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2018 يونيو 19

المُفاعل اللاهوائي ذو الحواجز

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المُدخلات

Blackwater Brownwater Greywater Effluent

المُخرَجات

Sludge Effluent
المؤلف*
Eawag المعهد الفيدرالي السويسري لعلوم وتقنيات المياه
ترجمة وتعريب مؤسسة بناء
المُلخص التنفيذي

المُفاعل اللاهوائي ذو الحواجز (Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR هو عبارة عن خزَّان تحليل (تخمير) مُعدّل ، وذلك بإضافة مجموعة من الحواجز المُتتالية التي تتدفق عبرها مياه الصرف الصحي؛ حيث إن وجود الحواجز يؤدي إلى زيادة زمن التلامس مع الكتلة الحيوية النشطة (الحمأة) مما يؤدي إلى تحسين المعالجة.

تؤدي غُرف تدفق مياه الصرف الصحي من أسفل إلى أعلى إلى تحسين عمليتي إزالة وهضم المواد العضوية؛ حيث يقل الاحتياج الحيوي للأكسجين BOD بنسبة قد تصل إلى 90%، وذلك أفضل بكثير من إزالة وهضم المواد العضوية باستخدام خزَّان التحليل (التخمير) التقليدي Septic Tank.

المزايا
مُقاوم للأحمال العضوية والهيدروليكية المفاجئة
لا يتطلب طاقة كهربائية.
تكاليف التشغيل مُنخفضة.
يمتاز بطول مُدة الخِدمة
يُخفض الاحتياج الحيوي للأكسجين BOD بشكل كبير
إنتاج مُنخفض للحمأة، بالإضافة الي تثبيت الحمأة
لا يتطلب مساحة كبيرة (حيث يُمكن بناء النظام تحت الأرض).
العيوب
يتطلب خبرة في التصميم والإنشاء.
قابليته على تخفيض المغذيات ومُسببات الأمراض قليلة
النفايات السائلة الخارجة والحمأة تتطلب مزيدًا من المُعالجة و/أو التخلّص بشكل مُناسب.
المُدخلات المُخرَجات

التدفقات السائلة الخارجة ,المياه السوداء,المياه البُنِّية,المياه الرمادية

التدفقات السائلة الخارجة , الحمأة

 

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اعتبارات التصميم
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تتم إزالة مُعظم المواد الصلبة القابلة للترسب في غُرفة الترسيب الموجودة في المرحلة الأولى من المُفاعل اللاهوائي ذي الحواجز. كما أن هناك وحدات قائمة بذاتها على نطاقٍ صغير لديها غُرفة ترسيب مُتكاملة كما هو مُوضّح في   الرسم، لكن عملية الترسيب الأولية يُمكن أن تتم أيضًا في حَوْض ترسيب مُنفصل أو عن طريق استخدام تقنية أخرى كمرحلة أولية (على سبيل المثال: خزّانات التحليل (التخمير) Septic Tanks). والتصاميم التي لا يوجد بها غُرفة ترسيب تُعتبر ذات أهمية خاصة في محطات المعالجة) شبه( المركزية التي تجمع المُفاعل اللاهوائي ذا الحواجز مع تقنية أخرى مُستخدمة في عملية الترسيب الأولية، أوحيثُ تُستخدم وحدات مُصنعة سابقًا خاصة لذلك.

