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2018 أبريل 27

حوض الترسيب

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المُدخلات

Blackwater Brownwater Greywater

المُخرَجات

Sludge Effluent
المؤلف*
Eawag المعهد الفيدرالي السويسري لعلوم وتقنيات المياه
ترجمة وتعريب مؤسسة بناء
المُلخص التنفيذي

حَوْض الترسيب Settler (أو المُرسّب) هو عبارة عن تقنية للمُعالجة الابتدائية لمياه الصرف الصحي. وهو مُصمم لإزالة العوالق الصلبة عن طريق الترسيب. ويُمكن أيضًا أن يُشار إليه على أنه خزَّان الترسيب، أو المُرَوِّق. إن انخفاض سرعة جريان (تدفق) المياه في حَوْض الترسيب تسمَح للجزيئات القابلة للترسيب بالنزول إلى القاع، بينما تطفو المُكونات الأخف من الماء على السطح.

تُستخدم عملية الترسيب أيضًا لإزالة الحصى ، وتستخدم للترويق الثانوي في عمليات المُعالجة بالحمأة المُنشطة، وبعد عمليات التخثير (الترويب)/الترسيب الكيميائي أو لتكثيف الحمأة. هذا الملف يُناقش استخدام أحواض الترسيب كمُرَوِّقات ابتدائية، والتي عادةً ما يتم تركيبها بعد تقنية المُعالجة الأولية.

يُمكن لأحواض الترسيب أن تُحقق خفضًا كبيرًا للعوالق الصلبة (إزالة ما بين 50% إلى 70%) وخفضًا للمواد العضوية (إزالة للاحتياج الحيوي للأكسجين ما بين 20% الي 40%) والتأكد من عدم إعاقة هذه المكونات لعمليات المُعالجة التالية.

تأخذ أحواض الترسيب (المرسبات) أشكال عديدة، إذ تقوم في بعض الأحيان بوظائف إضافية. ويُمكن أن تكون خزَّانات مستقلة، أو أن يتم دمجها في وحدة المُعالجة جنبًا إلى جنب مع تقنيات أخرى عديدة. في هذا الكتاب، تم ذكر العديد من التقنيات التي لديها وظيفة الترسيب الابتدائي، أو تتضمن جزءًا للترسيب الابتدائي:

• خزَّان التحليل (التخمير) ، حيث يتم إزالة الحمأة بمعدل منخفض مما يؤدي إلى التَحَلُّل اللاهوائي للحمأة.

• المُفاعل ذو الحواجز اللاهوائي والمُرشِّح اللاهوائي يشتمل كلاهما -عادةً- على أحواض ترسيب كجزء أولي. ومع ذلك، يُمكن أيضًا أن يُبنى حَوْض الترسيب بشكل منفصل عن المُفاعل، على سبيل المثال، في محطات البلدية لمُعالجة مياه الصرف الصحي (محطات مُعالجة المجاري) أو في حالة الوحدات مُسبَقة الصنع.

• مُفاعل الغاز الحيوي والذي يُمكن اعتباره حَوْض ترسيب مُصمم للهضم اللاهوائي وإنتاج الغازالحيوي.

• حَوْض إمْهُوف ومُفاعل التدفق العلوي اللاهوائي عبر طبقة الحمأة مُصممان لهضم الحمأة المترسبة، ومنع الغازات أو جزيئات الحمأة في القسم السفلي من الدخول/العودة إلى القسم العلوي.

• بِرك تثبيت المُخلفات السائلة (الأكسدة) ، والتي تُستخدم فيها البِركة الأولى اللاهوائية كبِركة ترسيب.

• بِرك الترسيب والتكثيف والتي تم تصميمها لفصل المواد الصلبة عن المواد السائلة في حمأة مياه المجاري.

• شبكات الصرف الصحي الخالية من المواد الصلبة والتي تحتوي على خزَّانات فاصلة على مستوي المبنى.

 

المزايا
تقنية بسيطة ومتينة.
إزالة فَعَّالة للعوالق.
تكاليف رأس المال والتشغيل مُنخفضة نسبيًّا.
العيوب
يتطلب إزالة للحمأة باستمرار.
تتطلب التدفقات السائلة الخارجة، والحمأة، والخبث مزيدًا من المُعالجة.
القصر (اختصار المياه لمسارها في الحَوْض) يُمكن أن يُسَبِّب مشكلة.
المُدخلات المُخرَجات

المياة السوداء , المياة البنية , المياة الرمادية

التدفقات السائلة الخاجة , الحمأة

Factsheet Block Title
المُلاءَمَة
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 يتم اختيار التقنية المناسبة لترسيب المواد الصلبة حسب: حجم ونوع المُنشأة، وتركيز مياه الصرف الصحي، والقُدرات الإدارية، والرغبة في عملية المُعالجة اللاهوائية، سواء كان بإنتاج أو بدون إنتاج للغاز الحيوي.

التقنيات التي تتضمن أحد أنواع الترسيب الابتدائي )المذكورة أعلاه) لا تحتاج إلى حَوْض ترسيب منفصل، ومع ذلك تتطلب العديد من تقنيات المُعالجة إزالةً تمهيدية للمواد الصلبة لكي تعمل بشكل صحيح.

على الرغم من أن إنشاء خزَّان الترسيب الابتدائي -غالبًا ما- يتم التغاضي عنه في محطات مُعالجة الحمأة المُنشطة، لكنَّهُ مُهم بالنسبة للتقنيات التي تستخدم مواد للترشيح. ويُمكن أيضًا أن يتم تركيب أحواض الترسيب كأحواض لتخزين مياه الأمطار لإزالة جزء من المواد الصلبة العضوية التي -من غير ذلك- كان سيتم تصريفها مُباشرة في البيئة.

 

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اعتبارات التصميم
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الغرض الرئيسي من حَوْض الترسيب هو تسهيل عملية الترسيب عن طريق تقليل سرعة واضطرابات مجرى مياه الصرف الصحي. أحواض الترسيب هي خزَّانات دائرية أو مستطيلة الشكل وعادةً ما تكون مُصممة لزمن بقاء هيدروليكي  HRT   من1.5 إلى 2.5 ساعة، ويقل الزمن المطلوب عندما لا تُوجد حاجة إلى تخفيض مستوى الاحتياج الحيوي للأكسجين BOD بشكل كبير من أجل المُعالجة الحيوية التالية. وينبغي تصميم الخزَّان لضمان أداءٍ مُرضٍ عند ذروة التدفق )التدفق الأقصى(. ولمنع التيارات الدوامية والقصر Short-circuiting، فضلًا عن الاحتفاظ بالخَبَث )الزَبَد( الطَّافي داخل الحَوْض؛ فإن المُنشأة ذات المدخل والمخرج الجيدين وذات النظام الفعَّال للتوزيع والجمع )حواجز، هدّارات، أو أنابيب على شكل حرف (Tتُعتبر مهمة.

