2018 أبريل 27

مُفاعل الغاز الحيوي

Application level

City

Household

Neighborhood

Management level

Household

Public

Shared

المُدخلات

Organics Blackwater Brownwater Sludge

المُخرَجات

Sludge Biogas
المؤلف*
Eawag المعهد الفيدرالي السويسري لعلوم وتقنيات المياه
ترجمة وتعريب مؤسسة بناء

المُلخص التنفيذي

مُفاعل الغاز الحيوي Biogas Reactor أو الهاضم اللاهوائي هو عبارة عن تقنية مُعالجة لاهوائية لإنتاج: (أ) سماد الغاز الحيوي ليُستخدم كمخصّب للتربة، (ب) الغاز الحيوي الذي يمكن استخدامه كمصدر للطاقة. الغاز الحيوي هو خليط من الميثان وثاني أكسيد الكربون وغازات أخرى -محدودة الكمية- يمكن تحويلها إلى حرارة أو كهرباء أو ضوء.يتكون مُفاعل الغاز الحيوي من غُرفة مُحكمة الغلق لتسهيل عملية التحلّل اللاهوائي للمياه السوداء والحمأة و/أو المخلّفات القابلة للتحلل الحيوي، كما تُسهّل أيضًا تجميع الغاز الحيوي الناتج عن عملية التخمّر في المُفاعل. يتولد الغاز في الردغة (المخلوط المضاف من المخلفات العضوية والماء Slurry) ويرتفع إلى أعلى الغُرفة ويعمل على خلط المخلفات عند صعوده. وعادةً ما يكون سماد الغاز الحيوي (المواد المهضومة) Digestate غنيًّا بالمواد العضوية والمغذّيات وخاليًا تقريبًا من الروائح وتكون مسبّبات الأمراض غير نشطة جزئيًا
المزايا
توليد طاقة متجددة.
يتطلب النظام مساحة صغيرة (معظم المُنشأة يمكن بناؤها تحت الأرض).
لا يتطلب طاقة كهربية.
يُحافظ على المغذّيات.
يقدم خدمة طويلة الأمد.
تكاليف التشغيل منخفضة.
العيوب
يتطلب خبرة في التصميم ومهارة في التنفيذ.
الإزالة غير مكتملة لمسبّبات الأمراض، وسماد الغاز الحيوي قد يتطلب معالجة إضافية.
إنتاج محدود للغاز في درجة حرارة أقل من 15 درجة مئوية.
المُدخلات المُخرَجات

الحمأة , المياة السوداء , المياة البنية , مواد عضوية

الحمأة , الغاز الحيوي

المُلاءَمَة  

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يُمكن تطبيق هذه التقنية على المستوى المنزلي أو في الأحياء الصغيرة أو من أجل تثبيت الحمأة في محطات معالجة مياه الصرف الصحي الكبيرة. ويكون الاستخدام الأمثل لها حيثما تتاح إمكانية الإمداد بشكل منتظم للمخلفات. يتم استخدام مُفاعل الغاز الحيوي -في العادة- كبديل عن خزَّان التحليل )التخمير(، حيث إنه يُوفّر نفس مستوى المعالجة ولكن يتميز عنه بإنتاج الغاز الحيوي كقيمة مضافة. وعلى أي حال، فإنه لا يمكن إنتاج كميات مُعتبرة من الغاز الحيوي إذا كانت المياه السوداء هي المُدخَل الوحيد. ويمكن إنتاج الغاز الحيوي بمستويات مرتفعة عند إضافة المواد المُركّزة الغنيّة بمحتواها العضوي  )على سبيل المثال: روث الحيوانات والمخلّفات العضوية الناتجة عن المنازل أو الأسواق   ( ومن الممكن هضم المياه السوداء المُنتجة من منزلٍ واحدٍ مع روث الماشية بطريقة فعَّالة إذا كان الروث هو المصدر الرئيسي لإمداد المُفاعل. ولا يجدُرُ إضافة المياه الرمادية حيث إنها تقلّل من زمن البقاء الهيدروليكي بشكل ملحوظ. كذلك يجب تجنب إضافة المواد الخشبية والقش في المُفاعل لأنها صعبة التحلّل.

تُعتبر مُفاعلات الغاز الحيوي أقل مُلاءمةً في الأجواء الباردة، حيث إن مُعدّل تحوّل المواد العضوية إلى غاز حيوي محدود جدًّا في درجات الحرارة الأقل من 15 درجة مئوية، وبناءً على ذلك يحتاج المُفاعل لزمن بقاء هيدروليكي أطول وأن يزداد حجم التصميم بشكل كبير.

 

اعتبارات التصميم

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يُمكن إنشاء مُفاعلات الغاز الحيوي من الطوب على شكل قُبَب أو من خزانات سابقة الصنع. ويتم تركيبها فوق الأرض أو تحتها، وذلك حسب المساحة وخصائص التربة والموارد المتاحة وحجم المخلفات المُتولدة. ويتم بناء المُفاعلات على شكل قُبة ثابتة أو قُبة طافية. في حالة القباب الثابتة يكون حجم المُفاعل ثابتًا، وعندما يُنتَج الغاز فإنه يضغط ويزيح مخلوط المخلفات العضوية والماء لأعلى ناحيةَ غُرفة التمدّد، ثم يسقط المخلوط مرة أخرى داخل المُفاعل عند خروج الغاز، ويتم استخدام الضغط المُتولد لنقل الغاز الحيوي عبر الأنابيب. أما في حالة المُفاعل ذي القبة الطافية فإن القبة ترتفع وتنخفض مع إنتاج الغاز وخروجه، أو من الممكن استخدام بدائل يمكنها أن تتمدّد )مثل البالون( و للحد من الهدر الناتج عن التوزيع فإنه يجب إنشاء المُفاعل بالقرب من نقاط استخدام الغاز.