عادة ما تترواح التدفقات ما بين 2 إلى 200 متر مُكعّب في اليوم. وتشتمل عوامل التصميم الضرورية على: زمن البقاء الهيدروليكي Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) ويكون ما بين 48 إلى 72 ساعة، وتكون سُرعة التدفق من أسفل إلى أعلى لمياه الصرف الصحي أقل من 0.6 متر/ساعة. تحتوي غُرف التدفق لأعلى (الغُرف ما بين الحواجز) على عدد من الغُرف يتراوح ما بين 3 إلى 6، والاتّصال بين الغرف يُمكن تصميمه إمَّا عن طريق حواجز أو أنابيب رأسية. ويُعتبر سهولة الوصول إلى كُل الغُرَف (من خلال فتحات مُخصصة لذلك) أمرًا ضروريًّا من أجل عملية الصيانة. ولا يتم - عادةً - جمع الغاز الحيوي المُنتَج من المُفاعل اللاهوائي ذي الحواجز خلال عملية الهضم اللاهوائي بسبب كميته القليلة، وبالتالي يجب تهوية الخزَّان للسماح بتحرير الروائح والغازات الضارة المُحتملة إلى الخارج بصورة متحكم فيها.

 

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المُلاءَمَة
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 من السهل تكييف هذه التقنية ويُمكن تطبيقها على المستوى المنزلي في الأحياء الصغيرة أو حتى في المناطق التي يُوجد بها تجمعات كبيرة، وهي مُلائمة جدًّا عند إنتاج كمية ثابتة نسبيًّا من المياه السوداء والمياه البُنّية. ويكون المُفاعل اللاهوائي ذو الحواجز) شبه (المركزي هو الخيار الأفضل عندما تسبقه تقنية لنقل مياه الصرف الصحي مثل شبكة الصرف الصحي البسيطة.

هذه التقنية مناسبة جدًّا للمناطق التي تكون مساحات الأراضي المتاحة بها محدودة، حيث يتم عادة بناء الخزَّان تحت الأرض ويتطلب مساحة صغيرة. ومع ذلك فإنَّ شاحنة الشفط يجب أن تكون قادرة على الدخول إلى تلك المنطقة؛ لأنه يجب إزالة الحمأة بشكل منتظم خصوصًا من حَوْض االترسيب.

يُمكن تركيب المُفاعل اللاهوائي ذي الحواجز في جميع الظروف المناخية على الرغم من أن الكفاءة تكون أقل في المناطق ذات المناخ البارد، كما أنه ليس فعَّالًا في إزالة المغذيات ومُسببات الأمراض من مياه الصرف الصحي. وعادةً ما تتطلب التدفقات السائلة الخارجة مزيدًا من عمليات المُعالجة.

 

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الجوانب الصحية / القبول
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يجب ألا يتعامل المُستخدمون بشكل مُباشر مع التدفقات السائلة الداخلة أوالخارجة تحت ظروف التشغيل العادية. ويجب التعامل بحذر مع التدفقات السائلة الخارجة والخبث (الزَّبَد) والحمأة؛ حيثُ إنَّها تحتوي على الكائنات الحية المُسببة للأمراض بمُستويات عالية. وتحتوي التدفقات السائلة الخارجة على مُرَكّبات لها رائحة قد تتطلب إزالتها في مرحلة أخرى إضافية. وينبغي الحرص عند تصميم وتحديد موقع المُنشأة بحيث لا تُزعِج هذه الروائح أفراد المجتمع.

 

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التشغيل والصيانة
Factsheet Block Body

يتطلب المُفاعل اللاهوائي ذو الحواجز فترة بدء التشغيل لعدة أشهر حتى يصل المُفاعل إلى المرحلة التي يُمكنه فيها المعالجة بكامل قدرته؛ وذلك بسبب بُطء نُمُو الكُتلة الحيوية اللاهوائية التي تحتاج أن تثبت أولًا في المُفاعل. ولتقليل فترة بدء التشغيل؛ فإنَّ المُفاعل اللاهوائي ذا الحواجز يُمكن أن يُلقَّح بالبكتيريا اللاهوائية، على سبيل المثال: إضافة روث البقر الجديد (الرطب) أو حمأة خزَّان التحليل (االتخمير(.

وهكذ يُمكن للكمية المضافة من البكتيريا النّشطة أن تتكاثر وتتكيف مع مياه الصرف الصحي الداخلة. وبسبب البِيئة الحيوية الحساسة؛ فإنَّه ينبغي الحرص على عدم وصول المواد الكيميائية القاسية وصعبة المُعالجة إلى المُفاعل اللاهوائي ذي الحواجز.