اعتمادًا على التصميم يُمكن إزالة ونزح الحمأة من الحَوْض باستخدام مضخات يدوية، أو مضخات تعمل بالرفع بالهواء، أو مضخات شفط، أو عن طريق الجاذبية باستخدام فتحة في القاع. وغالبًا ما تكون أحواض الترسيب الكبيرة مُجهزة بكساحات ميكانيكية لجمع الحمأة، والتي تكسح باستمرار المواد الصلبة المُترسبة تجاه قُمع )قادوس) تجميع الحمأة في قاعدة الخزَّان، والذي منه يتم ضخ الحمأة إلى مرافق المُعالجة. ويُسهّل الخزَّان ذو القاع المائل بدرجة كافية من عملية إزالة الحمأة. ويمكن أيضًا إزالة الخبث)الزَبَد( يدويًّا أو بنظام تجميع.

كفاءة أحواض الترسيب الابتدائية تعتمد على عوامل مختلفة مثل: خصائص مياه الصرف الصحي، وزمن البقاء الهيدروليكي، ومعدل سحب الحمأة. وممكن أن تنخفض الكفاءة نتيجة الرياح )الدوامات الهوائية التي تُسببها الرياح فوق سطح حَوْض الترسيب(، وانتقال الحرارة وتيارات الكثافة نتيجة اختلاف درجات الحرارة، والتطبق الحراري في المناخات الحارة؛ ومن الممكن أن تؤدي هذه الظواهر إلى دوائر القصر )اختصار المياه لمسارها في الحَوْض(

تتواجد إمكانيات عديدة لتحسين أداء أحواض الترسيب مثل الألواح المائلة Lamella ألواح أو أنابيب مائلة متوازية تُصنَع من البلاستيك أو الصُّلب المقاوم للصدأ، وتوضع في الحَوْض لتحسين ترسب الجسيمات، مما يزيد من مساحة سطح الترسيب، واستخدام المُروّبات )المُخثِّرات( الكيميائية.

 

Factsheet Block Title
الجوانب الصِّحية / القبول
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 لمنع انبعاث الغازات المسببة للرائحة فإنه من الضروري إزالة الحمأة باستمرار. ويجب التعامل مع الحمأة والخبث الطَّافي )الزَبَد( بعناية؛ لأنهما يحتويان على مستويات عالية من الكائنات الحية المُسببة للأمراض؛ حيث يحتاجان إلى مزيد من المُعالجة والتخلص المُناسب. وارتداء الملابس الواقية المُناسبة أمر ضروري للعمال الذين قد يقومون بالتعامل المباشر مع التدفقات السائلة الخارجة )المُعالجة( والخبث أوالحمأة.

 

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التشغيل والصيانة
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الإزالة المُنتظمة للحمأة ضرورية؛ لمنع ظهور ظروف التخمير أو التعفن )التحلل اللاهوائي( وتجميع الغازات وصعودها الأمر الذي يؤدي إلى إعاقة عملية الترسيب عن طريق إعادة رفع جزء من المواد الصلبة العالقة التي تم ترسيبها. ويصعب إزالة الحمأة التي انتقلت إلى السطح بواسطة فقاعات الغازات المُتكونة وقد تمر إلى مرحلة المُعالجة التالية.

الإزالة المستمرة للخبث، والمُعالجة/التخلص منه بطريقة مناسبة، سواء مع الحمأة أو بصورة منفصلة عنها هو أمر ضروري جدًّا.

المراجع

المعالجة البيولوجية لمياه الصرف الصحى المبادئ وأعمال النمذجة والتصميم

موجن هينز واخرون ترجمة مصطفى سمير موسى -نضال جودت محمود (2008): المعالجة البيولوجية لمياه الصرف الصحى المبادئ وأعمال النمذجة والتصميم. IWA Publishing URL

Language: Arabic

Biogas Production in Climates with long cold Winters

This study analyses the feasibility and potential production of biogas in countries with a cold climate, with emphasis on Romania, Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, Kazakhstan and Armenia. The results are compared with China, Nepal and Bolivia. The study also carefully reviews existing literature before suggesting the same technology for the colder target communities. It also contains recommendations on whether to use the plants on household or community level afterwards.

BALASUBRAMANIYAM, U. ZISENGWE, L.S. MERIGGI, N. BUYSMAN, E. (2008): Biogas Production in Climates with long cold Winters. Wageningen: Wageningen University URL [Accessed: 31.05.2019]

Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems

Decentralised wastewater management presents a comprehensive approach to the design of both conventional and innovative systems for the treatment and disposal of wastewater or the reuse of treaded effluent. Smaller treatment plants, which are the concern of most new engineers, are the primary focus of this book.

CRITES, R. TCHOBANOGLOUS, G. (1998): Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc

Wastewater Treatment Manuals – Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Treatment

This manual on Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Treatment sets out the general principles and practices which should be followed by those involved in the treatment of urban waste water. It provides criteria and procedures for the proper management, maintenance, supervision, operation and use of the processes and equipment required for the secondary treatment of wastewater

EPA (1997): Wastewater Treatment Manuals – Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Treatment. Wexford: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) URL [Accessed: 28.08.2014]

Faecal Sludge Management. Lecture Notes

This module pays special attention to the haulage, treatment and reuse or disposal of faecal sludge. It covers both technical and non-technical (socio-cultural, economic, political etc.) aspects and provides practical information on design, financing and planning of faecal sludge treatment plants.

EAWAG/SANDEC (2008): Faecal Sludge Management. Lecture Notes. (= Sandec Training Tool 1.0, Module 5 ). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 23.05.2012]

Anaerobic Versus Aerobic Treatment in the USA

This study evaluated the feasibility of using anaerobic pre-treatment before aerobic polishing treatment for high-strength industrial wastewater (BOD values ranging form 200 to 5000 mg/L). The results indicated an economic feasibility at water strengths above 1000 mg/L, but treatability evaluation would be required for every specific industrial wastewater to confirm the technical feasibility.

ECKENFELDER, W.W. ; PATOZKA, J.B. ; PULLIAM, G.W. (1988): Anaerobic Versus Aerobic Treatment in the USA. المُدخلات: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium of Anaerobic Digestion: , 105-114 . URL [Accessed: 05.08.2010]

Biogas Technology - A Training Manual for Extension

This manual contains a complete set of training materials on various topics around the large-scale dissemination of domestic (agricultural) biogas systems, including a system approach to biogas technology, biogas programmes, reuse of slurry, subsidy and institutional financing, quality standards and monitoring and evaluation issues.

