الفعلي لمحتوى المُفاعل يعتمد على التصميم، والبيئة، وخصائص مياه الصرف.

الندف (تكتلات من جزيئات الحمأة النشطة) التي تكونت في حَوْض التهوية، يُمكن إزالتها في المُرَوِّق الثانوي، وذلك عن طريق الترسيب الطبيعى المُعتمد على الجاذبية الأرضية. يتم إعادة تدوير جزء من هذه الحمأة من المُرَوّقات إلى المُفاعل مرة أخرى. يُمكن تصريف التدفقات السائلة الخارجة أو مُعالجتها في مُنشأة مُعالجة ثلاثية إذا لزم الأمر لاستخدامها فيما بعد.

المزايا
مُقاومة للأحمال العضوية والهيدروليكية المفاجئة
يُمكن تشغيلها على نطاق كبير من مُعدَّلات الأحمال العضوية والهيدروليكية.
تخفيض كبير الحيوي للأكسجين BOD، ومسببات الأمراض (بنسبة تصل إلى 99%).
إمكانية الإزالة الكبيرة للمُغذيات.
يُمكن تعديلها لتلبية المواصفات والحدود الخاصة بالتصريف.
العيوب
استهلاك الطاقة مرتفع، وهناك حاجة إلى مصدر دائم للكهرباء
تكاليف رأس المال والتشغيل كبيرة.
تتطلب أن يقوم بأعمال التشغيل والصيانة أفرادًا ذا خبرة
عُرضة لمشاكل كيميائية وميكروبيولوجية (ميكروحيوية) مُعَقّدة.
قد لا تكون جميع الأجزاء والمواد متوفرة محليًّا
تتطلب خبرة في التصميم والإنشاء
الحمأة والتدفقات السائلة الخارجة تتطلب مزيدًا من المُعالجة و/أو التصريف بشكل مُناسب.
المُدخلات المُخرَجات

النفايات السائلة، المياه السوداء،المياه البُنّية، المياه الرمادية.

الحمأة، النفايات السائلة

 

Factsheet Block Title
اعتبارات التصميم
Factsheet Block Body
تُعتبر عمليات الحمأة المُنشطة جزءًا واحدًا من نظام مُعالجة متكامل؛ فهي تُستخدم -عادةً- بعد عملية المُعالجة الابتدائية (التي تُزيل المواد الصلبة القابلة للترسيب)، ويليها -أحيانًا- خطوة مُعالجة نهائية (انظر المُعالجة اللاحقة تكون العمليات الحيوية فعَّالة في إزالة المواد الذائبة، والمواد الغروية
Colloidal، والجسيمات. يُمكِن تصميم المُفاعل للنترجة وإزالة (عكس) النترجة (إزالة النتروجين باختزال النترات) الحيوية، وكذلك عملية الإزالة الحيوية للفوسفور. 
يجب أن يعتمد التصميم على التقدير الدقيق لمُكوّنات وحجم مياه الصرف. وتتدهور كفاءة عملية المُعالجة بشدة إذا كانت المحطة أقل أو أكبر من حيث الأبعاد المطلوبة. اعتمادًا على درجة الحرارة، فإن زمن بقاء المواد الصلبة Solids Retention Time (SRT) في المُفاعل يترواح ما بين 3 إلى 5 أيام لإزالة الاحتياج الحيوي للأكسجين BOD، ويتراوح ما بين 3 إلى 18 يوم لعملية النترجة. 
تتطلب الحمأة الناتجة من عمليات مُعالجة؛ لتقليل محتواها من المياه والمواد العضوية، ومن أجل الحصول في النهاية على مُنتج مُثبَّت ومُناسب للاستخدام أو التخلص النهائي، ومن المهم اعتبار هذه الخطوة في مرحلة التخطيط لمحطة المُعالجة. 
 
للحصول علي جودة التدفقات السائلة الخارجة المطلوبة من حيث محتواها من الاحتياج الحيوي للأكسجين BOD، والنتروجين، والفسفور، فإن بعض التعديلات المختلفة تمت إضافتها إلى التصميم الأساسي الخاص بالحمأة المُنشطة؛ وتشمل بعض التعديلات المعروفة على: المُفاعلات ذات الدُفعات المُتتابعة Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBR)، وقنوات الأكسدة Oxidation Ditches، والتهوية المُمتدة Extended Aeration، والأحواض المُتحرّكة Moving Beds، ومُفاعلات الأغشية الحيوية Membrane Bioreactors. 
 
