2018 أبريل 27

مبولة

Applicable to

Application level

Not applicable

Management level

Not applicable

المُدخلات

Flushwater
Urine

المُخرَجات

Urine
+ Flushwater
المؤلف*
Eawag المعهد الفيدرالي السويسري لعلوم وتقنيات المياه
ترجمة وتعريب مؤسسة بناء

المُلخص التنفيذي

تُسخدم المبولة Urinal لتجميع البول فقط. وتُستخدم المباول عمومًا للرجال، بالرغم من تطوير بعض النماذج للنساء أيضًا. وتَستخدم معظم المباول المياه لأغراض التنظيف، إلا إن شعبية المباول التي لا تعمل بالمياه آخذة في الازدياد.

تتكون المباول النسائية من مكان مرتفع لوضع الأقدام وقناة منحدرة الميل -أو مُستجمع البول- لتُوصيل المياه إلى تقنية التجميع. بالنسبة للرجال فيمكن أن تكون المباول عبارة عن وحدات مُركبة رأسيًّا على الحائط، أو بلاطات أرضية يستعملها المُستخدم بالجلوس فوقها بوضعية القرفصاء. يمكن استخدام المبولة بالمياه أو بدونها، ويمكن تركيب أنابيب المياه -أعمال السباكة- وفقًا لذلك.

وإذا تم استخدام المياه فإنها تُستخدم بشكل أساسي في الغسيل وللحد من الروائح (باستخدام الحاجز المائي أو كوع الرائحة Water Seal).

المزايا
لا يتطلب وجود مصدر مياه ثابت.
يُمكن إنتاجه، وتركيبة، وصيانته بمواد متوفرة محليًّا.
تكاليف رأس المال والتشغيل مُنخفضة.
العيوب
قد تشكل الروائح مشكلة إذا لم يتم استخدامه وصيانته بالطريقة الصحيحة.
عدم تَوفُّر النماذج الخاصة بالنساء على نطاق واسع.
المُدخلات المُخرَجات

البول , مياة الدفق

البول + مياة الدفق

المُلاءَمَة

Factsheet Block Body

يمكن استخدام المباول في المنازل والمرافق العامة، وفي بعض الحالات يكون تزويد المكان بمبولة مفيدًا لمنع سوء استخدام الأنظمة الجافة  على سبيل المثال، مِرحاض جاف فاصل للبول. 

تم تطوير المباول المتنقلة غير المعتمدة على المياه ليتم استخدامها في الاحتفالات الكبيرة والحفلات الموسيقية والتجمعات الأخرى لتخفيف الضغط على مرافق الصرف الصحي، وتخفيض الحِمل الذي يتم تصريفة بها في هذه المناطق المُكدسة؛ وبهذه الطريقة يمكن جمع قدر كبير من البول -ومن الممكن استخدامه أو تفريغه في أماكن أو أوقات أكثر ملاءمة- وبذلك يمكن خفض أعداد المراحيض الثابتة في المكان أو استخدامها بكفاءة أفضل.

 

اعتبارات التصميم

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 بالنسبة للمباول القائمة على المياه فإن كمية المياه المُستخدمة لكل مرة في عملية دفْق المياه تترواح ما بين أقل من لترين في التصميمات الحالية إلى 20 لترًا تقريبًا من مياه الدفْق في النماذج القديمة. وينبغي تفضيل ودعم التقنيات الموفرة للمياه أو التي لا تستخدم المياه. ولكي يتم تقليل الروائح وفقد النيتروجين لأقل حد في التصاميم البسيطة للمبولة التي لا تستخدم المياه، يجب أن تكون أنبوبة تجميع البول مغمورة في خزان البول لعمل مانع لتسرب الروائح بالمياه.

وتتوفر المباول التي لا تستخدم المياه بأنماط وتوليفات عديدة. وبعض المباول تأتي مُجهّزة بمانع لتسرب الروائح والذي قد يكون مزودًا بغالق ميكانيكي أو غشاء أو سائل مانع للتسرب.

يمكن تقليل كمية الرذاذ أو البلل بوضع هدف صغير أو ذبابة مرسومة بالقرب من مكان تصريف المياه(البالوعة(، ويمكن لهذا النوع أن يساعد في توجيه المُستخدم لتحسين نظافة المِرفق. ولأن المبولة مُخصصة للبول فقط فمن المهم أيضًا وضع مِرحاض لاستخدامه من أجل البُراز.