FAO (1996): Biogas Technology - A Training Manual for Extension. Support for Development of National Biogas Programme (FAO/TCP/NEP/4451-T) . Consolidated Management Services Nepal (P) Ltd. and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) URL [Accessed: 19.04.2010]

Decentralised anaerobic digestion of market waste. Case study in Thiruvananthapuram, India

Decentralized anaerobic digestion is a promising technology to handle the large organic fraction of the municipal solid waste with the additional benefit of producing biogas as well as fertilizer. In this study a market level biogas plant in Thiruvananthapuram, South India and constructed by a NGO called BIOTECH is monitored and evaluated.

HEEB, F. (2009): Decentralised anaerobic digestion of market waste. Case study in Thiruvananthapuram, India. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG) URL [Accessed: 31.05.2019]

Biogas Basics

The information service on biogas technology has been developed and produced on the behalf of the GTZ project Information and Advisory Service on Appropriate Technology (ISAT). Volume I tells you all you need to get an overview on biogas sanitation systems, from history over process and operation parameters to social, political and cultural issues.

ISAT ; GTZ (1999): Biogas Basics. (= Biogas Digest , 1 ). Information and Advisory Services on Appropriate Technology (ISAT) and German Agency for Technical Cooperation GmbH (GTZ) URL [Accessed: 03.06.2019]

Guidelines on the Use of Urine and Faeces in Crop Production

These guidelines provide a thorough background on the use of urine (and faeces) for agricultural purposes. Aspects discussed are requirements for plant growth, nutrients in excreta, hygiene aspects, and recommendations for cultivation. It provides detailed guidance on the use of urine for purposes.

JOENSSON, H. RICHERT, A. VINNERAAS, B. SALOMON, E. (2004): Guidelines on the Use of Urine and Faeces in Crop Production. (= EcoSanRes Publications Series , 2004 ). Stockholm: EcoSanRes URL [Accessed: 17.04.2012]

Biogas Sanitation Systems

This PDF-presentation gives a good introduction to biogas sanitation as a sustainable and ecological sanitation approach. Basic principles and main features are illustrated. Some design considerations are also addressed.

MANG, H. P. (2005): Biogas Sanitation Systems. (= Ecological sanitation course ). Beijing: Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering

Technology Review of Biogas Sanitation

This document provides an overview and introduction on biogas sanitation (anaerobic digestion) for blackwater or for brown water, or excreta treatment for reuse in developing countries. The main technologies discussed are biogas settlers (BSs), biogas septic tanks, anaerobic baffled reactor (ABRs), anaerobic filter (AFs) and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors (UASBs).

MANG, H.-P. LI, Z. (2010): Technology Review of Biogas Sanitation. (= Technology Review ). Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]

Greywater Management in Low and Middle-Income Countries, Review of Different Treatment Systems for Households or Neighbourhoods

This report compiles international experience in greywater management on household and neighbourhood level in low and middle-income countries. The documented systems, which vary significantly in terms of complexity, performance and costs, range from simple systems for single-house applications (e.g. local infiltration or garden irrigation) to rather complex treatment trains for neighbourhoods (e.g. series of vertical and horizontal-flow planted soil filters).

MOREL, A. DIENER, S. (2006): Greywater Management in Low and Middle-Income Countries, Review of Different Treatment Systems for Households or Neighbourhoods. (= SANDEC Report No. 14/06 ). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 27.05.2019]

Overview of anaerobic treatment options for sustainable sanitation systems

PDF presentation about condominium-level biogas digesters for the transformation of human faeces. Biogas basics as well as two case studies (from Germany and India) are presented.

MUENCH, E. (2008): Overview of anaerobic treatment options for sustainable sanitation systems. المُدخلات: BGR Symposium "Coupling Sustainable Sanitation and Groundwater Protection": URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019]

How to Design Wastewater Systems for Local Conditions in Developing Countries

This manual provides guidance in the design of wastewater systems in developing country settings. It promotes a context-specific approach to technology selection by guiding the user to select the most suitable technologies for their area. It provides tools and field guides for source characterization and site evaluation, as well as technology identification and selection. This manual is primarily addressed to private and public sector service providers, regulators and engineers/development specialists in charge of implementing wastewater systems.

ROBBINS, D.M. LIGON, G.C. (2014): How to Design Wastewater Systems for Local Conditions in Developing Countries. London: International Water Association (IWA) URL [Accessed: 20.01.2015]

Biogas Plants

This rather old document still gives a good overview on biogas technology. It is intended to help designers of a biogas plant to be able to distinguish between valid and invalid solutions.

SASSE, L. (1988): Biogas Plants. German Appropriate Technology Exchange (GATE) and German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 15.05.2012]

Treatment of sludge from domestic on-site sanitation systems, septic tanks and latrines. Septage

A DEWATS system for the treatment of faecal sludge from on-site sanitation is presented. It comprises an anaerobic digester (where biogas is produced), an anaerobic stabilisation reactor, an anaerobic baffled reactor and an aerobic gravel filter.

SCHMIDT, A. (2005): Treatment of sludge from domestic on-site sanitation systems, septic tanks and latrines. Septage. Bremen: Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA)

Guidelines on the Safe Use of Urine and Faeces in Ecological Sanitation Systems

These guidelines provide a thorough background on the safe use of urine and faeces for agricultural purposes. Aspects like the health risk associated we the use of human excreta in agriculture and how to limit them are discussed.

SCHOENNING, C. STENSTROEM, T.A. (2004): Guidelines on the Safe Use of Urine and Faeces in Ecological Sanitation Systems. (= EcoSanRes Publication Series ). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI)

Etat des Lieux et Suivie de la Station d'Epuration du CREPA-Siege: Evaluation des Performances épuratoires en Comparaison avec les Stations de Lagunage du 2iE et de Kossodo

SPUHLER, D. (2006): Etat des Lieux et Suivie de la Station d'Epuration du CREPA-Siege: Evaluation des Performances épuratoires en Comparaison avec les Stations de Lagunage du 2iE et de Kossodo. Ouagadougou: Réseau CREPA (Centre Régional Pour l'Eau Potable et l'Assainissement à faible couts)

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Chapter 4. Wastewater Technologies

Comprehensive overview (in form of factsheets) on the different components of wastewater treatment systems (collection, transfer, onsite treatment, centralised and decentralised treatment, reuse, sludge management and disposal) adapted to the Caribbean Region. Industrial wastewater treatment is also discussed.

UNEP (2004): Chapter 4. Wastewater Technologies. المُدخلات: UNEP (2004): A Directory of Environmentally Sound Technologies for the Integrated Management of Solid, Liquid and Hazardous Waste for SIDS in the Caribbean Region. Nairobi: 63-125.

Environmentally sound technologies in wastewater treatment for the implementation of the UNEP/GPA "Guidelines on Municipal Wastewater Management"

Technical information on environmentally sound technologies in wastewater treatment.