Factsheet Block Title
المُلاءَمَة
Factsheet Block Body
عملية الحمأة المُنشطة تكون مُناسبة فقط
لمرفق المُعالجة المركزية الذي يتواجد به طاقم مُدَرَّب جيدًا، وإمدادت مُستمرة من الكهرباء، ونظام إدارة مُحكم لتشغيل وصيانة المرفق بشكل صحيح.
تكون هذه التقنية أكثر فعَّالية في مُعالجة الكميات الكبيرة من التدفقات، وذلك بسبب الجدوى الاقتصادية للكميات الكبيرة، ومحدودية التغيرات في خصائص تدفقاتها السائلة الداخلة. عملية الحمأة المنشطة تكون مُناسبة تقريبًا في أي مناخ، ومع ذلك فإن قُدرة المُعالجة تقل في المناخات الأكثر برودة.
Factsheet Block Title
الجوانب الصحية/ القبول
Factsheet Block Body

بسبب متطلبات المساحة ومشاكل الروائح، تقع مرافق المُعالجة المركزية على أطراف المناطق ذات الكثافة السكانية العالية. على الرغم من أن جودة التدفقات السائلة الخارجة المُنتجة تكون عالية، فإنها لا تزال تشكل خطرًا على الصحة، وينبغي ألا يتم التعامل معها مباشرة. في الحمأة الزائدة يكون هناك انخفاض كبير لمسببات الأمراض، ولكن لا يتم القضاء عليها نهائيًّا.

 

Factsheet Block Title
التشغيل والصيانة 
Factsheet Block Body
 
تتطلب طاقمًا مُدربًا جيدًا من أجل القيام بعمليات الصيانة وإصلاح الأعطال. ويجب القيام بأعمال الصيانة باستمرار للمُعِدَّات الميكانيكية (الخلاطات، وأجهزة التهوية، والمضخات). كذلك، يجب متابعة التدفقات السائلة الداخلة والخارجة باستمرار، وضبط مُعاملات التَحَكُّم الخاصة بها إذا لزم الأمر؛ وذلك لتجنب بعض الحالات غير الطبيعية، التي قد تؤدي إلى قتل الكتلة الحيوية النشطة، وزيادة الكائنات الحية الدقيقة الضارة التي تُسبب مشاكل في المُعالجة (على سبيل المثال: البكتريا الخيطية Filamentous Bacteria).

 

المراجع

كراس استرشادى عن ادارة المخلفات السائلة للانشطة الخدمية محطات الصرف الصحى ووحدات المعالجة فى المؤسسات الصحية

حيدر محمد عبدالحميد واخرون (2012): كراس استرشادى عن ادارة المخلفات السائلة للانشطة الخدمية محطات الصرف الصحى ووحدات المعالجة فى المؤسسات الصحية. وزارة البئية العراقية

Language: Arabic

المعالجة البيولوجية لمياه الصرف الصحى المبادئ وأعمال النمذجة والتصميم

موجن هينز واخرون ترجمة مصطفى سمير موسى -نضال جودت محمود (2008): المعالجة البيولوجية لمياه الصرف الصحى المبادئ وأعمال النمذجة والتصميم. IWA Publishing URL

Language: Arabic

Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems

Decentralised wastewater management presents a comprehensive approach to the design of both conventional and innovative systems for the treatment and disposal of wastewater or the reuse of treaded effluent. Smaller treatment plants, which are the concern of most new engineers, are the primary focus of this book.

CRITES, R. TCHOBANOGLOUS, G. (1998): Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc

Possibilities and Limits of Wastewater-fed Aquaculture

At the University of Applied Sciences Waedenswil, Switzerland, wastewater-fed aquaculture is a research focus since 1993. This paper summarises some of the results and insights gained since then.