 

الجوانب الصحية / القبول

Factsheet Block Body

تُعتبر المبولة واجهة مُستخدم مُريحة وسهلة القبول. وبالرغم من بساطة بنيتها وتصميمها إلا أنه يمكن أن يكون للمباول أثرٌ كبيرٌ على سلامة المجتمع. وعندما يمكن للرجال الوصول إلى مبولة فذلك يقلل كثيرًا من فرص تبولهم في الأماكن العامة، والذي بدوره يمنع الروائح غير المرغوب فيها، ويُشعِر النساء براحة أكبر للسير في الطرقات. يتَقبَّل الرجال -عمومًا- المباول التي لا تستخدم المياه على اعتبارها لا تتطلب تغييراً في العادات )ولكن في المجتمع العربي يُفضِّل الرجال المباول المُستخدمة للمياه وذلك للاستبراء من البول(

 

الصيانة والتشغيل

Factsheet Block Body

تُعتبر الصيانة بسيطة لهذا النظام، ولكن يجب أن تتم بشكل متكرر وخاصة للمباول التي لا تستخدم المياه. ويجب أن تُنظَّف كل الأسطح بانتظام -الوعاء والبلاطة الأرضية والحائط- لمنع الروائح وللحد من تَكوُّن الأوساخ.

في المباول التي لا تستخدم المياه من الممكن أن تترسب الأملاح المعدنية المُكونة من مركبَّات الكالسيوم والمغنيسيوم، وتتراكم في الأنابيب، وعلى الأسطح المُعرَّضة للبول باستمرار. ويُمكن أن يُمنع تراكم الأملاح المعدنية والتكلس Scaling بغسل الوعاء حمض متوسط )على سبيل المثال، الخل( و/أو الماء الساخن، ويمكن استخدام حمض أقوى > 24% حمض الخليك  Acetic أو محلول الصودا الكاوية (جزئين من الماء مع جزء واحد من الصودا) لإزالة الانسدادات، ومع ذلك ففي بعض الحالات قد يتطلَّب الأمر الإزالة اليدوية للانسدادات.

بالنسبة للمباول التي لا تستخدم المياه فمن الأهمية بمكان أن يتم التحقق من انتظام عمل مانع تسرب الروائح.

المراجع

المياه ،الصرف الصحي النظافة الصحية وظروف الإقامة في السجون

بييـر جيورجيو نمبرينـي (2009): المياه ،الصرف الصحي النظافة الصحية وظروف الإقامة في السجون . (= الطبعة العربية الاولى ). جنيف .سويسرا: اللجنة الدولية للصليب الاحمر

Language: Arabic

A Guide to the Urinals

This book contains everything about urinals. Classification, technology and plumbing, urinals through history, film and literature and finally urinal etiquette and reference.

MAC, S. LLENNARG, C. (n.y): A Guide to the Urinals. URL [Accessed: 10.10.2011]

Waterless urinals: A proposal to save water and recover urine nutrients in Africa

Waterless urinals save water and they allow the collection of undiluted urine, which – because of its nitrogen and phosphorus content - is a valuable resource as fertiliser in agriculture. In the context of African developing countries, costs and maintenance requirements of waterless urinals need to be as low as possible. Despite the fact that hundreds of thousands of waterless (and odourless) urinals are now already in use worldwide, many municipalities are not yet aware of their existence or are reluctant to accept them as a viable option. This paper aims to reduce this knowledge gap by describing available models, odour control methods in waterless urinals (flat rubber tube, silicon curtain valve or sealant liquid), and the aspects to be considered regarding maintenance requirements and costs.

MUENCH, E. (2009): Waterless urinals: A proposal to save water and recover urine nutrients in Africa. المُدخلات: Proceeding of the 34th WEDC International Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2009: URL [Accessed: 13.05.2019]

Urine diversion components. Overview of Urine Diversion Components such as Waterless Urinals, Urine Diversion Toilets, Urine Storage and Reuse Systems

The publication explains the purposes of urine diversion, its benefits and challenges, possibilities of urine treatment and reuse in agriculture. It provides an overview on design and operational aspects for equipment needed, such as waterless urinals and urine diversion toilets. An appendix with a worldwide listing of suppliers for waterless urinals and urine diversion toilet pedestals and squatting pans is also available.