يجب ألا يقل زمن البقاء الهيدروليكي Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) في المُفاعل عن 15 يومًا في الأجواء الحارة، و25 يومًا في الأجواء المعتدلة، وفي حالة إمداد المُفاعل بحمل كبير من مسببات الأمراض فينبغي اعتبار 60 يومًا كزمن بقاء هيدروليكي. عادةً ما تعمل المُفاعلات في نطاق درجات الحرارة المعتدلة بين 30 إلى 38 درجة مئوية، بينما تضمن نطاقات درجات الحرارة المرتفعة )بين 50 و 57 درجة مئوية  ( الإبادة التامة لمسببات الأمراض، ولكن لا يمكن تحقيق ذلك إلا بتسخين المُفاعل )عمليًا يحدث ذلك في الدول الصناعية فقط(

يتم توصيل مُفاعلات الغاز الحيوى -في أغلب الأحيان- مباشرةً بالمراحيض الخاصة أو العامة مع توفير فتحة إدخال إضافية للمواد العضوية. يمكن أن تُصنع المُفاعلات على المستوى المنزلي من الحاويات البلاستيكية أوالطوب، وتتراوح أحجامها ما بين ألف لتر للأسرة الواحدة وحتى مائة ألف لتر لمراحيض المنشئات أو المراحيض العامة. ويجب إجراء التدابير اللازمة لتوفير الأماكن المُخصّصة لتخزين أو استخدام أو نقل سماد الغاز الحيوي بعيدًا عن الموقع، وذلك لكونه يُنتج باستمرار.

 

الجوانب الصحية / القبول  

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يُعتبر سماد الغاز الحيوي مُعقم جزئيًا، لكنه يظل يحمل خطر العدوى، واعتمادًا على استخدامه النهائي فقد يحتاج إلى معالجة إضافية. وهناك أيضًا الأخطار الناتجة عن الغازات القابلة للاشتعال؛ فإذا لم يتم إدارتها بشكل صحيح فذلك قد يضر بصحة الإنسان.

 

التشغيل والصيانة  

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يحتاج المُفاعل إلى صيانة محدودة إذا تم تصميمه وبناؤه بشكل صحيح. يجب أن يُلقَّح المُفاعل بالبكتيريا اللاهوائية لبدء التشغيل؛ مثلًا بإضافة روث البقر الجديد أو حمأة خزَّان التحليل )التخمير( وينبغي فرم المواد العضوية المُضافة للمُفاعل وخلطها بالماء أو سماد الغاز الحيوي قبل إضافتها.

ويجب تنظيف مُعدات الغاز بحذر وانتظام، وذلك لمنع التآكل والتسريب. كما يجب إزالة الحصى والرمال المترسّبة في قاع المُفاعل. ووفقًا للتصميم والمُدخلات؛ يجب أن يُفرّغ المُفاعل كل 5 إلى 10 سنوات.

المراجع

الاستخدام الامثل لمياة الصرف الصحى فى المجمعات السكنية إنتاج البيوغاز وإعادة استخدام المياة المعالجة بحى الاندلس للاسكان الشعبى

عماد سعد سعيد بلال (2004): الاستخدام الامثل لمياة الصرف الصحى فى المجمعات السكنية إنتاج البيوغاز وإعادة استخدام المياة المعالجة بحى الاندلس للاسكان الشعبى . السودان: جامعة الخرطوم /السودان

Biogas Technology - A Training Manual for Extension

This manual contains a complete set of training materials on various topics around the large-scale dissemination of domestic (agricultural) biogas systems, including a system approach to biogas technology, biogas programmes, reuse of slurry, subsidy and institutional financing, quality standards and monitoring and evaluation issues.

FAO (1996): Biogas Technology - A Training Manual for Extension. Support for Development of National Biogas Programme (FAO/TCP/NEP/4451-T) . Consolidated Management Services Nepal (P) Ltd. and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) URL [Accessed: 19.04.2010]

Biogas Basics

The information service on biogas technology has been developed and produced on the behalf of the GTZ project Information and Advisory Service on Appropriate Technology (ISAT). Volume I tells you all you need to get an overview on biogas sanitation systems, from history over process and operation parameters to social, political and cultural issues.

ISAT ; GTZ (1999): Biogas Basics. (= Biogas Digest , 1 ). Information and Advisory Services on Appropriate Technology (ISAT) and German Agency for Technical Cooperation GmbH (GTZ) URL [Accessed: 03.06.2019]

Biogas - Application and Product Development

The information service on biogas technology has been developed and produced on the behalf of the GTZ project Information and Advisory Service on Appropriate Technology (ISAT). Volume II emphasises the design and operation of biogas plants.

ISAT ; GTZ (1999): Biogas - Application and Product Development. (= Biogas Digest , 2 ). Information and Advisory Services on Appropriate Technology (ISAT) and German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 03.06.2019]

Biogas - Costs and Benefits and Biogas – Programme Implementation

This information service on biogas technology has been developed and produced on the order of the GTZ project Information and Advisory Service on Appropriate Technology (ISAT). Volume III discusses the micro- and macro-economic viability of biogas sanitation systems.

ISAT ; GTZ (1999): Biogas - Costs and Benefits and Biogas – Programme Implementation. (= Biogas Digest , 3 ). Information and Advisory Services on Appropriate Technology (ISAT) and German Agency for Technical Cooperation GmbH (GmbH) URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]

Biogas - Country Reports

The information service on biogas technology has been developed and produced on the behalf of the GTZ project Information and Advisory Service on Appropriate Technology (ISAT). Volume IV summarises over 20 case studies from biogas sanitation as an appropriate technology in developing countries.

ISAT ; GTZ (1999): Biogas - Country Reports. (= Biogas Digest , 4 ). Information and Advisory Services on Appropriate Technology (ISAT) and German Agency for Technical Cooperation GmbH (GTZ). [Accessed: 19.04.2010] PDF

Guidelines on the Use of Urine and Faeces in Crop Production

These guidelines provide a thorough background on the use of urine (and faeces) for agricultural purposes. Aspects discussed are requirements for plant growth, nutrients in excreta, hygiene aspects, and recommendations for cultivation. It provides detailed guidance on the use of urine for purposes.

JOENSSON, H. RICHERT, A. VINNERAAS, B. SALOMON, E. (2004): Guidelines on the Use of Urine and Faeces in Crop Production. (= EcoSanRes Publications Series , 2004 ). Stockholm: EcoSanRes URL [Accessed: 17.04.2012]

Biogas Sanitation Systems

This PDF-presentation gives a good introduction to biogas sanitation as a sustainable and ecological sanitation approach. Basic principles and main features are illustrated. Some design considerations are also addressed.