UNEP ; MURDOCH UNIVERSITY (2004): Environmentally sound technologies in wastewater treatment for the implementation of the UNEP/GPA "Guidelines on Municipal Wastewater Management". The Hague: United Nations Environment Programme Global Programme of Action (UNEP/GPA), Coordination Office

Document 8, Data Management Document, Appendix S 06 - Energy Research

This document provided by Waste Refinery Australia Project Association Inc. contains information on biogas, different types of cogeneration (CHP) and district heating. Additionally there are also facts and information on hydronics and gas flare.

WRAPAI (2009): Document 8, Data Management Document, Appendix S 06 - Energy Research. Australia: Waste Refinery Australia Project Association Incorporated (WRAPAI)

Biogas Plants in Animal Husbandry

This guide addresses the planners and providers of stock-farming and agricultural-extension services in developing countries. It is intended to serve as a source of information on the potentials of and prerequisites for biogas technology: a decision-making and planning aid for the construction and dissemination of biogas plants: a book of reference for information on practical experience and detailed data.

WERNER, U. STOEHR, U. HEES., N. (1989): Biogas Plants in Animal Husbandry. German Appropriate Technology Exchange (GATE) and German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH

The Development and Use of Biogas Technology in Rural Areas of Asia (A Status Report 1981). Improving Soil Fertility through Organic Recycling

YADAVA, L. S. HESSE, P. R. (1981): The Development and Use of Biogas Technology in Rural Areas of Asia (A Status Report 1981). Improving Soil Fertility through Organic Recycling. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and United Nations Development Program (UNEP)
قراءات أخرى

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

Environmental Impact of Household Biogas Pants in India — Local and Global Perspective

In this study, the environmental impacts of biogas technology in India were studied when biogas as a cooking fuel substitutes bio-fuels (fuel wood, dung and crop residues) and fossil fuels (Kerosene and LPG)

ASIKAINEN, V. (2004): Environmental Impact of Household Biogas Pants in India — Local and Global Perspective. (= Master Thesis ). Jyvaskyla: University of Jyvaskyla

Biogas Production in Climates with long cold Winters

This study analyses the feasibility and potential production of biogas in countries with a cold climate, with emphasis on Romania, Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, Kazakhstan and Armenia. The results are compared with China, Nepal and Bolivia. The study also carefully reviews existing literature before suggesting the same technology for the colder target communities. It also contains recommendations on whether to use the plants on household or community level afterwards.

BALASUBRAMANIYAM, U. ZISENGWE, L.S. MERIGGI, N. BUYSMAN, E. (2008): Biogas Production in Climates with long cold Winters. Wageningen: Wageningen University URL [Accessed: 31.05.2019]

Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems

Decentralised wastewater management presents a comprehensive approach to the design of both conventional and innovative systems for the treatment and disposal of wastewater or the reuse of treaded effluent. Smaller treatment plants, which are the concern of most new engineers, are the primary focus of this book.

CRITES, R. TCHOBANOGLOUS, G. (1998): Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc

Report on the Feasibility Study for a Biogas Support Programme in the Republic of Rwanda

This report presents the findings of a study conducted by Ministry of Agriculture (MININFRA) and SNV to assess the feasibility to set-up and implement a national programme on domestic biogas in Rwanda.

DEKELVER, G. RUZIGANA, S. LAM, J. (2005): Report on the Feasibility Study for a Biogas Support Programme in the Republic of Rwanda. Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV) URL [Accessed: 09.04.2010]

Faecal Sludge Management. Lecture Notes

This module pays special attention to the haulage, treatment and reuse or disposal of faecal sludge. It covers both technical and non-technical (socio-cultural, economic, political etc.) aspects and provides practical information on design, financing and planning of faecal sludge treatment plants.

EAWAG/SANDEC (2008): Faecal Sludge Management. Lecture Notes. (= Sandec Training Tool 1.0, Module 5 ). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 23.05.2012]

Feasability Study for a National Domestic Biogas Programme in Burkina Faso

This feasibility study resumes the current situation in Burkina Faso regarding social aspects, water and energy issues, agricultural and livestock sector activities, sanitation and environmental topics. It analyses the technical feasibility of currently available biogas digester designs for standardization and massive dissemination in the context of Burkina Faso. Also an outline of a National Domestic Biogas Programme is presented.

GTZ (2007): Feasability Study for a National Domestic Biogas Programme in Burkina Faso. German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 21.04.2010]

Technology Review of Biogas Sanitation

This document provides an overview and introduction on biogas sanitation (anaerobic digestion) for blackwater or for brown water, or excreta treatment for reuse in developing countries. The main technologies discussed are biogas settlers (BSs), biogas septic tanks, anaerobic baffled reactor (ABRs), anaerobic filter (AFs) and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors (UASBs).

MANG, H.-P. LI, Z. (2010): Technology Review of Biogas Sanitation. (= Technology Review ). Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]

Greywater Management in Low and Middle-Income Countries, Review of Different Treatment Systems for Households or Neighbourhoods

This report compiles international experience in greywater management on household and neighbourhood level in low and middle-income countries. The documented systems, which vary significantly in terms of complexity, performance and costs, range from simple systems for single-house applications (e.g. local infiltration or garden irrigation) to rather complex treatment trains for neighbourhoods (e.g. series of vertical and horizontal-flow planted soil filters).

MOREL, A. DIENER, S. (2006): Greywater Management in Low and Middle-Income Countries, Review of Different Treatment Systems for Households or Neighbourhoods. (= SANDEC Report No. 14/06 ). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 27.05.2019]

Overview of anaerobic treatment options for sustainable sanitation systems

PDF presentation about condominium-level biogas digesters for the transformation of human faeces. Biogas basics as well as two case studies (from Germany and India) are presented.

MUENCH, E. (2008): Overview of anaerobic treatment options for sustainable sanitation systems. المُدخلات: BGR Symposium "Coupling Sustainable Sanitation and Groundwater Protection": URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019]

Sanitation Concepts for Separate Treatment of Urine, Faeces and Greywater (SCST) – Results

Report of a European project with the objective to develop new sustainable sanitation concepts that have significant ecological and economic advantages compared to conventional end-of-pipe-systems. For this purpose, a demonstration plant was constructed and analysed in order to generate experiences on design, installation and operation.

PETER-FROEHLICH, A. BONHOMME, A. OLDENBURG, M. (2007): Sanitation Concepts for Separate Treatment of Urine, Faeces and Greywater (SCST) – Results. EU-Demonstration project

How to Design Wastewater Systems for Local Conditions in Developing Countries

This manual provides guidance in the design of wastewater systems in developing country settings. It promotes a context-specific approach to technology selection by guiding the user to select the most suitable technologies for their area. It provides tools and field guides for source characterization and site evaluation, as well as technology identification and selection. This manual is primarily addressed to private and public sector service providers, regulators and engineers/development specialists in charge of implementing wastewater systems.