MUENCH, E., v. WINKER, M. GTZ (2009): Urine diversion components. Overview of Urine Diversion Components such as Waterless Urinals, Urine Diversion Toilets, Urine Storage and Reuse Systems. (= Technology Review ). Eschborn: German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 31.05.2019]

Technology Review of Urine Diversion Components

The publication explains the purposes of urine diversion, its benefits and challenges, urine precipitation, urine treatment and reuse in agriculture. Further, it provides an overview on design and operational aspects for equipment needed, such as waterless urinals and urine diversion toilets including supplier information and indicative costs. Overall, it pulls together scattered knowledge around the topic of urine diversion in a concise manner.

MUENCH, E. von WINKER, M. (2011): Technology Review of Urine Diversion Components. Overview of Urine Diversion Components such as Waterless Urinals, Urine Diversion Toilets, Urine Storage and Reuse Systems. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 11.05.2019]

Smart Sanitation Solutions

Smart Sanitation Solutions presents examples of low-cost household and community-based sanitation solutions that have proven effective and affordable. A wide range of innovative technologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatment and use of sanitation products that have already helped thousands of poor families to improve their lives is illustrated.

NWP (2006): Smart Sanitation Solutions. Examples of innovative, low-cost technologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatment and use of sanitation products. (= Smart water solutions ). Amsterdam: Netherlands Water Partnership (NWP) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF
قراءات أخرى

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

Low-Cost Sustainable Sanitation Solutions for Mindanao and the Philippines. A Practical Construction Field Guide

After a brief introductory chapter on the Philippine sanitation situation and basic principles of sustainable sanitation, the manual focuses on the introduction of different low-cost sanitation solutions comprising the arborloo toilet, the 1-chamber and 2-chamber UDDT, hanging UDDTs, and the ecopee urinal. Each technology is briefly described by giving general information on how it works, operation and maintenance requirements, reuse or safe disposal options, and in which setting this technology might be appropriate. In addition, a picture-based guide on how to construct each technology is provided as well as the necessary technical drawings and rough cost estimates based on current prices. Since a sanitation system does not end with the toilet itself, the last chapter also provides information on the overall management of the system including collection, transport, treatment, and final reuse of urine, feces and composting products in agriculture.

GENSCH, R. MISO, A. ITCHON, G. SAYRE, E. (2010): Low-Cost Sustainable Sanitation Solutions for Mindanao and the Philippines. A Practical Construction Field Guide. Cagayan de Oro City: Xavier University URL [Accessed: 31.05.2019]

A Guide to the Urinals

This book contains everything about urinals. Classification, technology and plumbing, urinals through history, film and literature and finally urinal etiquette and reference.

MAC, S. LLENNARG, C. (n.y): A Guide to the Urinals. URL [Accessed: 10.10.2011]

Water Use by Urinals

Urinals are found in men’s bathrooms of the commercial, industrial, and institutional (CII) sectors of society. If men’s restrooms account for a significant portion of a facility’s water budget and the urinals are older, a urinal retrofit may provide significant water savings for the facility. The types of urinals and their water use characteristics are described in this report. Information on the expected prevalence of these urinals is also presented along with information on urinal retrofit programs.

MARTIN, J. HEANEY, J. (2008): Water Use by Urinals. Gainesville: University of Florida URL [Accessed: 10.10.2011]

Waterless urinals: A proposal to save water and recover urine nutrients in Africa

Waterless urinals save water and they allow the collection of undiluted urine, which – because of its nitrogen and phosphorus content - is a valuable resource as fertiliser in agriculture. In the context of African developing countries, costs and maintenance requirements of waterless urinals need to be as low as possible. Despite the fact that hundreds of thousands of waterless (and odourless) urinals are now already in use worldwide, many municipalities are not yet aware of their existence or are reluctant to accept them as a viable option. This paper aims to reduce this knowledge gap by describing available models, odour control methods in waterless urinals (flat rubber tube, silicon curtain valve or sealant liquid), and the aspects to be considered regarding maintenance requirements and costs.

