solution finder

27 May 2019

Fertiliser from Sludge

Author/Compiled by
Analiza Miso (Sustainable Sanitation Center, Xavier University)
Robert Gensch (Sustainable Sanitation Center, Xavier University)
Executive Summary

There exist several new processes, which aim at recover the nutrients, mainly phosphorus from sewage sludge. ASH DEC for instance refers to N-P-K fertiliser, which is produced based on a sewage sludge ash containing a lot of phosphorus enriched with other nutrients such as nitrogen, potassium or sulphur by using the patented ASH DEC technology. The thermo-chemical process has undergone extensive testing in a semi-industrial pilot plant since 2008 and has now achieved industrial maturity. The produced phosphate fertilisers contains significantly lower levels of contaminants than conventional mineral fertilisers and has proven to be even more effective in terms of dry mass yield and plant uptake in some soils. A similar product is called Crystal Green. It can be produced in a unit directly integrated in a wastewater treatment facility and produces a solid granular fertiliser.

Advantages
Relatively cheap process for recycling phosphorous from sludge products
ASH DEC product complies with EU fertiliser standards
Produces high quality fertiliser
Disadvantages
High energy requirement
Gas emissions
Complicated and expensive
In Out

Faecal Sludge

Fertiliser

Factsheet Block Title
Introduction
Factsheet Block Body

As fertiliser prices raise and phosphorus resources decline, the recover of nutrients, mainly phosphorus from wastewater and sewage sludge sees increasing interest (see also peak phosphorous). Today, there exists already several processes, at small or large scale to recover these nutrients the most often in form of struvite, also called Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate Hexahydrate (MAP) (see also struvite and struvite precipitation from urine). The production and use of such local and renewable source for fertiliser can help to optimise the water and nutrient cycle.

The patented ASH DEC technology of the ASH DEC Umwelt AG (Austria) is one of many ways to regain nutrients lost in incineration sewage sludge and to make them available to agriculture. In comparison to other processes, the ASH DEC process has been sufficiently researched so that it is now applicable at industrial scale.

Factsheet Block Title
The ASH DEC fertiliser and process
Factsheet Block Body

The thermo-chemical process removes the toxic heavy metals from the ash and induces chemical nutrient compounds that plants can easily take up from the soils. With its process, ASH DEC produces a multi-nutrient fertiliser out of sewage sludge ash, which meets all relevant parameters of national regulations in Europe. With regard to its cadmium concentrations, it beats mineral phosphate fertilisers by one order of magnitude. During the process, toxic substances are evaporated and concentrated in the flue gas cleaning system, whereas the nutrients become plant-available. The process recovers primary (P, K), secondary (Ca) and trace nutrients (Mg, Fe, S). Particularly P reaches concentrations comparable to standard single phosphate fertilisers.

NPK multiple nutrient fertilisers produced with the ASH DEC technology. Source: ASH DEC (2008)
NPK multiple nutrient fertilisers produced with the ASH DEC technology. Source: ASH DEC (2008)

 

Factsheet Block Title
Explaining the process
Factsheet Block Body
  • First raw sewage sludge is incinerated.
  • Then, ash and harmless chlorine donors are mixed and compacted in a pellet press. Reagents are dosed in accordance with ash quality as well as legal and final-product requirements. 
  • The pellets are fed to a thermal reactor and exposed for about 20 minutes to a temperature of 1.000° C. At this temperature, up to 99% of the target metals - usually mercury, cadmium, lead, zinc and copper - react with the additives and evaporate.
  • 98% of the input ash arrives in form of P-rich granules without toxic substances. 2% of the input ash is retained in the air pollution control system in form of a metal concentrate.
  • To produce fertilisers that meet the requirements of soils and crops, the P-raw product is enriched with other nutrients such as nitrogen, potassium, sulphur or an additional portion of phosphorus.

 

ASH DEC process. Source: ASH DEC (2008)
ASH DEC process. Source: ASH DEC (2008)

 

Factsheet Block Title
Crystal Green (Ostara Inc.)
Factsheet Block Body

(Adapted from OSTARA 2011)

Crystal Green refers to NPK fertiliser produced from the effluent of wastewater treatment plants in a process called Pearl®. The process can be integrated directly into a treatment system and helps also to prevent unwanted precipitation in pipes etc. It is based on controlled chemical precipitation in a fluidised bed reactor that recovers struvite in the form of highly pure crystalline pellets. The nutrient-rich feed streams (liquid fractions of sludge are first mixed with magnesium chloride and, if necessary, sodium hydroxide and then fed into the reactor where the struvite “seeds” e begin to form. These seeds grow in diameter until they reach the desired size of about 1-3.5 mm. In a municipal wastewater treatment plant, up to 90 % of the phosphorus and 40 % of the ammonia load is removed from sludge dewatering liquid using this process and the resulting product is marketed as a commercial fertiliser called Crystal Green®. The fertiliser is adaptable to any types of turf, field-grown nursery stock and high-demand phosphorous crops. Because this fertiliser is solid, the risk of leaching or runoff is significantly reduced.