MANG, H. P. (2005): Biogas Sanitation Systems. (= Ecological sanitation course ). Beijing: Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering

Technology Review of Biogas Sanitation

This document provides an overview and introduction on biogas sanitation (anaerobic digestion) for blackwater or for brown water, or excreta treatment for reuse in developing countries. The main technologies discussed are biogas settlers (BSs), biogas septic tanks, anaerobic baffled reactor (ABRs), anaerobic filter (AFs) and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors (UASBs).

MANG, H.-P. LI, Z. (2010): Technology Review of Biogas Sanitation. (= Technology Review ). Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]

Biogas Handbook. Consolidation of Information

This handbook, even though it dates back to 1982, is quite comprehensive. It explains the theory of biogas productions, factors affecting plant designs, and operation of plants. Details of several popular biogas plant designs, construction and operation and maintenance are given. Designs of biogas utilisation devices and their operation requirements for use in lighting and cooking and as a fuel for prime movers are also included. The use of digested slurry as a source of organic fertilizer is discussed. Technical problems faced in the construction and operation of biogas plants and appliances are identified along with the causes and known solutions.

MAZUMDAR, A. (1982): Biogas Handbook. Consolidation of Information. Paris: United Nation Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

Chapter 4. Methane production by anaerobic digestion of wastewater and solid wastes

This chapter is part of a publication, commissioned by the Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (Novem) on the status and perspectives of research and development in the field of high-tech biological production of methane and hydrogen. Chapter 4 gives a short but precise introduction the technological aspects of waste treatment by anaerobic digestion and the reuse of the produced biogas.

MES, T.Z.D. de STAMS, A.J.M. ZEEMAN, G. (2003): Chapter 4. Methane production by anaerobic digestion of wastewater and solid wastes. المُدخلات: REITH, J.H. ; WIJFFELS, R.H. ; BARTEN, H. (2003): Biomethane and Biohydrogen. Status and perspectives of biological methane and hydrogen production. 58-94.

Support Project to the Biogas Programme for the Animal Husbandry Sector in some Provinces of Vietnam

The Vietnamese and Netherlands Governments signed a Memorandum of Understanding for the implementation of a domestic biogas dissemination project in 10 provinces of Vietnam in January 2003. The project supports the agricultural sector in several provinces in Vietnam and uniquely joined Vietnams technical knowledge on fixed dome plant design and construction with Netherlands experience with large-scale dissemination of domestic biogas.

PBPO (2006): Support Project to the Biogas Programme for the Animal Husbandry Sector in some Provinces of Vietnam. (= BP I Final Report ). Hanoi: Provincial Biogas Project Office Hanoi URL [Accessed: 13.04.2010]

Biogas Plants

This rather old document still gives a good overview on biogas technology. It is intended to help designers of a biogas plant to be able to distinguish between valid and invalid solutions.

SASSE, L. (1988): Biogas Plants. German Appropriate Technology Exchange (GATE) and German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 15.05.2012]

DEWATS

Exhaustive report on technological, operational and economic aspects of decentralised waste water treatment systems. Spreadsheet examples support the reader in designing and planning waste water treatment systems components.

SASSE, L. BORDA (1998): DEWATS. Decentralised Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries. Bremen: Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA) URL [Accessed: 03.06.2019]

Guidelines on the Safe Use of Urine and Faeces in Ecological Sanitation Systems

These guidelines provide a thorough background on the safe use of urine and faeces for agricultural purposes. Aspects like the health risk associated we the use of human excreta in agriculture and how to limit them are discussed.

SCHOENNING, C. STENSTROEM, T.A. (2004): Guidelines on the Safe Use of Urine and Faeces in Ecological Sanitation Systems. (= EcoSanRes Publication Series ). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI)

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste in Developing Countries

This book published by Eawag/Sandec compiles existing and recently generated knowledge on anaerobic digestion of urban biowaste at small and medium scale with special consideration given to the conditions prevailing in developing countries. Written for actors working in the waste and renewable energy sector, the book is divided into two parts: Part 1 focuses on practical information related to the anaerobic digestion supply chain (substrate-, process-, and product chain), and Part 2 presents selected case studies from around the world.

VOEGELI, Y. LOHRI, C.R. GALLARDO, A. DIENER, S. ZURBRUEGG, C. EAWAG (2014): Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste in Developing Countries. Practical Information and Case Studies. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.05.2019]

Using Human Waste

This Technical Brief introduces the main issues one needs to consider to both control the process and optimize the benefits gained from using human waste, whilst minimizing the risks.

WELL (n.y): Using Human Waste. (= WELL Technical Briefs , 63 ). Loughborough: Water and Environmental health at London and Loughborough (WELL) URL [Accessed: 26.04.2010]

Biogas Plants in Animal Husbandry

This guide addresses the planners and providers of stock-farming and agricultural-extension services in developing countries. It is intended to serve as a source of information on the potentials of and prerequisites for biogas technology: a decision-making and planning aid for the construction and dissemination of biogas plants: a book of reference for information on practical experience and detailed data.

WERNER, U. STOEHR, U. HEES., N. (1989): Biogas Plants in Animal Husbandry. German Appropriate Technology Exchange (GATE) and German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH

Document 8, Data Management Document, Appendix S 06 - Energy Research

This document provided by Waste Refinery Australia Project Association Inc. contains information on biogas, different types of cogeneration (CHP) and district heating. Additionally there are also facts and information on hydronics and gas flare.

WRAPAI (2009): Document 8, Data Management Document, Appendix S 06 - Energy Research. Australia: Waste Refinery Australia Project Association Incorporated (WRAPAI)
قراءات أخرى

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste in Developing Countries

This book published by Eawag/Sandec compiles existing and recently generated knowledge on anaerobic digestion of urban biowaste at small and medium scale with special consideration given to the conditions prevailing in developing countries. Written for actors working in the waste and renewable energy sector, the book is divided into two parts: Part 1 focuses on practical information related to the anaerobic digestion supply chain (substrate-, process-, and product chain), and Part 2 presents selected case studies from around the world.