يجب مُراقبة مستويات الحمأة والخبث (الزَّبَد( لضمانعمل الخزّان بشكل جيد، ولا يتطلب هذا النظام عمليات تشغيل؛ لأنه نظام ثابت وبسيط، والصيانة تكون مُقتصرة على إزالة الحمأة المُتراكمة على فترات تتراوح ما بين عام إلى ثلاثة أعوام. ويتم تنفيذ ذلك بشكل أفضل باستخدام تقنية التفريغ والنقل بواسطة المحركات. تعتمد أوقات عملية إزالة الحمأة على خطوات المعالجة السابقة المُختارة وكذلك على تصميم المُفاعل ذي الحواجز اللاهوائية.

ويجب فحص الخزَّانات الخاصة بالمُفاعل من وقت إلى آخر لضمان كونها معزولة -غير مُنفّذة للمياه.

 

 

المراجع

المعالجة البيولوجية لمياه الصرف الصحى المبادئ وأعمال النمذجة والتصميم

موجن هينز واخرون ترجمة مصطفى سمير موسى -نضال جودت محمود (2008): المعالجة البيولوجية لمياه الصرف الصحى المبادئ وأعمال النمذجة والتصميم. IWA Publishing URL

Language: Arabic

تقييم كفاءة المراحل البيولوجية فى محطة حجة فى ازالة المواد العضوية من مياة الصرف

باسم محمد على علوي فضل على صالح (2014): تقييم كفاءة المراحل البيولوجية فى محطة حجة فى ازالة المواد العضوية من مياة الصرف. ﻣﺅﺗﻣﺭ ﺍﻟﺧﻠﻳﺞ ﺍﻟﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﺷﺭ ﺍﻟﻣﻳﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﻧﻌﻘﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻠﻁﻧﺔ ﻋﻣﺎﻥ

Language: Arabic

EmSan - Emergency Sanitation

This source presents the DEWATS emergency sanitation service package, including options for different types of prefabricated materials, developed by BORDA.

BORDA (2009): EmSan - Emergency Sanitation. An innovative & rapidly installable solution to improve hygiene and health in emergency situations. (= Concept Note ). Bremen: Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association URL [Accessed: 26.03.2010]

Evaluation of the Anaerobic Baffled Reactor for Sanitation in Dense Peri-urban Settlements

In this study, the performance of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) in the treatment of domestic wastewater was assessed by extrapolating existing understanding of the characteristics of laboratory-scale ABRs to design a pilot-scale reactor. The report proposes improvements in ABR dimensions and installation in Guidelines for the design, operation and maintenance of an ABR treating domestic wastewater. Recommendations regarding the appropriateness of the system for different applications and suggestions for management and maintenance strategies were made.

FOXON, K. M. BUCKLEY, C. A. BROUCKAERT, C. J. DAMA, P. MTEMBU, Z. RODDA, N. SMITH, M. PILLAY, S. ARJUNG, N. LALBAHADUR, T. BUX, F. (2006): Evaluation of the Anaerobic Baffled Reactor for Sanitation in Dense Peri-urban Settlements. (= WRC Report No 1248/01/06 ). Pretoria: Water Research Commission URL [Accessed: 21.08.2014]

The anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)- An appropriate technology for on-site sanitation

The publication analyses the appropriateness of anaerobic baffled reactors (ABRs) for on-site primary sanitation in low-income communities. COD removal in domestic wastewater by a pilot ABR (3000L) was assessed. Results indicate that COD was sufficiently reduced for the reuse of the water in agriculture, but not for directly discharging it into natural surface or groundwater bodies.

FOXON, K.M. ; PILLAY, S. ; LALBAHADUR, T. ; RODDA, N. ; HOLDER, F. ; BUCKLEY, C.A. (2004): The anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)- An appropriate technology for on-site sanitation. المُدخلات: Water SA : Volume 30 , 5.