ROBBINS, D.M. LIGON, G.C. (2014): How to Design Wastewater Systems for Local Conditions in Developing Countries. London: International Water Association (IWA) URL [Accessed: 20.01.2015]

Marketing Compost. A Guide for Compost Producers in Low and Middle-Income Countries

This guide describes a marketing approach to composting, and is intended to help compost producers run more viable initiatives by unlocking the value of their product. The handbook does not cover everything there is to know about marketing, but starts with the basics and introduces the key principles and techniques. These include understanding the ‘marketing environment’, identifying appropriate target customer groups, and developing and promoting products to suit the market.

ROUSE ROTHENBERGER, S. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2008): Marketing Compost. A Guide for Compost Producers in Low and Middle-Income Countries. Duebendorf: Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC), Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science (EAWAG) URL [Accessed: 27.05.2019]

DEWATS linked Biogas

PDF-presentation on decentralised wastewater treatment systems (DEWATS) comprising a biogas settler; an anaerobic baffled reactor; a planted gravel filter and finally a storage tank for reuse for irrigation.

SINHA, S. (2005): DEWATS linked Biogas. (= PDF presentation ). Bangalore: Bremen Overseas Research and Development Agency (BORDA) India URL [Accessed: 13.04.2010]

BIOGAS and DEWATS, a perfect match?

The resources gained from DEWATS-linked biogas digesters (gas for cooking), when combined with adequate social interventions, have resulted in increased acceptance of the DEWATS installations by communities and institutions. Two case studies in Bangalore, India illustrate this approach of the Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA).

SINHA, S. KAZAGLIS, A. (n.y): BIOGAS and DEWATS, a perfect match?. Bremen: Bremen Overseas Research and Development Agency (BORDA) URL [Accessed: 13.04.2010]

Links between Sanitation, Climate Change and Renewable Energies

This factsheet of Sustainable Sanitation Alliance describes the impact of greenhouse gases on climate change and focuses on the advantages of renewable energies. Therefore many different technologies like production of biogas or short-rotation-plantations are mentioned.

SUSANA (2009): Links between Sanitation, Climate Change and Renewable Energies. Eschborn. (= SuSanA fact sheet 09/2009 ). Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]

Chapter 4. Wastewater Technologies

Comprehensive overview (in form of factsheets) on the different components of wastewater treatment systems (collection, transfer, onsite treatment, centralised and decentralised treatment, reuse, sludge management and disposal) adapted to the Caribbean Region. Industrial wastewater treatment is also discussed.

UNEP (2004): Chapter 4. Wastewater Technologies. المُدخلات: UNEP (2004): A Directory of Environmentally Sound Technologies for the Integrated Management of Solid, Liquid and Hazardous Waste for SIDS in the Caribbean Region. Nairobi: 63-125.

Anaerobic Digestion of Blackwater and Kitchen Refuse

Thesis assessing the anaerobic treatment of blackwater (toilet wastewater) from vacuum toilets without and with kitchen refuse and its potential for reuse and resources management sanitation concepts.

WENDLAND, C. (2008): Anaerobic Digestion of Blackwater and Kitchen Refuse. (PhD Thesis). (= Hamburger Berichte zur Siedlungswasserwirtschaft ). Hamburg: Institut fuer Abwasserwirtschaft und Gewaesserschutz (AWW), Technische Universitaet Hamburg-Hamburg (TUHH) URL [Accessed: 11.03.2010]
حالات دراسية

Biogas Plants Based on Night Soil

The government of India started its biogas development project in 1981 as one of its programs designed to meet rural energy needs, especially for cooking. One of the solutions to the problem was the introduction of the concept of pay-and-use toilets championed by the Sulabh International Social Service Organisation, a non-profit voluntary organisation pioneering in the field of sanitation in India. The biogas generated is used largely for public lighting. Sulabh community toilets linked to biogas plants are generating energy and fertilizer, and some of them have attached health care facilities as well.

APEIS (2003): Biogas Plants Based on Night Soil. Asia-Pacific Environmental Innovation Strategies (APEIS), Research on Innovative and Strategic Policy Options (RISPO). (=Good Practices Inventory). Sulabh International and Agency for Non Conventional Energy and Rural Technology (ANERT)

Biogas plants providing sanitation and cooking fuel in Rwanda

The Kigali Institute of Science, Technology and Management (KIST) has developed and installed large-scale biogas plants in prisons in Rwanda to treat toilet wastes and generate biogas for cooking. After the treatment, the bio-effluent is used as fertiliser for production of crops and fuel wood.

ASHDEN (2005): Biogas plants providing sanitation and cooking fuel in Rwanda. London: The Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy URL [Accessed: 13.04.2010]

Decentralized Wastewater Treatment System -DEWATS. Animal Products Development Center, Bureau of Animal Industry (APDC-BAI)

The Animal Products Development Centre, Bureau of Animal Industry (APDC-BAI) together with Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA) jointly developed this DEWATS system in the view of a resources-saving and environmental friendly management of slaughterhouses and meat processing wastes in the Philippines. The system comprises a closed small-scale sewer system, an anaerobic digester, an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), an anaerobic filter (AF) and an aerobic planted filter as a final step to reduce odours.

BORDA (2008): Decentralized Wastewater Treatment System -DEWATS. Animal Products Development Center, Bureau of Animal Industry (APDC-BAI). (= Sustainable Sanitation – Project Data Sheet ). Bremen: Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA)

Anaerobic technology for toilet wastes management: the case study of the Cyangugu pilot project

This article addresses the potential of anaerobic technology in the treatment and management of toilet wastes at schools, camps and prisons. It is based on the pilot project that was set up at Cyangugu prison in October 2000, Kigali, Rwanda.

BUTARE, A. ; KIMARO, A. (2002): Anaerobic technology for toilet wastes management: the case study of the Cyangugu pilot project. المُدخلات: World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education: Volume 1 , 147-152.

Biogas from Sewage and Residual Waters in an Educational Institution, Ecuador

The project built a biogas digester in a School in Ecuador into which human and animal waste is deposited in order to produce biogas (methane), and fertilizer. During the school year, the waste of 500 people is required to operate the system effectively. During the summer, manure from surrounding farms and vegetable matter is used.

GEF (n.y): Biogas from Sewage and Residual Waters in an Educational Institution, Ecuador. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) Small Scale Grants Programme, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) URL [Accessed: 28.04.2010]

Sanitary Block - Biogas Plant. Fundamentals of Ecological Planning and Building

This poster presents a sanitary block in Ghana. The wastewater and nutrient concept for the sanitary block includes the separation of the different flow streams, such as pure urine, urine-water mixture, blackwater and greywater, in order to optimise the system design and to collect the urine and urine-water mixture as a fertiliser. Blackwater is treated in a fixed-dome biogas settler.