JUNGE-BERBEROVIC, R. University of Applied Sciences Waedenswil. (2001): Possibilities and Limits of Wastewater-fed Aquaculture. Waedenswil: University of Applied Sciences Waedenswil URL [Accessed: 19.02.2010]

Appropriate Technology for Municipal Sewerage/Excreta Management in Developing Countries, Thailand Case Study

Assessment of the appropriateness of activated sludge for Thailand.

LUDWIG, H. F. ; MOHIT, K. (2000): Appropriate Technology for Municipal Sewerage/Excreta Management in Developing Countries, Thailand Case Study. المُدخلات: The Environmentalist: Volume 20 , 215-219. URL [Accessed: 19.08.2014]

Nutrients in urine: energetic aspects of removal and recovery

The analysis of different removal and recovery techniques for nutrients in urine shows that in many cases recovery is energetically more efficient than removal and new production from natural resources.

MAURER, M. ; SCHWEGLER, T. ; SCHWEGLER, P. ; LARSEN, T.A. (2003): Nutrients in urine: energetic aspects of removal and recovery. المُدخلات: Water Science and Technology 8: Volume 1 , 37-46.

Community-Based Technologies for Domestic Wastewater Treatment and Reuse- options for urban agriculture

The report suggests that emerging trends in low-cost, decentralised naturally-based infrastructure and urban wastewater management which promote the recovery and reuse of wastewater resources are increasingly relevant. Technologies for these sanitation options are presented. The concept of managing urban wastewater flows at a decentralised or "intermediate" level, based on micro watersheds, is explored. Effluent treatment standards that are currently accepted in order to protect public health and safety are reviewed.

ROSE, D.G. (1999): Community-Based Technologies for Domestic Wastewater Treatment and Reuse- options for urban agriculture. (= Cities Feeding People (CFP) Report Series. , 27 ). Ottawa: International Development Research Center Canada (IDRC) URL [Accessed: 23.05.2018]

Informed Choice Catalogue

This informed choice catalogue for community based wastewater treatment technologies helps to identify suitable sanitation options and facilitates the assessment of different sanitation system components with regard to stakeholder preferences. A powerful tool for technical bottom-up planning giving overall information about technical options at a "glance".

SANIMAS (2005): Informed Choice Catalogue. pdf presentation. BORDA and USAID

Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions Volume 2

Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions gives a state-of-the-art presentation of the science and technology of biological wastewater treatment, particularly domestic sewage. The book covers the main treatment processes used worldwide with wastewater treatment in warm climate regions given a particular emphasis where simple, affordable and sustainable solutions are required. The 55 chapters are divided into 7 parts over two volumes: Volume One (also available in the SSWM library): Introduction to wastewater characteristics, treatment and disposal; Basic principles of wastewater treatment; Stabilisation ponds; Anaerobic reactors; Volume Two: Activated sludge; Aerobic biofilm reactors; Sludge treatment and disposal.

SPERLING, M. von LEMOS CHERNICHARO, C.A. de (2005): Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions Volume 2. London: International Water Association (IWA) Publishing URL [Accessed: 01.11.2013]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. LUETHI, C. MOREL, A. ZURBRUEGG, C. SCHERTENLEIB, R. (2008): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG) and Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) URL [Accessed: 15.02.2010] PDF

Sequencing Batch Reactors

Technical factsheet on the design, application, performance and operation of sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), a type of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. English, Spanish

U.S. EPA (1999): Sequencing Batch Reactors. (= Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet, EPA 832-F-99-073 ). United States Environment Protection Agency (U.S. EPA)

Oxidation Ditches

U.S. EPA (2000): Oxidation Ditches. (= Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet, EPA 832-F-00-013 ). United States Environment Protection Agency URL [Accessed: 18.01.2011]

Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Manual

Rather old design manual for onsite wastewater treatment options. However, valuable information on established systems such as septic tanks, sand filters, aerobic treatment units (suspended growth and fixed film), disinfection, nutrient removal as well as wastewater segregation and recycling are given. Additional information is given on disposal methods and appurtenances.

U.S.EPA (1980): Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Manual. (= EPA 625/1-80 , 12 ). United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Office of Research and Development

A Directory of Environmentally Sound Technologies for the Integrated Management of Solid, Liquid and Hazardous Waste for SIDS in the Caribbean Region

This directory is part of UNEP collaboration with SIDS on the implementation of the Waste Management chapter of the Barbados Programme of Action. It focuses primarily on proven sound environmental technologies for solid, liquid and hazardous waste management plus those currently successfully being used in SIDS within the Caribbean Region.