Greywater Management in Low and Middle-Income Countries, Review of Different Treatment Systems for Households or Neighbourhoods

This report compiles international experience in greywater management on household and neighbourhood level in low and middle-income countries. The documented systems, which vary significantly in terms of complexity, performance and costs, range from simple systems for single-house applications (e.g. local infiltration or garden irrigation) to rather complex treatment trains for neighbourhoods (e.g. series of vertical and horizontal-flow planted soil filters).

MOREL, A. DIENER, S. (2006): Greywater Management in Low and Middle-Income Countries, Review of Different Treatment Systems for Households or Neighbourhoods. (= SANDEC Report No. 14/06 ). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2018]

Informed Choice Catalogue

This informed choice catalogue for community based wastewater treatment technologies helps to identify suitable sanitation options and facilitates the assessment of different sanitation system components with regard to stakeholder preferences. A powerful tool for technical bottom-up planning giving overall information about technical options at a "glance".

SANIMAS (2005): Informed Choice Catalogue. pdf presentation. BORDA and USAID

DEWATS

Exhaustive report on technological, operational and economic aspects of decentralised waste water treatment systems. Spreadsheet examples support the reader in designing and planning waste water treatment systems components.

SASSE, L. BORDA (1998): DEWATS. Decentralised Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries. Bremen: Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA)

Performance of an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor and Hybrid Constructed Wetland treating high-strength Wastewater in Nepal- A model for DEWATS

SINGH, S. ; HABERLA, R. ; MOOG, O. ; SHRESTA, R.R. ; SHRESTA, P. ; SHRESTA, R. (2009): Performance of an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor and Hybrid Constructed Wetland treating high-strength Wastewater in Nepal- A model for DEWATS . المُدخلات: Ecological Engineering : Volume 35 , 654-660.

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. LUETHI, C. MOREL, A. ZURBRUEGG, C. SCHERTENLEIB, R. (2008): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG) and Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) URL [Accessed: 15.02.2010]

Ecosan Expert Training Course for the Introduction of Ecological Sanitation in Bhutan

This is a report about an ecosan expert course carried out by seecon international gmbh, WHO and UNICEF in 2009. It was published by WHO to make others aware of the outcomes of the training course, and contains detailed information on the course contents, its methodology, and outcomes.

WHO (2009): Ecosan Expert Training Course for the Introduction of Ecological Sanitation in Bhutan. (= Training Course Report ). Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 12.01.2011]

Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India. A Guide to Decision-Making

These guidance notes are designed to provide state governments and urban local bodies with additional information on available technologies on sanitation. The notes also aid in making an informed choice and explain the suitability of approaches.

WSP (2008): Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India. A Guide to Decision-Making. pdf presentation. New Delhi: Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) URL [Accessed: 26.03.2010]
قراءات أخرى

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

EmSan - Emergency Sanitation

This source presents the DEWATS emergency sanitation service package, including options for different types of prefabricated materials, developed by BORDA.

BORDA (2009): EmSan - Emergency Sanitation. An innovative & rapidly installable solution to improve hygiene and health in emergency situations. (= Concept Note ). Bremen: Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association URL [Accessed: 26.03.2010]

Guidelines For The Implementation of Anaerobic Baffled Reactors for On-Site Or Decentralised Saniation

This paper provides a framework within which a process engineer can design an anaerobic baffled reactor for the treatment of a specific domestic wastewater.

FOXON, K.M. BUCKLEY, C.A. (2006): Guidelines For The Implementation of Anaerobic Baffled Reactors for On-Site Or Decentralised Saniation. Durban: University of KwaZulu-Natal URL [Accessed: 03.01.2011]

The anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)- An appropriate technology for on-site sanitation

The publication analyses the appropriateness of anaerobic baffled reactors (ABRs) for on-site primary sanitation in low-income communities. COD removal in domestic wastewater by a pilot ABR (3000L) was assessed. Results indicate that COD was sufficiently reduced for the reuse of the water in agriculture, but not for directly discharging it into natural surface or groundwater bodies.