GLUECKLICH, D. FRIES, N. (n.y): Sanitary Block - Biogas Plant. Fundamentals of Ecological Planning and Building. Weimar: Bauhaus-Universitaet Weimar

Recycling and reuse of human excreta from public toilets through biogas generation to improve sanitation, community health and environment

This paper has been written by the Director General Sulabh International Academy of Environmental Sanitation, which is well known for the installations of over 100 biogas linked public toilets in India. It gives an overview on the Sulabh approach and deals with many issues in brief way, including technical, social and economical aspects.

JHA, P.K. (n.y): Recycling and reuse of human excreta from public toilets through biogas generation to improve sanitation, community health and environment. New Delhi: Sulabh International Academy of Environmental Sanitation URL [Accessed: 12.08.2010]

Biogas - Country Reports

The information service on biogas technology has been developed and produced on the behalf of the GTZ project Information and Advisory Service on Appropriate Technology (ISAT). Volume IV summarises over 20 case studies from biogas sanitation as an appropriate technology in developing countries.

ISAT ; GTZ (1999): Biogas - Country Reports. (= Biogas Digest , 4 ). Information and Advisory Services on Appropriate Technology (ISAT) and German Agency for Technical Cooperation GmbH (GTZ). [Accessed: 19.04.2010] PDF

Urban Ecological Sanitation – Kuching is paving the way

This document tells us about the pilot project carried out by NREB at Hui Sing Garden, Kuching, Sarawak. It talks about the holistic approach towards integration of ecological sanitation and waste water treatment processes applied at a city level to fight the problem of river water pollution.

MARTIN, C. (2005): Urban Ecological Sanitation – Kuching is paving the way. Sarawak (Malaysia): Natural Resources and Environment Board (NREB) URL [Accessed: 20.03.2014]

Biogas Systems

During the last years a number of biogas systems have been installed as part of sanitation systems. Issue 9 of Sustainable Sanitation Practice (SSP) on „Biogas systems“ shows successful examples. The first paper presents results from a study in Kerala, India, for digesters on a household level. The second paper shows the results of a long-term implementation program for biogas systems in Lesotho. The third paper presents first results of a digester constructed in a small village in Morocco.

MUELLEGGER, E. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; LECHNER, M. (2011): Biogas Systems. (= Sustainable Sanitation Practice , 9 ). EcoSan Club URL [Accessed: 24.10.2011]

Ten years of operational experiences with the ecosan-biogas plant at a family-owned farm and restaurant in Germany

Case study form a agricultural complex (containing farm, restaurant and slaughter house), which uses an integrated concept where wastewater and waste of the entire farm (agricultural activity, households, slaughter house and restaurant) are beneficially reused in a biogas plant. Today, about 10% of the German agricultural biogas plants are co-digesting household sewage along with the animal wastes. Unfortunately, the European standard for organic agriculture is not (yet) allowing this practise for certified agriculture.

MUENCH, E. MANG, H.P. SCHULTES, G. PANESAR, A. (2005): Ten years of operational experiences with the ecosan-biogas plant at a family-owned farm and restaurant in Germany. (= 3rd International Conference on Ecological Sanitation 23 - 26 May 2005, Durban, South Africa ). Pretoria: Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) URL [Accessed: 13.04.2010]

Ecological housing estate, Flintenbreite, Luebeck, Germany - draft

In the Flintenbreite in Luebeck, Germany, blackwater is collected in vacuum toilets. Together with organic wastes from the kitchen it is converted to biogas. Greywater is treated in a reed-bed filter. The project demonstrated the consistent utilisation of ecological building materials, the use of self-sustaining, integrated energy and wastewater concepts, and the implementation of innovative energy saving technologies, with a minimisation of interference in nature, and a responsible, integrative and active cohabitation of the inhabitants.

OTTER-WASSER (2009): Ecological housing estate, Flintenbreite, Luebeck, Germany - draft. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 27.05.2019]

Public toilet with biogas plant and water kiosk, Naivasha, Kenya

A sanitation unit (toilet, hand wash basins, a urinal and showers) and a water kiosk were constructed for a public bus park (design sale was 1000 visitors per day). This projects aimed to improve living conditions of the residents and travellers by providing environmentally-friendly sanitation solutions with a focus on the reuse of the human waste as a resource and to find a business-oriented solution that creates economic incentives for the water sector institutions to invest in sanitation and to generate income for private operators.

RIECK, C. ONYANGO, P. (2010): Public toilet with biogas plant and water kiosk, Naivasha, Kenya. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 12.12.2012]

DEWATS linked Biogas

PDF-presentation on decentralised wastewater treatment systems (DEWATS) comprising a biogas settler; an anaerobic baffled reactor; a planted gravel filter and finally a storage tank for reuse for irrigation.

SINHA, S. (2005): DEWATS linked Biogas. (= PDF presentation ). Bangalore: Bremen Overseas Research and Development Agency (BORDA) India URL [Accessed: 13.04.2010]

Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste in Developing Countries

This book published by Eawag/Sandec compiles existing and recently generated knowledge on anaerobic digestion of urban biowaste at small and medium scale with special consideration given to the conditions prevailing in developing countries. Written for actors working in the waste and renewable energy sector, the book is divided into two parts: Part 1 focuses on practical information related to the anaerobic digestion supply chain (substrate-, process-, and product chain), and Part 2 presents selected case studies from around the world.

VOEGELI, Y. LOHRI, C.R. GALLARDO, A. DIENER, S. ZURBRUEGG, C. EAWAG (2014): Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste in Developing Countries. Practical Information and Case Studies. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.05.2019]

Pour-flush toilets with biogas plant at DSK Training Institute. Gujarat, India - Draft

The project described aimed at avoiding manual scavenging of faecal products and at improving the sanitation situation at the Navsarjan Vocational Training Institute. Now greywater is separately treated and reused in the garden while the urine and faeces (blackwater) are directly introduced into a biogas plant. Digested sludge is dried on basic drying beds and used as compost for the garden. UDDTs were also installed. The concept was implemented and evaluated for its social and cultural acceptability, sustainable and hygienic safety.

WAFLER, M. HEEB, J. STAUB, A. OLT, C. (2009): Pour-flush toilets with biogas plant at DSK Training Institute. Gujarat, India - Draft. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 25.04.2010]

Integrated systems on biogas production, non-polluted agricultural production and sanitation in rural China

This paper introduces three typical biogas systems which regard anaerobic fermentation of human and animal “wastes” as a key technology, and which link sanitation and biogas production with agricultural use of digested effluents.

XIANGJUN, Y. ; WANG, H. (2003): Integrated systems on biogas production, non-polluted agricultural production and sanitation in rural China. المُدخلات: Proceedings of the 2nd international symposium, F. 7th-11th April, Luebeck, Germany: , 601-606.

Decentralized Wastewater Management at Adarsh College, Badalapur, Maharashtra, India

This case study reports the development of an ecologically sound sanitation concept at the Adarsh Bidyaprasarak Sanstha's College of Arts & Commerce. In comprises separate urine collection and a DEWATS system for the treatment of black- and greywater consisting of a biogas settler, an anaerobic baffled reactor and an anaerobic filter, a horizontal flow constructed wetland and a polishing pond.