Crystal Green is a white fertiliser in a granular form. Source: OSTARA (2011) 
Crystal Green is a white fertiliser in a granular form. Source: OSTARA (2011) 

 

Applicability

In general, incinerators that combust sewage sludge, meat and bone meal, digestion residues from biogas facilities and similar material with usually no or little co-combustion of industrial residues qualify for nutrient recovery to produce fertilisers. Preferred plant locations are close to incinerators of reasonable combustion capacity.

Yet, it must be mentioned that this technology is very high-tech and highly energy intensive. It may be a good technology in highly industrialised countries where laws prohibit the use of treated sewage sludge in agriculture — it can then help to close the nutrient loop. Yet, there are other methodologies that allow for a much simpler and less energy intensive nutrient recovery than for instance burning sludge (that usually has a very high moisture content). The technology requires significant financial investment, though ASH TEC is willing to contribute to this.
 

Library References

Recycling von Phosphor aus Klärschlammaschen

This presentation describes the need for recycling phosphorus and the economic sector of the enterprise. There is further information on the process and the pilot plant. Aspects of benchmark and finance are included as well as a brief description of the need for recycling phosphorous (in German).

HERMANN, L. BACHLEITNER, E. (2004): Recycling von Phosphor aus Klärschlammaschen. Vienna: ASH DEC Umwelt AG URL [Accessed: 27.05.2019]

ASH DEC UMWELT AG Success Stories

This short information paper describes the development of ASH DEC Umwelt AG. The process and the product are described shortly and a few historical key figures of the enterprise’s development are mentioned (in German).

ASH DEC (2010): ASH DEC UMWELT AG Success Stories. Vienna: ASH DEC Umwelt AG. [Accessed: 17.08.2010] PDF
Further Readings

Rueckgewinnung von Phosphor aus der Abwasserreinigung

The present study provides an overall perspective on technologies for the recovery of phosphorus from wastewater treatment plants and the opportunities they offer. It differs from previous work in that it not only provides technical process details, but also – and particularly – highlights the status of development, probable availability, and economic viability of the processes, providing the reader with an aid in decision making.

BAFU (2010): Rueckgewinnung von Phosphor aus der Abwasserreinigung. Bern: Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications, Switzerland (FOEN/BAFU) URL [Accessed: 27.05.2019]

Nährstoffe und Verwendung von Düngern in der Landwirtschaft

These terms of references define the legal regulations in Switzerland concerning the water protection and air pollution control for the use of nutrients and fertilisers in agriculture.

BAFU ; BLW (2012): Nährstoffe und Verwendung von Düngern in der Landwirtschaft. Ein Modul der Vollzugshilfe Umweltschutz in der Landwirtschaft. Bern: Bundesamt für Umwelt (BAFU) / Bundesamt für Landwirtschaft (BLW) URL [Accessed: 27.05.2019]

ASH DEC UMWELT AG Success Stories

This short information paper describes the development of ASH DEC Umwelt AG. The process and the product are described shortly and a few historical key figures of the enterprise’s development are mentioned (in German).

ASH DEC (2010): ASH DEC UMWELT AG Success Stories. Vienna: ASH DEC Umwelt AG. [Accessed: 17.08.2010] PDF

P – und Naehrstoffduenger aus Klaerschlammaschen

This presentation by ASH DEC Umwelt AG describes the need for recycling phosphorous and the economic sector of the enterprise. There is further information on the process and the pilot plant. Finally, ASH DEC gives general information on their fertiliser product and explains their idea of joint operating company (in German).

ASH DEC (2008): P – und Naehrstoffduenger aus Klaerschlammaschen. Vienna: ASH DEC Umwelt AG. [Accessed: 17.08.2010] PDF

Faecal Sludge Management.