FOXON, K.M. ; PILLAY, S. ; LALBAHADUR, T. ; RODDA, N. ; HOLDER, F. ; BUCKLEY, C.A. (2004): The anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)- An appropriate technology for on-site sanitation. المُدخلات: Water SA : Volume 30 , 5.

Potential of the Anaerobic Baffled Reactor as decentralized Wastewater Treatment System in the Tropics

The anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) could be a valuable alternative to conventional septic tanks. In this study, 3 lab-scale experimental ABR (2 baffles with and without anaerobic filter, respectively, and 3 baffles) were studied and compared to a conventional 2 chambers septic tank. The experimental units were fed with a mixture of septage and sewage in order to imitate the characteristics of toilet wastewater from households.

KOOTTATEP, T. SRI-ANANT, W. ANTOINE, M. SCHERTENLEIB, R. (2004): Potential of the Anaerobic Baffled Reactor as decentralized Wastewater Treatment System in the Tropics. Klong Luang and Duebendorf: School of Environment, Resources and Development (SERD)/Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) and Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) at the Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science (EAWAG) URL [Accessed: 03.01.2011]

Anaerobic Reactors

Anaerobic Reactors is the forth volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment. The fundamentals of anaerobic treatment are presented in detail, including its applicability, microbiology, biochemistry and main reactor configurations. Two reactor types are analysed in more detail, namely anaerobic filters and especially UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactors. Particular attention is also devoted to the post-treatment of the effluents from the anaerobic reactors. The book presents in a clear and informative way the main concepts, working principles, expected removal efficiencies, design criteria, design examples, construction aspects and operational guidelines for anaerobic reactors.

LEMOS CHERNICHARO, C.A. de (2007): Anaerobic Reactors. (= Biological Wastewater Treatment Series , 4 ). London: International Water Association (IWA) Publishing URL [Accessed: 01.11.2013]

How to Select Appropriate Technical Solutions for Sanitation

The purpose of this guide is to assist local contracting authorities and their partners in identifying those sanitation technologies best suited to the different contexts that exist within their town. The first part of the guide contains a planning process and a set of criteria to be completed; these assist you in characterizing each area of intervention so that you are then in a position to identify the most appropriate technical solutions. The second part of the guide consists of technical factsheets which give a practical overview of the technical and economic characteristics, the operating principle and the pros and cons of the 29 sanitation technology options most commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa.

MONVOIS, J. GABERT, J. FRENOUX, C. GUILLAUME, M. (2010): How to Select Appropriate Technical Solutions for Sanitation. (= Six Methodological Guides for a Water and Sanitation Services' Development Strategy , 4 ). Cotonou and Paris: Partenariat pour le Développement Municipal (PDM) and Programme Solidarité Eau (pS-Eau) URL [Accessed: 19.10.2011]

Greywater Management in Low and Middle-Income Countries, Review of Different Treatment Systems for Households or Neighbourhoods

This report compiles international experience in greywater management on household and neighbourhood level in low and middle-income countries. The documented systems, which vary significantly in terms of complexity, performance and costs, range from simple systems for single-house applications (e.g. local infiltration or garden irrigation) to rather complex treatment trains for neighbourhoods (e.g. series of vertical and horizontal-flow planted soil filters).

MOREL, A. DIENER, S. (2006): Greywater Management in Low and Middle-Income Countries, Review of Different Treatment Systems for Households or Neighbourhoods. (= SANDEC Report No. 14/06 ). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2018]

How to Design Wastewater Systems for Local Conditions in Developing Countries

This manual provides guidance in the design of wastewater systems in developing country settings. It promotes a context-specific approach to technology selection by guiding the user to select the most suitable technologies for their area. It provides tools and field guides for source characterization and site evaluation, as well as technology identification and selection. This manual is primarily addressed to private and public sector service providers, regulators and engineers/development specialists in charge of implementing wastewater systems.