MUENCH, E. (2009): Waterless urinals: A proposal to save water and recover urine nutrients in Africa. المُدخلات: Proceeding of the 34th WEDC International Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2009: URL [Accessed: 13.05.2019]

Appendix 1 for technology review of urine diversion components

This document contains a worldwide list of suppliers for waterless urinals. The tables of suppliers provided here are not complete listings but give only an indication of available products. If you spot errors or omissions, please contact the authors at ecosan@giz.de. In the brackets below each listing the date for provision of the information/last update of information is given. Please be aware that not all information is from 2011. An entry in this list does not imply a recommendation by GIZ. Costs are indicative only.

MUENCH, E., v. WINKER, M. GIZ (2011): Appendix 1 for technology review of urine diversion components. Worldwide listing of suppliers for waterless urinals. (= Technology Review ). Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 31.05.2019]

Technology Review of Urine-Diverting Dry Toilets (UDDTs)

This publication offers a complete overview of UDDT functions, design considerations, common operation and maintenance issues and generalised installation costs. Its focus is on applications in developing countries and countries in transition, although UDDTs are also applicable in developed countries.

RIECK, C. MUENCH, E. HOFFMANN, H. (2012): Technology Review of Urine-Diverting Dry Toilets (UDDTs). Overview on Design, Management, Maintenance and Costs. (= Technology Review ). Eschborn: German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 11.05.2019]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

How to Manage Public Toilets and Showers

The purpose of this decision-making aid is to provide practical advice and recommendations for managing toilet blocks situated in public places. It is primarily aimed at local decision-makers in developing countries and at their partners (project planners and managers).

TOUBKISS, J. (2010): How to Manage Public Toilets and Showers. (= Six Methodological Guides for a Water and Sanitation Services' Development Strategy , 5 ). Cotonou and Paris: Partenariat pour le Développement Municipal (PDM) and Programme Solidarité Eau (pS-Eau) URL [Accessed: 19.10.2011]

Every drop counts. Environmental sound technologies for urban and domestic water use efficiency

The focus of this book is efficient water use in urban and domestic environments and the context is decision making about sustainable development of human settlements.

UNEP (2008): Every drop counts. Environmental sound technologies for urban and domestic water use efficiency. Osaka: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). URL [Accessed: 06.05.2019]

Child Friendly Schools. Location, Design and Construction

This chapter examines the planning and design of new spaces and environments for child-friendly schools and sets out quality planning standards for improving existing schools and temporary structures used as schools. It focuses on location, design, construction, operation and maintenance of new child-friendly schools and the important factors for renovating and adjusting existing schools to make them child-friendly. The approach centres on the child, the main user of these learning spaces and environments, with the understanding that family and community participation is fundamental for best results.

UNICEF (2009): Child Friendly Schools. Location, Design and Construction. المُدخلات: UNICEF (2009): Child Friendly Schools. New York: . URL [Accessed: 28.11.2011]

Urine as Liquid Fertilizer in Agricultural Production in the Philippines

This field guide has been developed to accommodate the ever-increasing demand for more detailed and scientifically backed information on how to use urine in agricultural production. It is intended primarily for practitioners and experts in the water, sanitation, planning, and agriculture sectors, as well as local and national government officials from the various sectors, NGO and individuals interested and working in the field of agriculture and sustainable sanitation in the Philippines and the wider Southeast Asian region.

GENSCH, R. MISO, A. ITSCHON, G. (2011): Urine as Liquid Fertilizer in Agricultural Production in the Philippines. Cagayan de Oro: Sustainable Sanitation Center Xavier University (XU), the Philippine Sustainable Sanitation Knowledge Node, the Philippine Ecosan Network, and the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 07.05.2019]
حالات دراسية

Novaquatis final report. NoMix – A new approach to urban water management

From 2000 to 2006, the cross-cutting project Novaquatis explored the potential of urine source separation – also known as NoMix technology. Novaquatis comprises nine work packages, largely organized around the various stages of a nutrient cycle (e.g. user acceptation, sanitary technologies, storage and transport, urine treatment and fertiliser production, micropollutants in urine, urine-based fertilisers). The final report contains the results of all working packages as well as a practical guide for interested NoMix user.