VOEGELI, Y. LOHRI, C.R. GALLARDO, A. DIENER, S. ZURBRUEGG, C. EAWAG (2014): Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste in Developing Countries. Practical Information and Case Studies. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.05.2019]

Environmental Impact of Household Biogas Pants in India — Local and Global Perspective

In this study, the environmental impacts of biogas technology in India were studied when biogas as a cooking fuel substitutes bio-fuels (fuel wood, dung and crop residues) and fossil fuels (Kerosene and LPG)

ASIKAINEN, V. (2004): Environmental Impact of Household Biogas Pants in India — Local and Global Perspective. (= Master Thesis ). Jyvaskyla: University of Jyvaskyla

Biogas Production in Climates with long cold Winters

This study analyses the feasibility and potential production of biogas in countries with a cold climate, with emphasis on Romania, Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, Kazakhstan and Armenia. The results are compared with China, Nepal and Bolivia. The study also carefully reviews existing literature before suggesting the same technology for the colder target communities. It also contains recommendations on whether to use the plants on household or community level afterwards.

BALASUBRAMANIYAM, U. ZISENGWE, L.S. MERIGGI, N. BUYSMAN, E. (2008): Biogas Production in Climates with long cold Winters. Wageningen: Wageningen University URL [Accessed: 31.05.2019]

Dairy Waste Anaerobic Digestion Handbook. Options for Recovering Beneficial Products from Dairy Manure

This manual provides an introduction to the anaerobic digestion of dairy manure. The operation and waste management practices of Idaho dairies, the anaerobic digestion and the anaerobic digestion processes suitable for dairy waste, the typical design applications for different types of dairies and finally the cost and benefits of the facilities are discussed.

BURKE, P.E. Dennis, A. (2001): Dairy Waste Anaerobic Digestion Handbook. Options for Recovering Beneficial Products from Dairy Manure. Olympia: Environmental Energy Company

Technologies demonstrated at Echo: Floating Drum Biogas Digester

This short document describes the concept and design of floating drum biogas digesters as developed at the Educational Concerns For Hunger Organization (ECHO).

DAHLMAN, J. FORST, C. (2002): Technologies demonstrated at Echo: Floating Drum Biogas Digester. (= An Echo Concept Paper ). North Fort Myers: Educational Concerns For Hunger Organization (ECHO) URL [Accessed: 12.08.2010]

Report on the Feasibility Study for a Biogas Support Programme in the Republic of Rwanda

This report presents the findings of a study conducted by Ministry of Agriculture (MININFRA) and SNV to assess the feasibility to set-up and implement a national programme on domestic biogas in Rwanda.

DEKELVER, G. RUZIGANA, S. LAM, J. (2005): Report on the Feasibility Study for a Biogas Support Programme in the Republic of Rwanda. Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV) URL [Accessed: 09.04.2010]

Emerging Biodigester Technology in Honduras: Biophysical Processes and Operation

Master thesis on biophysical and operational aspects of anaerobic bio-digesters in rural Honduras. Bio-digester processes, the operational practices for plastic balloon bio-digesters and a typology of successful bio-digester operation are developed.

GREEN, S. (2005): Emerging Biodigester Technology in Honduras: Biophysical Processes and Operation. (= Master Thesis ). Montana: University of Montana

Decentralised anaerobic digestion of market waste. Case study in Thiruvananthapuram, India

Decentralized anaerobic digestion is a promising technology to handle the large organic fraction of the municipal solid waste with the additional benefit of producing biogas as well as fertilizer. In this study a market level biogas plant in Thiruvananthapuram, South India and constructed by a NGO called BIOTECH is monitored and evaluated.

HEEB, F. (2009): Decentralised anaerobic digestion of market waste. Case study in Thiruvananthapuram, India. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG) URL [Accessed: 31.05.2019]

Biogas Basics

The information service on biogas technology has been developed and produced on the behalf of the GTZ project Information and Advisory Service on Appropriate Technology (ISAT). Volume I tells you all you need to get an overview on biogas sanitation systems, from history over process and operation parameters to social, political and cultural issues.

ISAT ; GTZ (1999): Biogas Basics. (= Biogas Digest , 1 ). Information and Advisory Services on Appropriate Technology (ISAT) and German Agency for Technical Cooperation GmbH (GTZ) URL [Accessed: 03.06.2019]

Biogas - Application and Product Development

The information service on biogas technology has been developed and produced on the behalf of the GTZ project Information and Advisory Service on Appropriate Technology (ISAT). Volume II emphasises the design and operation of biogas plants.

ISAT ; GTZ (1999): Biogas - Application and Product Development. (= Biogas Digest , 2 ). Information and Advisory Services on Appropriate Technology (ISAT) and German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 03.06.2019]

Biogas - Costs and Benefits and Biogas – Programme Implementation

This information service on biogas technology has been developed and produced on the order of the GTZ project Information and Advisory Service on Appropriate Technology (ISAT). Volume III discusses the micro- and macro-economic viability of biogas sanitation systems.

ISAT ; GTZ (1999): Biogas - Costs and Benefits and Biogas – Programme Implementation. (= Biogas Digest , 3 ). Information and Advisory Services on Appropriate Technology (ISAT) and German Agency for Technical Cooperation GmbH (GmbH) URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]

Performance evaluation of a biogas stove for cooking in Nigeria

Journal article on a biogas digester, which was designed, constructed and its performance evaluated using a 3m3 continuous flow Indian type biogas plant at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria. Various technical drafts and mathematical and chemical formulas are shown.

ITODO, I. N. ; AGYO, G. E. ; YUSUF, P. (2007): Performance evaluation of a biogas stove for cooking in Nigeria. المُدخلات: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa: Volume 18 , 14-18. URL [Accessed: 09.04.2010]

Anaerobic Reactors

Anaerobic Reactors is the forth volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment. The fundamentals of anaerobic treatment are presented in detail, including its applicability, microbiology, biochemistry and main reactor configurations. Two reactor types are analysed in more detail, namely anaerobic filters and especially UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactors. Particular attention is also devoted to the post-treatment of the effluents from the anaerobic reactors. The book presents in a clear and informative way the main concepts, working principles, expected removal efficiencies, design criteria, design examples, construction aspects and operational guidelines for anaerobic reactors.

LEMOS CHERNICHARO, C.A. de (2007): Anaerobic Reactors. (= Biological Wastewater Treatment Series , 4 ). London: International Water Association (IWA) Publishing. [Accessed: 01.11.2013]

Chapter 4. Methane production by anaerobic digestion of wastewater and solid wastes

This chapter is part of a publication, commissioned by the Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (Novem) on the status and perspectives of research and development in the field of high-tech biological production of methane and hydrogen. Chapter 4 gives a short but precise introduction the technological aspects of waste treatment by anaerobic digestion and the reuse of the produced biogas.