ROBBINS, D.M. LIGON, G.C. (2014): How to Design Wastewater Systems for Local Conditions in Developing Countries. London: International Water Association (IWA) URL [Accessed: 20.01.2015]

DEWATS

Exhaustive report on technological, operational and economic aspects of decentralised waste water treatment systems. Spreadsheet examples support the reader in designing and planning waste water treatment systems components.

SASSE, L. BORDA (1998): DEWATS. Decentralised Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries. Bremen: Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA)

Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions Volume 1

Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions gives a state-of-the-art presentation of the science and technology of biological wastewater treatment, particularly domestic sewage. The book covers the main treatment processes used worldwide with wastewater treatment in warm climate regions given a particular emphasis where simple, affordable and sustainable solutions are required. The 55 chapters are divided into 7 parts over two volumes: Volume One: (1) Introduction to wastewater characteristics, treatment and disposal; (2) Basic principles of wastewater treatment; (3) Stabilisation ponds; (4) Anaerobic reactors; Volume Two (also available in the SSWM library): (5) Activated sludge; (6) Aerobic biofilm reactors; (7) Sludge treatment and disposal.

SPERLING, M. von LEMOS CHERNICHARO, C.A. de (2005): Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions Volume 1. London: International Water Association (IWA) Publishing PDF

Upgrading conventional Septic Tanks by integrating in tank Baffles

The objective of this research study was to compare the treatment performance of the conventional septic tank system with upgraded septic tank systems, and to try to define the optimal operation conditions.

SRI-ANANT, W. (2003): Upgrading conventional Septic Tanks by integrating in tank Baffles. Klong Luang: School of Environment, Resources and Development (SERD)/Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) URL [Accessed: 03.01.2011]

Philippines Sanitation Source Book and Decision Aid

This Sanitation Sourcebook distils some of the core concepts of sanitation in a user-friendly format so that the book can serve as a practical reference to sanitation professionals and investment decision-makers, particularly the local governments. The annexe contains a practical collection of factsheets on selected sanitation system options.

WSP (2007): Philippines Sanitation Source Book and Decision Aid. pdf presentation. Washington: Water and Sanitation Program

Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India. A Guide to Decision-Making

These guidance notes are designed to provide state governments and urban local bodies with additional information on available technologies on sanitation. The notes also aid in making an informed choice and explain the suitability of approaches.

WSP (2008): Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India. A Guide to Decision-Making. pdf presentation. New Delhi: Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) URL [Accessed: 26.03.2010]
حالات دراسية

Community Based Sanitation — SANIMAS. Islamic Centre An Nawawi, Purworejo, Central

Case study of the construction a DEWATS system for 190 of students and teachers comprising a sedimentation step, an anaerobic baffle reactor (ABR) and an expansion chamber, which consisting of 7 compartments. The effluent is discharged into river/waterbody.

BORDA (2007): Community Based Sanitation — SANIMAS. Islamic Centre An Nawawi, Purworejo, Central. (= Technical Data Sheet, No.: ID-JTa-L– 75 ). DEWATS Indonesia and Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA)

Decentralized Wastewater Treatment System - DEWATS. Animal Products Development Centre, Bureau of Animal Industry (APDC-BAI)

The Animal Products Development Centre, Bureau of Animal Industry (APDC-BAI) together with Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA) developed together this DEWATS system in the view of a resources-saving and environmental friendly management of slaughterhouses and meat processing wastes in the Philippines. The system comprises a closed small-scale sewer system, an anaerobic digester, an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), an anaerobic filter (AF) and an aerobic planted filter as a final step to reduce odours.