LARSEN, T. A. LIENERT, J. (2007): Novaquatis final report. NoMix – A new approach to urban water management. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science (EAWAG) URL [Accessed: 12.05.2019]

Urban Urine Diversion and Greywater Treatment System Linz, Austria

This case study discusses a medium-scale pilot project in a new urban area in Linz, Austria. General objectives were the creation of a sustainable settlement in a new city district (high demand for residential buildings) and the establishment of ecological buildings and low energy construction concepts. Among specific objectives was the implementation of innovative solutions for water supply and wastewater treatment with a reduction of the infrastructure costs for municipal wastewater treatment. Also, the aim was to establish a holistic sanitation approach enabling the use of nutrients contained in excreta or wastewater in agriculture and to research treatment of micropollutants in urine.

OLDENBURG, M. WERNER, C. SCHLICK, J. KLINGEL, F. (2009): Urban Urine Diversion and Greywater Treatment System Linz, Austria. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 24.09.2013]

Sanitation Concepts for Separate Treatment of Urine, Faeces and Greywater (SCST) – Results

Report of a European project with the objective to develop new sustainable sanitation concepts that have significant ecological and economic advantages compared to conventional end-of-pipe-systems. For this purpose, a demonstration plant was constructed and analysed in order to generate experiences on design, installation and operation.

PETER-FROEHLICH, A. BONHOMME, A. OLDENBURG, M. (2007): Sanitation Concepts for Separate Treatment of Urine, Faeces and Greywater (SCST) – Results. EU-Demonstration project

Waterless urinal sheds in the inner city, Hamburg, Germany

In 1994 the BSU (“Office for urban development and environment”) developed a general concept for the construction and maintenance of the public toilets in order to reduce annual operation and maintenance costs. All urinals installed in Hamburg’s public toilets today are waterless urinals (instead of conventional water flushed urinals which use 4-6 L per flush). In eleven urinal sheds, urine storage tanks were also installed. This urinal sheds have reduced costs than the other public urinals and it is possible, that the collected urine will be used in agriculture in the future.

WINKER, M. GROENWALL, P.N. (2010): Waterless urinal sheds in the inner city, Hamburg, Germany. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 10.08.2010]

Urine and brownwater separation at the GTZ main office building, Eschborn, Germany

This case study is about a demonstration project in the headquarters of GTZ in Eschborn, Germany. The project consists of 50 urine-diversion flush toilets, 23 waterless urinals and 10 m³ urine storage tank.

WINKER, M. SADOUN, A. (2011): Urine and brownwater separation at the GTZ main office building, Eschborn, Germany. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 12.05.2019]
مواد تدريبية

Waterless urinals: A proposal to save water and recover urine nutrients in Africa

Waterless urinals save water and they allow the collection of undiluted urine, which – because of its nitrogen and phosphorus content - is a valuable resource as fertiliser in agriculture. In the context of African developing countries, costs and maintenance requirements of waterless urinals need to be as low as possible. Despite the fact that hundreds of thousands of waterless (and odourless) urinals are now already in use worldwide, many municipalities are not yet aware of their existence or are reluctant to accept them as a viable option. This paper aims to reduce this knowledge gap by describing available models, odour control methods in waterless urinals (flat rubber tube, silicon curtain valve or sealant liquid), and the aspects to be considered regarding maintenance requirements and costs.

MUENCH, E. (2009): Waterless urinals: A proposal to save water and recover urine nutrients in Africa. المُدخلات: Proceeding of the 34th WEDC International Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2009: URL [Accessed: 13.05.2019]

Ecological sanitation within GTZs main building in Eschborn - A demonstration and research project

PDF-presentation on urine diversion flush toilet systems at the GTZ headquarter.

RUED, S. ; WERNER, C. (2007): Ecological sanitation within GTZs main building in Eschborn - A demonstration and research project. المُدخلات: Proceedings of the International Conference on Sustainable Sanitation: Eco-Cities and Villages, 26-31 August 2007, Dongsheng/Erdos: URL [Accessed: 10.08.2010]
مواد لنشر الوعي

Yellow is the new Green

This opinion contribution from Rose George published in the New York Times emphasises the enormous potential urine as a sustainable fertiliser source.

GEORGE, R. (2009): Yellow is the new Green. المُدخلات: The New Your Times: , 27. URL [Accessed: 27.07.2010]

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