ZIMMERMANN, N. WAFLER, M. (2009): Decentralized Wastewater Management at Adarsh College, Badalapur, Maharashtra, India. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 25.04.2010]
مواد تدريبية

Webinar on Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Systems: Processes, Design, Management, and Use

US EPA Webinar on decentralized wastewater management with presentations on technical systems such as septic tanks and grease traps.

D’AMATO, V. (2010): Webinar on Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Systems: Processes, Design, Management, and Use. November 23: Focus on Decentralized Wastewater System Design: Part 1. (= Webinar Series ). Conservation Technology Information Center, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Tetra Tech URL [Accessed: 15.05.2014]

Faecal Sludge Management. Lecture Notes

This module pays special attention to the haulage, treatment and reuse or disposal of faecal sludge. It covers both technical and non-technical (socio-cultural, economic, political etc.) aspects and provides practical information on design, financing and planning of faecal sludge treatment plants.

EAWAG/SANDEC (2008): Faecal Sludge Management. Lecture Notes. (= Sandec Training Tool 1.0, Module 5 ). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 23.05.2012]

Biogas Technology - A Training Manual for Extension

This manual contains a complete set of training materials on various topics around the large-scale dissemination of domestic (agricultural) biogas systems, including a system approach to biogas technology, biogas programmes, reuse of slurry, subsidy and institutional financing, quality standards and monitoring and evaluation issues.

FAO (1996): Biogas Technology - A Training Manual for Extension. Support for Development of National Biogas Programme (FAO/TCP/NEP/4451-T) . Consolidated Management Services Nepal (P) Ltd. and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) URL [Accessed: 19.04.2010]

Biogas - Application and Product Development

The information service on biogas technology has been developed and produced on the behalf of the GTZ project Information and Advisory Service on Appropriate Technology (ISAT). Volume II emphasises the design and operation of biogas plants.

ISAT ; GTZ (1999): Biogas - Application and Product Development. (= Biogas Digest , 2 ). Information and Advisory Services on Appropriate Technology (ISAT) and German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 03.06.2019]

Biogas Basics

The information service on biogas technology has been developed and produced on the behalf of the GTZ project Information and Advisory Service on Appropriate Technology (ISAT). Volume I tells you all you need to get an overview on biogas sanitation systems, from history over process and operation parameters to social, political and cultural issues.

ISAT ; GTZ (1999): Biogas Basics. (= Biogas Digest , 1 ). Information and Advisory Services on Appropriate Technology (ISAT) and German Agency for Technical Cooperation GmbH (GTZ) URL [Accessed: 03.06.2019]

Biogas - Country Reports

The information service on biogas technology has been developed and produced on the behalf of the GTZ project Information and Advisory Service on Appropriate Technology (ISAT). Volume IV summarises over 20 case studies from biogas sanitation as an appropriate technology in developing countries.

ISAT ; GTZ (1999): Biogas - Country Reports. (= Biogas Digest , 4 ). Information and Advisory Services on Appropriate Technology (ISAT) and German Agency for Technical Cooperation GmbH (GTZ). [Accessed: 19.04.2010] PDF

Biogas - Costs and Benefits and Biogas – Programme Implementation

This information service on biogas technology has been developed and produced on the order of the GTZ project Information and Advisory Service on Appropriate Technology (ISAT). Volume III discusses the micro- and macro-economic viability of biogas sanitation systems.

ISAT ; GTZ (1999): Biogas - Costs and Benefits and Biogas – Programme Implementation. (= Biogas Digest , 3 ). Information and Advisory Services on Appropriate Technology (ISAT) and German Agency for Technical Cooperation GmbH (GmbH) URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]

Biogas Sanitation Systems

This PDF-presentation gives a good introduction to biogas sanitation as a sustainable and ecological sanitation approach. Basic principles and main features are illustrated. Some design considerations are also addressed.

MANG, H. P. (2005): Biogas Sanitation Systems. (= Ecological sanitation course ). Beijing: Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering

Biogas Plants

This rather old document still gives a good overview on biogas technology. It is intended to help designers of a biogas plant to be able to distinguish between valid and invalid solutions.

SASSE, L. (1988): Biogas Plants. German Appropriate Technology Exchange (GATE) and German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 15.05.2012]

Improved Biogas Unit for Developing Countries

This booklet reflects seven years of experience of the Biogas Extension Service (BES) of CAMARTEC (Centre for Agricultural Mechanization and Rural Technology) in Arusha/Tanzania, which was carried out in cooperation with the GTZ from 1983 to 1986. It is meant as a teaching aid in agricultural colleges and as a reference book for professionals working in the field of rural biogas extension.

SASSE, L. (1991): Improved Biogas Unit for Developing Countries. German Appropriate Technology Exchange (GATE) and German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019]

DEWATS

Exhaustive report on technological, operational and economic aspects of decentralised waste water treatment systems. Spreadsheet examples support the reader in designing and planning waste water treatment systems components.

SASSE, L. BORDA (1998): DEWATS. Decentralised Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries. Bremen: Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA) URL [Accessed: 03.06.2019]

Treatment of sludge from domestic on-site sanitation systems, septic tanks and latrines. Septage

A DEWATS system for the treatment of faecal sludge from on-site sanitation is presented. It comprises an anaerobic digester (where biogas is produced), an anaerobic stabilisation reactor, an anaerobic baffled reactor and an aerobic gravel filter.

SCHMIDT, A. (2005): Treatment of sludge from domestic on-site sanitation systems, septic tanks and latrines. Septage. Bremen: Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA)

Philippines Sanitation Source Book and Decision Aid

This Sanitation Sourcebook distils some of the core concepts of sanitation in a user-friendly format so that the book can serve as a practical reference to sanitation professionals and investment decision-makers, particularly the local governments. The annexe contains a practical collection of factsheets on selected sanitation system options.

WSP (2007): Philippines Sanitation Source Book and Decision Aid. pdf presentation. Washington: Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). URL [Accessed: 01.06.2019]

Wastewater Treatment Manuals – Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Treatment

This manual on Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Treatment sets out the general principles and practices which should be followed by those involved in the treatment of urban waste water. It provides criteria and procedures for the proper management, maintenance, supervision, operation and use of the processes and equipment required for the secondary treatment of wastewater

EPA (1997): Wastewater Treatment Manuals – Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Treatment. Wexford: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) URL [Accessed: 28.08.2014]
مواد لنشر الوعي

Ecological Sanitation and Reuse of Wastewater. Ecosan. A Thinkpiece on ecological sanitation

This paper shows that there are comprehensive experiences and available technologies that meet new and sustainable sanitation requirements. Ecological sanitation constitutes a diversity of options for both rich and poor countries, from household level up to wastewater systems for mega-cities and needs to become recognised by decision-makers at all levels.