BORDA (2008): Decentralized Wastewater Treatment System - DEWATS. Animal Products Development Centre, Bureau of Animal Industry (APDC-BAI). (= Sustainable Sanitation – Project Data Sheet ). Bremen: Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA)

Decentralized Wastewater Treatment System - DEWATS

The wastewater from Manjuyod’s public market is treated in a decentralized system (DEWATS) composed of four different components: a settling tank; a anaerobic baffled reactor which reduces the BOD/COD content from 20% to 85%; a planted gravel filter; and finally a polishing pond.

BORDA (2008): Decentralized Wastewater Treatment System - DEWATS. Manjuyod Public Market. (= Sustainable Sanitation – Project Data Sheet ). Bremen: Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA) URL [Accessed: 26.03.2010]

Ecosan Greywater Demonstration Project. Case study from Kuching, Malaysia

The city of Kuching is currently lacking a wastewater treatment plant, and the local subsurface conditions make a conventional centralised wastewater system expensive to implement. Most buildings are equipped with two separate wastewater outlets, one outlet for blackwater and one for greywater. The proposed system treats greywater from nine households, and consists of a baffled septic tank, followed by a dosing chamber from where the greywater flows into four vertical down-flow, single-pass aerobic biofilters before reaching a subsurface horizontal-flow planted filter. Finally, the treated greywater is discharged into a stormwater drain.

MOREL A. DIENER S. (2006): Ecosan Greywater Demonstration Project. Case study from Kuching, Malaysia. المُدخلات: MOREL, A. ; DIENER, S. ; (2006): Greywater Management in Low and Middle-Income Countries, Review of Different Treatment Systems for Households or Neighbourhoods. Duebendorf: 76-79.

Treatment of domestic wastewater using an anaerobic baffled reactor followed by a duckweed pond for agricultural purposes

In this study, an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) was fed continuously with domestic wastewater at four HRTs ranging from 8 to 24 h and corresponds to organic loading rates ranging from 0.67 to 2.1 kg COD/m3/day. The ABR effluent was fed to a DWP operating at 10 and 15 days. The performance of the ABR at the four HRTs gave satisfactory results.

NASR, F.A. DOMA, H.S. NASSAR, H.F. (2008): Treatment of domestic wastewater using an anaerobic baffled reactor followed by a duckweed pond for agricultural purposes . pdf presentation. (= Environmentalist , 270 / 29 ). Egypt: Water Pollution Control Department URL [Accessed: 26.03.2010]

Opportunities in Fecal Sludge Management for Cities in Developing Countries: Experiences from the Philippines

In July 2012, a team from RTI International deployed to the Philippines to evaluate four FSM programs with the goal of reporting on best practices and lessons learned. The four cases—Dumaguete City, San Fernando City, Maynilad Water for the west zone of metro Manila, and Manila Water from the east zone of metro Manila—were chosen to highlight their different approaches to implementing FSM.

ROBBINS, D. STRANDE, L. DOCZI, J. (2012): Opportunities in Fecal Sludge Management for Cities in Developing Countries: Experiences from the Philippines. North Carolina: RTI International URL [Accessed: 15.01.2013]

Performance of an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor and Hybrid Constructed Wetland treating high-strength Wastewater in Nepal- A model for DEWATS

SINGH, S. ; HABERLA, R. ; MOOG, O. ; SHRESTA, R.R. ; SHRESTA, P. ; SHRESTA, R. (2009): Performance of an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor and Hybrid Constructed Wetland treating high-strength Wastewater in Nepal- A model for DEWATS . المُدخلات: Ecological Engineering : Volume 35 , 654-660.
مواد تدريبية

Technology Review of Biogas Sanitation

This document provides an overview and introduction on biogas sanitation (anaerobic digestion) for blackwater or for brown water, or excreta treatment for reuse in developing countries. The main technologies discussed are biogas settlers (BSs), biogas septic tanks, anaerobic baffled reactor (ABRs), anaerobic filter (AFs) and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors (UASBs).

MANG, H.-P. LI, Z. (2010): Technology Review of Biogas Sanitation. (= Technology Review ). Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 17.06.2013]

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