This issue presents studies from different regions (Bangladesh, Cameroon, Burkina Faso) that mainly show the non-existence of faecal sludge management. Additionally, the last paper describes a new technological solution (LaDePa) for producing hygienically safe organic fertiliser from sludge from ventilated improved pit toilets (VIPs).

ECOSAN CLUB (2012): Faecal Sludge Management.. (= Sustainable Sanitation Practice , 13 ). Vienna: Ecosan Club URL [Accessed: 16.10.2012]

Recycling von Phosphor aus Klärschlammaschen

This presentation describes the need for recycling phosphorus and the economic sector of the enterprise. There is further information on the process and the pilot plant. Aspects of benchmark and finance are included as well as a brief description of the need for recycling phosphorous (in German).

HERMANN, L. BACHLEITNER, E. (2004): Recycling von Phosphor aus Klärschlammaschen. Vienna: ASH DEC Umwelt AG URL [Accessed: 27.05.2019]

Phosphorus Recovery from Sludge in Sweden - Possibilities to meet proposed Goals in an efficient, sustainable and economical Way

Different strategies and methods to achieve the target of recovering phosphorus from sludge are discussed based on reports from the Swedish environment protection agency (SEPA) and with special emphasis on extraction of phosphate from wastewater, sludge and ash at central plants. Some possible improvements are briefly discussed, such as the use of certain comparatively clean sludge fractions and use of two-stage technology for the recovery.

HULTMAN, B. LEVLIN, E. PLAZA, E. STARK, K. (n.y): Phosphorus Recovery from Sludge in Sweden - Possibilities to meet proposed Goals in an efficient, sustainable and economical Way. URL [Accessed: 27.05.2019]

Sludge Treatment and Disposal

Sludge Treatment and Disposal is the sixth volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment. The book covers in a clear and informative way the sludge characteristics, production, treatment (thickening, dewatering, stabilisation, pathogens removal) and disposal (land application for agricultural purposes, sanitary landfills, landfarming and other methods). Environmental and public health issues are also fully described.

ANDREOLI, C.V. ; SPERLING, M. von ; FERNANDES, F. (2007): Sludge Treatment and Disposal. (= Biological Wastewater Treatment Series , 6 ). London: International Water Association (IWA) Publishing URL [Accessed: 27.05.2019]

Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions Volume 2

Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions gives a state-of-the-art presentation of the science and technology of biological wastewater treatment, particularly domestic sewage. The book covers the main treatment processes used worldwide with wastewater treatment in warm climate regions given a particular emphasis where simple, affordable and sustainable solutions are required. The 55 chapters are divided into 7 parts over two volumes: Volume One (also available in the SSWM library): Introduction to wastewater characteristics, treatment and disposal; Basic principles of wastewater treatment; Stabilisation ponds; Anaerobic reactors; Volume Two: Activated sludge; Aerobic biofilm reactors; Sludge treatment and disposal.

SPERLING, M. von LEMOS CHERNICHARO, C.A. de (2005): Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions Volume 2. London: International Water Association (IWA) Publishing URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]
Case Studies

Soil Solution Chemistry of Sewage-Sludge Incinerator Ash and Phosphate Fertiliser Amended Soil

This article investigates the potential for using soil solution chemical properties to study the consequences of recycling sewage-sludge incinerator ash on agricultural land.

BIERMAN, P. ; ROSEN, C. ; BLOOM, P. ; NATER, E. (1995): Soil Solution Chemistry of Sewage-Sludge Incinerator Ash and Phosphate Fertiliser Amended Soil. In: Journal of Environmental Quality: Volume 24 , 279-285. URL [Accessed: 27.05.2019]
Awareness Raising Material

The Story of Phosphorus

This thesis proposes a new global goal – phosphorus security – to be integrated in the dominant research discourses and policy debates on global food security and global environmental change. Among other criteria, phosphorus security requires that phosphorus use is decoupled from environmental degradation and that farmers’ access to phosphorus is secured.

CORDELL, D. (2010): The Story of Phosphorus. (= PhD Thesis ). Linkoeping: Linkoeping University, Department of Water and Environmental Studies URL [Accessed: 17.08.2010]

This module introduces the importance of market-based RRR solutions. At the end of this module you have identified key challenges in your local sanitation and waste management system and a RRR-related business idea.

Cover image Module  1

This module sheds light on the importance of studying the business environment and its components like waste supply, market demand, competition and the institutional framework. At the end of this module you have gained insights to evaluating the potential of your business idea.