MES, T.Z.D. de STAMS, A.J.M. ZEEMAN, G. (2003): Chapter 4. Methane production by anaerobic digestion of wastewater and solid wastes. المُدخلات: REITH, J.H. ; WIJFFELS, R.H. ; BARTEN, H. (2003): Biomethane and Biohydrogen. Status and perspectives of biological methane and hydrogen production. 58-94.

Technology Review of Biogas Sanitation

This document provides an overview and introduction on biogas sanitation (anaerobic digestion) for blackwater or for brown water, or excreta treatment for reuse in developing countries. The main technologies discussed are biogas settlers (BSs), biogas septic tanks, anaerobic baffled reactor (ABRs), anaerobic filter (AFs) and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors (UASBs).

MANG, H.-P. LI, Z. (2010): Technology Review of Biogas Sanitation. (= Technology Review ). Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]

Biogas Handbook. Consolidation of Information

This handbook, even though it dates back to 1982, is quite comprehensive. It explains the theory of biogas productions, factors affecting plant designs, and operation of plants. Details of several popular biogas plant designs, construction and operation and maintenance are given. Designs of biogas utilisation devices and their operation requirements for use in lighting and cooking and as a fuel for prime movers are also included. The use of digested slurry as a source of organic fertilizer is discussed. Technical problems faced in the construction and operation of biogas plants and appliances are identified along with the causes and known solutions.

MAZUMDAR, A. (1982): Biogas Handbook. Consolidation of Information. Paris: United Nation Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

Support Project to the Biogas Programme for the Animal Husbandry Sector in some Provinces of Vietnam

The Vietnamese and Netherlands Governments signed a Memorandum of Understanding for the implementation of a domestic biogas dissemination project in 10 provinces of Vietnam in January 2003. The project supports the agricultural sector in several provinces in Vietnam and uniquely joined Vietnams technical knowledge on fixed dome plant design and construction with Netherlands experience with large-scale dissemination of domestic biogas.

PBPO (2006): Support Project to the Biogas Programme for the Animal Husbandry Sector in some Provinces of Vietnam. (= BP I Final Report ). Hanoi: Provincial Biogas Project Office Hanoi URL [Accessed: 13.04.2010]

Dissemination of improved stoves and biogas experiences in Burkina Faso

This PDF-presentation was presented a workshop in Ouagadougou entitled South-South cooperation in the field of Biomass energy: Challenge and opportunities. It illustrates how biogas technology was introduced along with cooking stoves and emphasizes technical and organisational lessons learnt.

SANOGO, O. (2008): Dissemination of improved stoves and biogas experiences in Burkina Faso. Institute de Recherche en Sciences Appliquées et Technologie (IRSAT) and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et Technologique (CNRST)

Biogas Plants

This rather old document still gives a good overview on biogas technology. It is intended to help designers of a biogas plant to be able to distinguish between valid and invalid solutions.

SASSE, L. (1988): Biogas Plants. German Appropriate Technology Exchange (GATE) and German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 15.05.2012]

Improved Biogas Unit for Developing Countries

This booklet reflects seven years of experience of the Biogas Extension Service (BES) of CAMARTEC (Centre for Agricultural Mechanization and Rural Technology) in Arusha/Tanzania, which was carried out in cooperation with the GTZ from 1983 to 1986. It is meant as a teaching aid in agricultural colleges and as a reference book for professionals working in the field of rural biogas extension.

SASSE, L. (1991): Improved Biogas Unit for Developing Countries. German Appropriate Technology Exchange (GATE) and German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019]

DEWATS

Exhaustive report on technological, operational and economic aspects of decentralised waste water treatment systems. Spreadsheet examples support the reader in designing and planning waste water treatment systems components.

SASSE, L. BORDA (1998): DEWATS. Decentralised Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries. Bremen: Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA) URL [Accessed: 03.06.2019]

Optimising simple biogas digesters for use in cold regions of developing countries

Livestock manures represent a valuable resource, which can produce clean renewable energy and valuable fertilizer. In many part os the world, livestock production is increasing. However, the amount of gas produced by small scale biogas plants is very limited. This paper researches how small-scale biogas plants can be adapted for use in cold regions in developing countries.

SOMMER, S.G. NORDDAHL, B. (2008): Optimising simple biogas digesters for use in cold regions of developing countries. Odense: University of Southern Denmark URL [Accessed: 29.07.2010]

Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions Volume 1

Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions gives a state-of-the-art presentation of the science and technology of biological wastewater treatment, particularly domestic sewage. The book covers the main treatment processes used worldwide with wastewater treatment in warm climate regions given a particular emphasis where simple, affordable and sustainable solutions are required. The 55 chapters are divided into 7 parts over two volumes: Volume One: (1) Introduction to wastewater characteristics, treatment and disposal; (2) Basic principles of wastewater treatment; (3) Stabilisation ponds; (4) Anaerobic reactors; Volume Two (also available in the SSWM library): (5) Activated sludge; (6) Aerobic biofilm reactors; (7) Sludge treatment and disposal.

SPERLING, M. von LEMOS CHERNICHARO, C.A. de (2005): Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions Volume 1. London: International Water Association (IWA) Publishing URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]

Links between Sanitation, Climate Change and Renewable Energies

This factsheet of Sustainable Sanitation Alliance describes the impact of greenhouse gases on climate change and focuses on the advantages of renewable energies. Therefore many different technologies like production of biogas or short-rotation-plantations are mentioned.

SUSANA (2009): Links between Sanitation, Climate Change and Renewable Energies. Eschborn. (= SuSanA fact sheet 09/2009 ). Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]

Agricultural Engineering in Support of the Kyoto Protocol. The Clean Development Mechanism for Biogas Technology

This paper discusses the potential of the Clean Development Mechanisms (CDMs) for the commercialisation of the small- to large- scale Integrated Biogas System (IBS). IBS utilises a system approach for the efficient management and conversion of agro-industrial waste into clean biogas and organic fertilizer. The methane captured could either be used for electricity generation in large/medium commercial enterprises or used for cooking, lighting and heating hot water in small-scale community.