UNEP (2004): A Directory of Environmentally Sound Technologies for the Integrated Management of Solid, Liquid and Hazardous Waste for SIDS in the Caribbean Region. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme Global Programme of Action (UNEP-GPA)) and Caribbean Environmental Health Institute (CEHI)

Environmentally sound technologies in wastewater treatment for the implementation of the UNEP/GPA "Guidelines on Municipal Wastewater Management"

Technical information on environmentally sound technologies in wastewater treatment.

UNEP ; MURDOCH UNIVERSITY (2004): Environmentally sound technologies in wastewater treatment for the implementation of the UNEP/GPA "Guidelines on Municipal Wastewater Management". The Hague: United Nations Environment Programme Global Programme of Action (UNEP/GPA), Coordination Office

Ecological Sanitation - revised and enlarged edition

This book is one of the most fundamental and important books that defined the concept of ecological sanitation. The first version came out in 1998 - this version presents the findings of over ten years of research and development in ecological sanitation supported by SIDA (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency).

WINBLAD, U. SIMPSON-HERBERT, M. (2004): Ecological Sanitation - revised and enlarged edition. (pdf presentation). Sweden: Stockholm Environment Institute URL [Accessed: 04.08.2010]

Ecological Sanitation - revised and enlarged edition

This book is one of the most fundamental and important books that defined the concept of ecological sanitation. The first version came out in 1998 - this version presents the findings of over ten years of research and development in ecological sanitation supported by SIDA (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency).

WINBLAD, U. SIMPSON-HERBERT, M. (2004): Ecological Sanitation - revised and enlarged edition. (pdf presentation). Sweden: Stockholm Environment Institute URL [Accessed: 04.08.2010]

Philippines Sanitation Source Book and Decision Aid

This Sanitation Sourcebook distils some of the core concepts of sanitation in a user-friendly format so that the book can serve as a practical reference to sanitation professionals and investment decision-makers, particularly the local governments. The annexe contains a practical collection of factsheets on selected sanitation system options.

WSP (2007): Philippines Sanitation Source Book and Decision Aid. pdf presentation. Washington: Water and Sanitation Program

Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India. A Guide to Decision-Making

These guidance notes are designed to provide state governments and urban local bodies with additional information on available technologies on sanitation. The notes also aid in making an informed choice and explain the suitability of approaches.

WSP (2008): Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India. A Guide to Decision-Making. pdf presentation. New Delhi: Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) URL [Accessed: 26.03.2010]
قراءات أخرى

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems

Decentralised wastewater management presents a comprehensive approach to the design of both conventional and innovative systems for the treatment and disposal of wastewater or the reuse of treaded effluent. Smaller treatment plants, which are the concern of most new engineers, are the primary focus of this book.

CRITES, R. TCHOBANOGLOUS, G. (1998): Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc

SOS - Management of Sludges from On-Site Sanitation. Co-treatment of Faecal Sludge and Wastewater in Tropical Climates

This article provides operational and design guidance for the co-treatment of faecal sludge in waste stabilisation ponds and in activated sludge sewage treatment plants. Problems which may arise when highly concentrated faecal sludge is not properly included in the design of the co-treatment system are also discussed.

HEINSS, U. STRAUSS, M. (1999): SOS - Management of Sludges from On-Site Sanitation. Co-treatment of Faecal Sludge and Wastewater in Tropical Climates. Duebendorf and Accra: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG) URL [Accessed: 21.04.2010]

Sustainable Wastewater Treatment

Wastewater contains organic matter and the three main nutrients for plant production: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Nitrogen fertilizer is energy consuming to produce and phosphorus is a limited mineral resource. Scandinavia is pioneering sustainable solutions to wastewater treatment. Source separation (blackwater/greywater) systems produce almost zero emissions and open up exiting urban applications of sanitation options in order to close the loop.

JENSSEN, P.D. VRAALE, L. LINDHOLM, O. SENG, L. (2007): Sustainable Wastewater Treatment. المُدخلات: SENG, L. (2007): Proceedings of the International Conference on Natural Resources and Environmental Management and Environmental Safety and Health. Norway: .