Cover image Module  2

This module shows how a business idea can be turned into a business model while putting a specific focus on understanding the customer and designing products that meet their needs. At the end of this module you will have developed a business model and positioned your offer in the market.

Cover image Module  3

This module focusses on planning the operations of a RRR related business. During this part RRR technologies will be introduced for different waste streams and tools for planning the production process. At the end of this module you will have blueprinted your production process and the required technology and production inputs.

Cover image Module  4

This module covers key aspects of financial planning and analysis. At the end of this module you will have forecasted your profits, cash flows, required investment and evaluated the financial viability of your business model.

Cover image Module  5

This module enables you to set objectives and plan activities for the launch of your RRR business and identify potential financing sources. At the end of this module you will have developed an action plan for launch and identified appropriate financing sources.

Cover image Module  6

Week 1: Identify challenges in your local sanitation & waste management

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Further Readings

SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles

This AGUASAN publication illustrates how the water and nutrient cycles can be used as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system and aligning it with SDG 6.

BROGAN, J., ERLMANN, T., MUELLER, K. and SOROKOVSKYI, V. (2017): SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles. Using the water and nutrient cycles as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system - including workshop material. Bern (Switzerland): AGUASAN and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

Why shit matters [Video File]

TEDX TALKS (2019): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d4yD0kz34jg [Accessed: 28.03.2019]

"3 billion people worldwide live in cities without sewers or wastewater treatment plant infrastructure. This forces them to dump their waste into open waters, contaminating the drinking water for others downstream. Imagine if we could harness nutrients in wastewater instead of harming human and environmental health. Christoph Lüthi sees a renewable, locally produced and growing resource where others see only human waste. Watch his talk to learn why shit matters! "

Week 2: Identify RRR products and business opportunities

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Further Readings

A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Week 1: Analyse waste supply

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 2: Analyse market demand

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3: Analyse your competition

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 4: Analyse the institutional environment

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 1: Meet the Business Model Canvas

Download Materials
Further Readings

A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Week 1: Plan your production process

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Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Week 2: Understand the treatment process

Further Readings

Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings

LOHRI, C. R., DIENER, S., ZABALETA, I. MERTENAT, A. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2017): Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings. In: Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 81–130. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

Week 3A: Design technology systems for nutrient recovery

Further Readings

Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery

COFIE, O., NIKIEMA, J., IMPRAIM, R., ADAMTEY, N., PAUL, J. and KONÉ, D. (2016): Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 3. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Decentralized composting in India

DRESCHER, S. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2004): Decentralized composting in India. In: Harper et al. Sustainable Composting: Case Studies in Guidelines for Developing Countries. Loughborough (UK): Water Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), Loughborough University, Part2: Case Studies, Chapter 3, pp.15-27. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives

KARANJA, N., KWACH, H. and NJENGA, M. (2005): Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives. Nairobi (Kenya): UN-Habitat. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3B: Design technology systems for energy recovery

Further Readings

Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market

FERGUSON, H. (2012): Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market. London (UK): Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) International. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3C: Design technology systems for water recovery

Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Chapter 3 - Technology Selection

VEENSTRA, S., ALAERTS, G. and BIJLSMA, M. (1997): Chapter 3 - Technology Selection. In: Helmer, R. and Hespanhol, I. (Eds). Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles. London (UK): World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects

Volume I of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater focuses on policy, regulation and institutional arrangements. Accordingly, its intended readership is made up of policy-makers and those with regulatory responsibilities. It provides guidance on policy formulation, harmonisation and mainstreaming, on regulatory mechanisms and on establishing institutional links between the various interested sectors and parties. It also presents a synthesis of the key issues from Volumes II, III, and IV and the index for all four volumes as well as a glossary of terms used in all four volumes is presented in Annex 1.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 10.04.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture

Volume II of the Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater provides information on the assessment and management of risks associated with microbial hazards and toxic chemicals. It explains requirements to promote the safe use of wastewater in agriculture, including minimum procedures and specific health-based targets, and how those requirements are intended to be used. It also describes the approaches used in deriving the guidelines, including health-based targets, and includes a substantive revision of approaches to ensuring microbial safety.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019] PDF

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture

Volume III of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater deals with wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture and describes the present state of knowledge regarding the impact of wastewater-fed aquaculture on the health of producers, product consumers and local communities. It assesses the associated health risks and provides an integrated preventive management framework.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019] PDF

Week 3: Analyse financial viability

Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 1: Set objectives and plan activities for launch

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Further Readings

Week 2: Finance the launch

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Further Readings

Alternative Versions to