UN (n.y): Agricultural Engineering in Support of the Kyoto Protocol. The Clean Development Mechanism for Biogas Technology. United Nations (UN) Asian and Pacific Centre for Agricultural Engineering and Machinery (APCAEM)

Feasibility Study for Developing Proposal under Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) for Claiming Carbon Credits for Leach Pit Toilets & Toilet Linked Biogas Plants

The promotion of leach pit toilets and toilet linked biogas plants, as well as solid and liquid waste management technologies implemented under the total sanitation campaign (TSC) in India reduces the emission of green house gases to the atmosphere. This report examines whether the TSC program qualifies for CDM benefits, which will greatly help in financing further sanitation related initiatives at national level.

WINROCK (2008): Feasibility Study for Developing Proposal under Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) for Claiming Carbon Credits for Leach Pit Toilets & Toilet Linked Biogas Plants. Winrock International India
حالات دراسية

Biogas Plants Based on Night Soil

The government of India started its biogas development project in 1981 as one of its programs designed to meet rural energy needs, especially for cooking. One of the solutions to the problem was the introduction of the concept of pay-and-use toilets championed by the Sulabh International Social Service Organisation, a non-profit voluntary organisation pioneering in the field of sanitation in India. The biogas generated is used largely for public lighting. Sulabh community toilets linked to biogas plants are generating energy and fertilizer, and some of them have attached health care facilities as well.

APEIS (2003): Biogas Plants Based on Night Soil. Asia-Pacific Environmental Innovation Strategies (APEIS), Research on Innovative and Strategic Policy Options (RISPO). (=Good Practices Inventory). Sulabh International and Agency for Non Conventional Energy and Rural Technology (ANERT)

Pilot Integrate Waste Management Scheme for Small and Medium Scale Slaughterhouses

The Animal Products Development Centre, Bureau of Animal Industry (APDC-BAI), developed an integrated waste management scheme for small and medium scale slaughterhouses. Wastewater is treated in a DEWATS system developed together with BORDA. The system comprises a closed small-scale sewer system, an anaerobic digester, an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), an anaerobic filter (AF) and an aerobic planted filter as a final step to reduce odours.

APDC (n.y): Pilot Integrate Waste Management Scheme for Small and Medium Scale Slaughterhouses. Valenzuela City: Animal Products Development Centre, Bureau of Animal Industry (APDC-BAI) URL [Accessed: 20.04.2010]

Domestic biogas for cooking and sanitation

The Biogas Sector Partnership (BSP) in Nepal managed the installation of over 124,000 domestic biogas plants in Nepal between 1992 and 2005. The plants use cattle manure to provide biogas for cooking and lighting. In addition, about 75% of the plants incorporate toilets.

ASHDEN (2005): Domestic biogas for cooking and sanitation. London: The Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy URL [Accessed: 13.04.2010]

Clean cooking and income generation from biogas plants in Karnataka

SKG Sangha (SKG S) is a non-profit organisation that supplies biogas plants to households in rural areas of South India. The ‘Deenbandu’ design plants are built on-site by local masons and labourers trained by SKGS, with very high quality standards. Plants produce biogas by digesting cow dung, replacing all the fuel wood used for cooking.

ASHDEN (2007): Clean cooking and income generation from biogas plants in Karnataka. London: The Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy URL [Accessed: 14.03.2010]

Decentralized Wastewater Treatment System - DEWATS

The wastewater from Manjuyod’s public market is treated in a decentralized system (DEWATS) composed of four different components: a settling tank; a anaerobic baffled reactor which reduces the BOD/COD content from 20% to 85%; a planted gravel filter; and finally a polishing pond.

BORDA (2008): Decentralized Wastewater Treatment System - DEWATS. Manjuyod Public Market. (= Sustainable Sanitation – Project Data Sheet ). Bremen: Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA) URL [Accessed: 26.03.2010]

Biogas - Country Reports

The information service on biogas technology has been developed and produced on the behalf of the GTZ project Information and Advisory Service on Appropriate Technology (ISAT). Volume IV summarises over 20 case studies from biogas sanitation as an appropriate technology in developing countries.

ISAT ; GTZ (1999): Biogas - Country Reports. (= Biogas Digest , 4 ). Information and Advisory Services on Appropriate Technology (ISAT) and German Agency for Technical Cooperation GmbH (GTZ). [Accessed: 19.04.2010] PDF

Recycling and reuse of human excreta from public toilets through biogas generation to improve sanitation, community health and environment

This paper has been written by the Director General Sulabh International Academy of Environmental Sanitation, which is well known for the installations of over 100 biogas linked public toilets in India. It gives an overview on the Sulabh approach and deals with many issues in brief way, including technical, social and economical aspects.

JHA, P.K. (n.y): Recycling and reuse of human excreta from public toilets through biogas generation to improve sanitation, community health and environment. New Delhi: Sulabh International Academy of Environmental Sanitation URL [Accessed: 12.08.2010]

Empowering rural poor Women by Enhancing income through Biogas Plant by INSEDA and WAFD in Bharatapur, India

INSEDA (Integrated Sustainable Energy and Ecological Development Association) in partnership with WAFD (Women’s Action For Development) is implementing a new household biogas design to empower women in the villages of the Bharatpur district, Rajasthan (India) since 2002. This design is based on the principle of fixed-dome reactors but is built only with materials available locally in rural areas.

MYLES, R. (n.y): Empowering rural poor Women by Enhancing income through Biogas Plant by INSEDA and WAFD in Bharatapur, India. New Delhi: Integrated Sustainable Energy and Ecological Development Association (INSEDA) URL [Accessed: 12.08.2010]

Ecological Sanitation in Uganda

This document presents a range of different projects implemented in Uganda around ecological sanitation, such as school sanitation, biogas and sludge treatmemt. These documented cases have been compiled in completion of a 15 months Ecological Sanitation Research Project implemented by Network for Water and Sanitation (NETWAS) Uganda as the ecosanres Uganda Knowledge Node with support from the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI).

NETWAS EcoSanRes SEI (2011): Ecological Sanitation in Uganda. Inspirational Success Stories from the Field. Kampala: NETWAS Uganda URL [Accessed: 29.08.2011]

Feasibility of a national programme on domestic biogas in Bangladesh

This report presents the findings of a study conducted by the Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV) to assess the feasibility of setting up and implementing a national programme on domestic biogas in Bangladesh.