Nutrients in urine: energetic aspects of removal and recovery

The analysis of different removal and recovery techniques for nutrients in urine shows that in many cases recovery is energetically more efficient than removal and new production from natural resources.

MAURER, M. ; SCHWEGLER, T. ; SCHWEGLER, P. ; LARSEN, T.A. (2003): Nutrients in urine: energetic aspects of removal and recovery. المُدخلات: Water Science and Technology 8: Volume 1 , 37-46.

Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles

This document is rather old, but its publication was a milestone as it demonstrates WSSCCs capacity to bring together water and sanitation professionals from industrialised and developing countries to formulate practical guidance on a key issue of the day. Mainly regulatory, financial and technical aspects are discussed and illustrated with an extensive collection of case studies from the developing world.

HELMER, R. ; HESPANHOL, I. (1997): Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles. World Health Organization (WHO), Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) URL [Accessed: 21.04.2010]

Philippines Sanitation Source Book and Decision Aid

This Sanitation Sourcebook distils some of the core concepts of sanitation in a user-friendly format so that the book can serve as a practical reference to sanitation professionals and investment decision-makers, particularly the local governments. The annexe contains a practical collection of factsheets on selected sanitation system options.

WSP (2007): Philippines Sanitation Source Book and Decision Aid. pdf presentation. Washington: Water and Sanitation Program

Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India. A Guide to Decision-Making

These guidance notes are designed to provide state governments and urban local bodies with additional information on available technologies on sanitation. The notes also aid in making an informed choice and explain the suitability of approaches.

WSP (2008): Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India. A Guide to Decision-Making. pdf presentation. New Delhi: Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) URL [Accessed: 26.03.2010]

Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment

Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment is the second volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, and focusses on the unit operations and processes associated with biological wastewater treatment. The major topics covered are: microbiology and ecology of wastewater treatment, reaction kinetics and reactor hydraulics, conversion of organic and inorganic matter, sedimentation, aeration.

SPERLING, M. von (2007): Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment. (= Biological Wastewater Treatment Series , 2 ). London: International Water Association (IWA) Publishing URL [Accessed: 01.11.2013]

Activated Sludge and Aerobic Biofilm Reactors

Activated Sludge and Aerobic Biofilm Reactors is the fifth volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment. The first part of the book is devoted to the activated sludge process, covering the removal of organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus. A detailed analysis of the biological reactor (aeration tank) and the final sedimentation tanks is provided. The second part of the book covers aerobic biofilm reactors, especially trickling filters, rotating biological contractors and submerged aerated biofilters. For all the systems, the book presents in a clear and informative way the main concepts, working principles, expected removal efficiencies, design criteria, design examples, construction aspects and operational guidelines.

SPERLING, M. von (2007): Activated Sludge and Aerobic Biofilm Reactors. (= Biological Wastewater Treatment Series , 5 ). London: International Water Association (IWA) Publishing URL [Accessed: 01.01.2013]

Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions Volume 2

Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions gives a state-of-the-art presentation of the science and technology of biological wastewater treatment, particularly domestic sewage. The book covers the main treatment processes used worldwide with wastewater treatment in warm climate regions given a particular emphasis where simple, affordable and sustainable solutions are required. The 55 chapters are divided into 7 parts over two volumes: Volume One (also available in the SSWM library): Introduction to wastewater characteristics, treatment and disposal; Basic principles of wastewater treatment; Stabilisation ponds; Anaerobic reactors; Volume Two: Activated sludge; Aerobic biofilm reactors; Sludge treatment and disposal.

SPERLING, M. von LEMOS CHERNICHARO, C.A. de (2005): Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions Volume 2. London: International Water Association (IWA) Publishing URL [Accessed: 01.11.2013]
حالات دراسية

Box 4.2: Forest irrigation in Kaageroed

Case study from Sweden, describing forest irrigation as a final treatment step and reuse option for activated sludge effluents.

