The earthquake disaster preparedness programmes launched by the government and NGOs are primarily focused on building earthquake resistance infrastructures, teaching survival techniques during earthquakes, etc. (see also sanitation in emergencies overview, immediate and short term emergency sanitation and medium term emergency sanitation and upgrading). From a water and sanitation point of view, very little focus is given to earthquake preparedness. There are needs to make an extra effort to improve the present situation of water and sanitation in urban and peri-urban Kathmandu for earthquake disaster preparedness. This case deals with these challenges.
Newsletter by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) Nepal Office on the Kathmandu-Bhaktapur road project, initiated after the preliminary study by JICA team in December 2005 upon a request made by the Government of Nepal (GoN).JICA (2011): A Model Road for New Nepal. The Kathmandu-Bhaktapur Road. (= Quarterly Newsletter , 61 ). Kathmandu, Nepal: Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) Nepal Office URL [Accessed: 03.01.2013]