NES, W.J. van BOERS, W. UL-ISLAM, K. (2005): Feasibility of a national programme on domestic biogas in Bangladesh. (= Final report ). Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV) URL [Accessed: 23.04.2010]

Organic Farming with Slurry

Rural biogas plants not only produce a renewable energy source, but also valuable slurry, which can be, used as organic fertilizer for crop production.

NEWAR, N. (n.y): Organic Farming with Slurry. (= Success Stories from the Biogas Sector Partnership - Nepal ). Biogas Sector Partnership (BSP) URL [Accessed: 26.04.2010]

Individual Household Toilet Linked Biogas Plants. A Success Story in Salem District

The Salem is a hilly surrounded District in Tamil Nadu State with a tropical climate and temperatures within 35 to 40°C (thus perfectly suited for biogas plant). Ramu owns a toilet linked biogas plant and the improvement of his family’s socio-economic circumstances has had an enormous impact on local thinking. Now the local inhabitants of that area realise the importance of hygiene and the ecological and environmental values, and the demand for toilet-linked biogas plants is increasing steeply.

RAJAM, G. (n.y): Individual Household Toilet Linked Biogas Plants. A Success Story in Salem District. New Delhi: Ministry of Rural Development URL [Accessed: 25.04.2010]

A biogas plant for the digestion of fresh undiluted cattle dung

This article describes how the popular fixed-dome type family size biogas plant has been successfully modified to allow use of fresh undiluted cattle dung as substrate. A large number of family-size biogas plants installed in the countryside in India use cattle dung diluted with an equal quantity of water as substrate. The biogas plant described below requires very little or no water for mixing with the cattle dung, and generates about 50% more biogas.

SHYAM, M. (2001): A biogas plant for the digestion of fresh undiluted cattle dung. المُدخلات: Boiling Point: Volume 47 , 33-35.

Technical and biological Performance of the ARTI Compact Biogas Plant for Kitchen Waste - Case Study from Tanzania

With the growing problem of municipal solid waste and the demand for an alternative energy source regarding rising petrol prices, anaerobic digestion technology has also been extended to organic solid wastes instead of animal dung and faecal wastes. This paper evaluates the suitability of a small-scale biogas system as a decentralised treatment option for the organic fraction of market and household solid waste in Dar el Salaam, Tanzania.

VOEGELI, Y. ; LOHRI, C. ; KASSENGA, G. ; BAIER, U. ; ZURBRUEGG, C. (2009): Technical and biological Performance of the ARTI Compact Biogas Plant for Kitchen Waste - Case Study from Tanzania. المُدخلات: Proceedings Sardinia 2009, Twelfth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy; 5 - 9 October 2009. Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre (CISA): URL [Accessed: 06.06.2019]

Integrated systems on biogas production, non-polluted agricultural production and sanitation in rural China

This paper introduces three typical biogas systems which regard anaerobic fermentation of human and animal “wastes” as a key technology, and which link sanitation and biogas production with agricultural use of digested effluents.

XIANGJUN, Y. ; WANG, H. (2003): Integrated systems on biogas production, non-polluted agricultural production and sanitation in rural China. المُدخلات: Proceedings of the 2nd international symposium, F. 7th-11th April, Luebeck, Germany: , 601-606.

Biogas Systems

During the last years a number of biogas systems have been installed as part of sanitation systems. Issue 9 of Sustainable Sanitation Practice (SSP) on „Biogas systems“ shows successful examples. The first paper presents results from a study in Kerala, India, for digesters on a household level. The second paper shows the results of a long-term implementation program for biogas systems in Lesotho. The third paper presents first results of a digester constructed in a small village in Morocco.

MUELLEGGER, E. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; LECHNER, M. (2011): Biogas Systems. (= Sustainable Sanitation Practice , 9 ). EcoSan Club URL [Accessed: 24.10.2011]

Public toilet with biogas plant and water kiosk, Naivasha, Kenya

A sanitation unit (toilet, hand wash basins, a urinal and showers) and a water kiosk were constructed for a public bus park (design sale was 1000 visitors per day). This projects aimed to improve living conditions of the residents and travellers by providing environmentally-friendly sanitation solutions with a focus on the reuse of the human waste as a resource and to find a business-oriented solution that creates economic incentives for the water sector institutions to invest in sanitation and to generate income for private operators.

RIECK, C. ONYANGO, P. (2010): Public toilet with biogas plant and water kiosk, Naivasha, Kenya. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 12.12.2012]

Decentralized Wastewater Management at Adarsh College, Badalapur, Maharashtra, India

This case study reports the development of an ecologically sound sanitation concept at the Adarsh Bidyaprasarak Sanstha's College of Arts & Commerce. In comprises separate urine collection and a DEWATS system for the treatment of black- and greywater consisting of a biogas settler, an anaerobic baffled reactor and an anaerobic filter, a horizontal flow constructed wetland and a polishing pond.

ZIMMERMANN, N. WAFLER, M. (2009): Decentralized Wastewater Management at Adarsh College, Badalapur, Maharashtra, India. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 25.04.2010]
مواد تدريبية

Design of Biogas Plant

Design manual for an agricultural cattle-fed domestic biogas digester including volume calculation of the digester and the hydraulic chamber and hydraulic retention times. Compiled by the Biogas Training Centre (BRC) Chendu, Sichuan (China).

BRC (n.y): Design of Biogas Plant. Sichuan (China): Biogas Training Centre (BRC) Chendu

Biogas Technology - A Training Manual for Extension

This manual contains a complete set of training materials on various topics around the large-scale dissemination of domestic (agricultural) biogas systems, including a system approach to biogas technology, biogas programmes, reuse of slurry, subsidy and institutional financing, quality standards and monitoring and evaluation issues.

FAO (1996): Biogas Technology - A Training Manual for Extension. Support for Development of National Biogas Programme (FAO/TCP/NEP/4451-T) . Consolidated Management Services Nepal (P) Ltd. and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) URL [Accessed: 19.04.2010]

Evaluation of Biogas Sanitation Systems in Nepalese Prisons. Summary Presentation of Evaluation Results

10 to 20m3 biogas digesters were installed in three different prisons and fed with human excreta and kitchen waste. Pathogen requirement were only partially fulfilled and slurry application as fertilizer needs further investigation and promotion.