BODIK, I. RIDDERSTOLPE, P. (2008): Box 4.2: Forest irrigation in Kaageroed. المُدخلات: BODIK, I. ; RIDDERSTOLPE, P. (2008): Sustainable sanitation in Central and Eastern Europe - addressing the needs of small and medium-size settlements. Stockholm: 68 . URL [Accessed: 21.04.2010]

Opportunities in Fecal Sludge Management for Cities in Developing Countries: Experiences from the Philippines

In July 2012, a team from RTI International deployed to the Philippines to evaluate four FSM programs with the goal of reporting on best practices and lessons learned. The four cases—Dumaguete City, San Fernando City, Maynilad Water for the west zone of metro Manila, and Manila Water from the east zone of metro Manila—were chosen to highlight their different approaches to implementing FSM.

ROBBINS, D. STRANDE, L. DOCZI, J. (2012): Opportunities in Fecal Sludge Management for Cities in Developing Countries: Experiences from the Philippines. North Carolina: RTI International URL [Accessed: 15.01.2013]

Anaerobic Digestion of Blackwater and Kitchen Refuse

Thesis assessing the anaerobic treatment of blackwater (toilet wastewater) from vacuum toilets without and with kitchen refuse and its potential for reuse and resources management sanitation concepts.

WENDLAND, C. (2008): Anaerobic Digestion of Blackwater and Kitchen Refuse. (PhD Thesis). (= Hamburger Berichte zur Siedlungswasserwirtschaft ). Hamburg: Institut fuer Abwasserwirtschaft und Gewaesserschutz (AWW), Technische Universitaet Hamburg-Hamburg (TUHH) URL [Accessed: 11.03.2010]
مواد تدريبية

Design Manual - Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems

Rather old design manual for onsite wastewater treatment options. However, valuable information on established systems such as septic tanks, sandfilters, aerobic treatment units (suspendend growth and fixed film), disinfection, nutrient removal as well as wastewater segregation and recycling are given. Additional information is given on disposal methods and appurtenances.

U.S. EPA (1980): Design Manual - Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems. (= EPA 625/1-80-0 ). United States Environmental Protection Agency and Office of Water Office of Research and Development URL [Accessed: 18.03.2010]

4.2.1 Activated sludge treatment

UNEP (2002): 4.2.1 Activated sludge treatment. المُدخلات: UNEP ; MURDOCH UNIVERSITY (2004): Environmentally sound technologies in wastewater treatment for the implementation of the UNEP/GPA "Guidelines on Municipal Wastewater Management". The Hague: . URL [Accessed: 22.07.2010]

Oxidation Ditches

U.S. EPA (2000): Oxidation Ditches. (= Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet, EPA 832-F-00-013 ). United States Environment Protection Agency URL [Accessed: 18.01.2011]

Sequencing Batch Reactors

Technical factsheet on the design, application, performance and operation of sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), a type of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. English, Spanish

U.S. EPA (1999): Sequencing Batch Reactors. (= Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet, EPA 832-F-99-073 ). United States Environment Protection Agency (U.S. EPA)

Course ENV149: Wastewater Treatment Plant Operation: Lesson 10: Secondary Treatment

The Mountain Empire Community College ‘Water and Wastewater Distance Learning Course’ makes available all its documentation on the web. This section describes secondary treatment systems, including trickling filters, rotating biological contactors, activated sludge, operation and control, stabilization ponds, aerated lagoons and intermittent sand filters.

MECC (n.y): Course ENV149: Wastewater Treatment Plant Operation: Lesson 10: Secondary Treatment. (= Mountain Empire Community College. Water and Wastewater Distance Learning ). Big Stone Gap: Mountain Empire Community College (MECC) URL [Accessed: 18.03.2010]
مواد لنشر الوعي

Sustainable Wastewater Treatment

Wastewater contains organic matter and the three main nutrients for plant production: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Nitrogen fertilizer is energy consuming to produce and phosphorus is a limited mineral resource. Scandinavia is pioneering sustainable solutions to wastewater treatment. Source separation (blackwater/greywater) systems produce almost zero emissions and open up exiting urban applications of sanitation options in order to close the loop.

JENSSEN, P.D. VRAALE, L. LINDHOLM, O. SENG, L. (2007): Sustainable Wastewater Treatment. المُدخلات: SENG, L. (2007): Proceedings of the International Conference on Natural Resources and Environmental Management and Environmental Safety and Health. Norway: .

This is the compact version of the factsheet.

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