JENSSEN, P.D. HEEB, J. HUBA-MANG, E. GNANAKAN, K. WARNER, W. REFSGAARD, K. STENSTROEM, T.A. GUTERSTRAM, B. ALSEN, K.W. (2004): Ecological Sanitation and Reuse of Wastewater. Ecosan. A Thinkpiece on ecological sanitation. Norway: The Agricultural University of Norway URL [Accessed: 19.04.2010]

Anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater treatment

Technical information on the advantages and main technologies of anaerobic digestion treatment for wastewaters in developing countries.

NATURGERECHTE TECHNOLOGIEN ; Bau- und Wirtschaftsberatung (TBW) GmbH (2001): Anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater treatment. (= Technical Information W3e ). German Agency for Technical Cooperation GmbH (GTZ) and German Appropriate Technology Exchange (GATE) URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019]

Waste? Not

Critical article on conventional end-of-pipe wastewater approaches, introducing some alternatives such as biogas digester, arborloos or the fossa alterna.

TUHUS-DUBROW (2008): Waste? Not. المُدخلات: The Boston Globe: URL [Accessed: 21.02.2010]

Reuse of Energy (Biogas)

PPT presentation on the advantages of biogas reuse.

WAFLER, M. (2009): Reuse of Energy (Biogas). (PPT presentation). (= Ecosan Training Courses for TSC officials ). Wien: seecon international GmbH

Using Human Waste

This Technical Brief introduces the main issues one needs to consider to both control the process and optimize the benefits gained from using human waste, whilst minimizing the risks.

WELL (n.y): Using Human Waste. (= WELL Technical Briefs , 63 ). Loughborough: Water and Environmental health at London and Loughborough (WELL) URL [Accessed: 26.04.2010]

    This module introduces the importance of market-based RRR solutions. At the end of this module you have identified key challenges in your local sanitation and waste management system and a RRR-related business idea.

    Cover image Module  1

    This module sheds light on the importance of studying the business environment and its components like waste supply, market demand, competition and the institutional framework. At the end of this module you have gained insights to evaluating the potential of your business idea.

    Cover image Module  2

    This module shows how a business idea can be turned into a business model while putting a specific focus on understanding the customer and designing products that meet their needs. At the end of this module you will have developed a business model and positioned your offer in the market.

    Cover image Module  3

    This module focusses on planning the operations of a RRR related business. During this part RRR technologies will be introduced for different waste streams and tools for planning the production process. At the end of this module you will have blueprinted your production process and the required technology and production inputs.

    Cover image Module  4

    This module covers key aspects of financial planning and analysis. At the end of this module you will have forecasted your profits, cash flows, required investment and evaluated the financial viability of your business model.

    Cover image Module  5

    This module enables you to set objectives and plan activities for the launch of your RRR business and identify potential financing sources. At the end of this module you will have developed an action plan for launch and identified appropriate financing sources.

    Cover image Module  6

    Week 1: Identify challenges in your local sanitation & waste management

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    SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles

    This AGUASAN publication illustrates how the water and nutrient cycles can be used as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system and aligning it with SDG 6.

    BROGAN, J., ERLMANN, T., MUELLER, K. and SOROKOVSKYI, V. (2017): SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles. Using the water and nutrient cycles as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system - including workshop material. Bern (Switzerland): AGUASAN and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

    Why shit matters [Video File]

    TEDX TALKS (2019): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d4yD0kz34jg [Accessed: 28.03.2019]

    "3 billion people worldwide live in cities without sewers or wastewater treatment plant infrastructure. This forces them to dump their waste into open waters, contaminating the drinking water for others downstream. Imagine if we could harness nutrients in wastewater instead of harming human and environmental health. Christoph Lüthi sees a renewable, locally produced and growing resource where others see only human waste. Watch his talk to learn why shit matters! "

    Week 2: Identify RRR products and business opportunities

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    A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

    AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

    GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

    OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Week 1: Analyse waste supply

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    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 2: Analyse market demand

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    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 3: Analyse your competition

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    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 4: Analyse the institutional environment

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    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 1: Meet the Business Model Canvas

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    A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

    AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

    GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

    OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Week 1: Plan your production process

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    Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

    This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

    TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

    Week 2: Understand the treatment process

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    Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings

    LOHRI, C. R., DIENER, S., ZABALETA, I. MERTENAT, A. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2017): Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings. In: Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 81–130. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

    Week 3A: Design technology systems for nutrient recovery

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    Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery

    COFIE, O., NIKIEMA, J., IMPRAIM, R., ADAMTEY, N., PAUL, J. and KONÉ, D. (2016): Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 3. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Decentralized composting in India

    DRESCHER, S. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2004): Decentralized composting in India. In: Harper et al. Sustainable Composting: Case Studies in Guidelines for Developing Countries. Loughborough (UK): Water Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), Loughborough University, Part2: Case Studies, Chapter 3, pp.15-27. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

    Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives

    KARANJA, N., KWACH, H. and NJENGA, M. (2005): Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives. Nairobi (Kenya): UN-Habitat. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 3B: Design technology systems for energy recovery

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    Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market

    FERGUSON, H. (2012): Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market. London (UK): Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) International. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 3C: Design technology systems for water recovery

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    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Chapter 3 - Technology Selection

    VEENSTRA, S., ALAERTS, G. and BIJLSMA, M. (1997): Chapter 3 - Technology Selection. In: Helmer, R. and Hespanhol, I. (Eds). Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles. London (UK): World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects

    Volume I of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater focuses on policy, regulation and institutional arrangements. Accordingly, its intended readership is made up of policy-makers and those with regulatory responsibilities. It provides guidance on policy formulation, harmonisation and mainstreaming, on regulatory mechanisms and on establishing institutional links between the various interested sectors and parties. It also presents a synthesis of the key issues from Volumes II, III, and IV and the index for all four volumes as well as a glossary of terms used in all four volumes is presented in Annex 1.

    WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 10.04.2019]

    Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture

    Volume II of the Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater provides information on the assessment and management of risks associated with microbial hazards and toxic chemicals. It explains requirements to promote the safe use of wastewater in agriculture, including minimum procedures and specific health-based targets, and how those requirements are intended to be used. It also describes the approaches used in deriving the guidelines, including health-based targets, and includes a substantive revision of approaches to ensuring microbial safety.

    WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019] PDF

    Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture

    Volume III of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater deals with wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture and describes the present state of knowledge regarding the impact of wastewater-fed aquaculture on the health of producers, product consumers and local communities. It assesses the associated health risks and provides an integrated preventive management framework.

    WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]

    Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

    Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

    WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019] PDF

    Week 3: Analyse financial viability

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    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 1: Set objectives and plan activities for launch

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    Week 2: Finance the launch

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