EAWAG ; SANDEC (2009): Evaluation of Biogas Sanitation Systems in Nepalese Prisons. Summary Presentation of Evaluation Results. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC). [Accessed: 27.04.2010] PDF

Biogas Basics

The information service on biogas technology has been developed and produced on the behalf of the GTZ project Information and Advisory Service on Appropriate Technology (ISAT). Volume I tells you all you need to get an overview on biogas sanitation systems, from history over process and operation parameters to social, political and cultural issues.

ISAT ; GTZ (1999): Biogas Basics. (= Biogas Digest , 1 ). Information and Advisory Services on Appropriate Technology (ISAT) and German Agency for Technical Cooperation GmbH (GTZ) URL [Accessed: 03.06.2019]

Biogas - Application and Product Development

The information service on biogas technology has been developed and produced on the behalf of the GTZ project Information and Advisory Service on Appropriate Technology (ISAT). Volume II emphasises the design and operation of biogas plants.

ISAT ; GTZ (1999): Biogas - Application and Product Development. (= Biogas Digest , 2 ). Information and Advisory Services on Appropriate Technology (ISAT) and German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 03.06.2019]

Biogas - Costs and Benefits and Biogas – Programme Implementation

This information service on biogas technology has been developed and produced on the order of the GTZ project Information and Advisory Service on Appropriate Technology (ISAT). Volume III discusses the micro- and macro-economic viability of biogas sanitation systems.

ISAT ; GTZ (1999): Biogas - Costs and Benefits and Biogas – Programme Implementation. (= Biogas Digest , 3 ). Information and Advisory Services on Appropriate Technology (ISAT) and German Agency for Technical Cooperation GmbH (GmbH) URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]

Biogas: GP Option for Community Development

This document contains a short review on biogas technology and an overview on the green productivity concept and community development. It also contains a detailed construction manual for fixed-dome biogas plant at the household level for the digestion of animal dung. An operation manual is also given and wide information on biogas appliances, such as cooking stoves and reuse of remaining compost from the digesters.

KOOTTATEP, S. OMPONT, M. HWA, T.J. (2004): Biogas: GP Option for Community Development. Asian Productivity Organization (APO) URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019]

Biogas Sanitation Systems

This PDF-presentation gives a good introduction to biogas sanitation as a sustainable and ecological sanitation approach. Basic principles and main features are illustrated. Some design considerations are also addressed.

MANG, H. P. (2005): Biogas Sanitation Systems. (= Ecological sanitation course ). Beijing: Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering

Installation of a Low Cost Polyethylene Bio-digester

Manual for understanding the construction and operation of a low cost polyethylene biogas digester for rural households (agricultural wastes) in Belize. The manual is easily understandable and is addressed to a large public (users, local engineers/masons or public agents).

ORTEGA, M.O. (2009): Installation of a Low Cost Polyethylene Bio-digester. Belize Alibudon Society, Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA) and Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (Belize)

Biogas

Factsheet on biogas and how it can be produced at farm level.

PACE Project (n.y): Biogas. (= Action Sheet , 66 ). The Pan African Conservation Education Project (PACE Project) URL [Accessed: 20.04.2010]

Improved Biogas Unit for Developing Countries

This booklet reflects seven years of experience of the Biogas Extension Service (BES) of CAMARTEC (Centre for Agricultural Mechanization and Rural Technology) in Arusha/Tanzania, which was carried out in cooperation with the GTZ from 1983 to 1986. It is meant as a teaching aid in agricultural colleges and as a reference book for professionals working in the field of rural biogas extension.

SASSE, L. (1991): Improved Biogas Unit for Developing Countries. German Appropriate Technology Exchange (GATE) and German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019]

Biogas Plants

This rather old document still gives a good overview on biogas technology. It is intended to help designers of a biogas plant to be able to distinguish between valid and invalid solutions.

SASSE, L. (1988): Biogas Plants. German Appropriate Technology Exchange (GATE) and German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 15.05.2012]

Biogas Plants in Animal Husbandry

This guide addresses the planners and providers of stock-farming and agricultural-extension services in developing countries. It is intended to serve as a source of information on the potentials of and prerequisites for biogas technology: a decision-making and planning aid for the construction and dissemination of biogas plants: a book of reference for information on practical experience and detailed data.

WERNER, U. STOEHR, U. HEES., N. (1989): Biogas Plants in Animal Husbandry. German Appropriate Technology Exchange (GATE) and German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH
مواد لنشر الوعي

Asia hits the gas

Biogas technology is already working extremely well on a large scale in several Asian countries. This article reports on some of these successes and recent up-scaling initiatives, and makes a plea for a global conference on biogas.

NES, W.J., van (2006): Asia hits the gas. المُدخلات: Renewable Energy World: Volume 1 , 102-111. URL [Accessed: 24.04.2010]

Smart Sanitation Solutions

Smart Sanitation Solutions presents examples of low-cost household and community-based sanitation solutions that have proven effective and affordable. A wide range of innovative technologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatment and use of sanitation products that have already helped thousands of poor families to improve their lives is illustrated.

NWP (2006): Smart Sanitation Solutions. Examples of innovative, low-cost technologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatment and use of sanitation products. (= Smart water solutions ). Amsterdam: Netherlands Water Partnership (NWP) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019]

Biogas Support Programme fuels rural household energy supply in Nepal

The widespread adoption of biogas technology in Nepal is due to its modular and easy to construct design, its proven reliability, the immediate noticeable benefits and the long term financial incentives provided by the government and international donors. The early involvement and active entrepreneurship of the private sector has been crucial to the success. Despite the economic, technical and social barriers discussed, the success of biogas support programme (BSP) evolves around institutional sustainability, technical sustainability and financial sustainability. And by introducing a strong quality management component to the programme, it helps to ensure that supply-side actors remain fully accountable to their customers.

SNV (2010): Biogas Support Programme fuels rural household energy supply in Nepal. Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV) URL [Accessed: 28.04.2010]

Reuse of Energy (Biogas)

PPT presentation on the advantages of biogas reuse.

WAFLER, M. (2009): Reuse of Energy (Biogas). (PPT presentation). (= Ecosan Training Courses for TSC officials ). Wien: seecon international GmbH

Using Human Waste

This Technical Brief introduces the main issues one needs to consider to both control the process and optimize the benefits gained from using human waste, whilst minimizing the risks.

WELL (n.y): Using Human Waste. (= WELL Technical Briefs , 63 ). Loughborough: Water and Environmental health at London and Loughborough (WELL) URL [Accessed: 26.04.2010]

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