Sanitation under extreme stress is an introduction into the very concrete needs and challenges in providing sanitation services during disasters (see also sanitation in emergencies). The role of trained staff is to approach the challenges of implementing sanitation solutions when tens of thousands of people are on the move or settle in a camp without pre-existing infrastructure (see also community and camp water supply).
This lecture will show the challenges based on the crisis back in 1999 during the Kosovo war in the Balkans. During in-class group work, solutions have to be developed and presented to fulfil very specific requirements in major camp settings. The necessary thinking behind providing such services and technical approaches to reach agreed standards will be introduced. Sanitation in disasters is set into focus to realise that more people die due to poor sanitation and hygiene than by lack of safe drinking water (see also water and sanitation and health, pathogens and contaminants).
The Sphere Project is an initiative to determine and promote standards by which the global community responds to the plight of people affected by desasters. This handbook contains a humanitarian charter, protection principles and core standards in four disciplines: Water, sanitation and hygiene; food security and nutrition; shelter, settlements and non-food items; and health action.THE SPHERE PROJECT (2011): Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Humanitarian Response. Bourton on Dunsmore: Practcal Action Publishing URL [Accessed: 31.05.2019]
This book has been written to help all those involved in planning and implementing emergency sanitation programmes. The main focus is a systematic and structured approach to assessment and programme design. There is a strong emphasis on socio-cultural issues and community participation throughout.Includes an extensive “guidelines” section with rapid assessment instructions and details on programme design, planning and implementation.HARVEY, P. BAGHRI, S. REED, B. (2002): Emergency Sanitation: Assessment and Programme Design. Loughborough: Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC) URL [Accessed: 31.05.2019]
In this manual existing, innovative and new technologies and approaches for excreta disposal in emergency situations are investigated. It provides practical guidance on how to select, design, construct and maintain appropriate excreta disposal systems to reduce faecal transmission risks and protect public health in emergency situations.HARVEY, P.A. (2007): Excreta Disposal in Emergencies. A Field Manual. Leicestershire: WEDC Loughborough University URL [Accessed: 29.07.2011]
This extensive handbook from the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) on emergency responses reflects the multiple dimensions of an emergency response, ranging from emergency management to emergency operations and their support. The handbook mainly looks at emergencies where populations have been displaced from their former living environment.UNHCR (2007): Handbook for Emergencies. Third Edition. Geneva: UNHCR Emergency Preparedness and Response Section URL [Accessed: 21.05.2019]
These technical notes are relevant to a wide range of emergency situations, including both natural and conflict-induced disasters. They are suitable for field technicians, engineers and hygiene promoters, as well as staff from agency headquarters.WHO ; WEDC (2013): Technical Notes on Drinking-Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Emergencies. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO) URL [Accessed: 27.08.2013]
This toolkit is a compilation of existing relevant sanitation focused emergency response mechanisms, technologies and experiences to support institutions and local government units in disaster response. It was developed in the aftermath of cyclone Ketsana in 2009.PEN (2010): Philippine Emergency Sanitation Reference Toolkit. Excreta Disposal. Manila: The Philippine Ecosan Network (PEN)
Contains all necessary information related to water needs, quality, testing, catchment, treatment, storage and distribution in emergencies, as well as health related issues. Well structured, not too long, good illustrations and graphics.WISNER, B. ; ADAMS, J. (2002): Environmental Health in Emergencies and Disasters. Chapter 7: Water Supply. A Practical Guide. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO) URL [Accessed: 21.05.2019]
This paper identifies various lessons that can be learned from urban flood emergencies, with a focus on the WASH sector. It includes urban flood management issues in emergencies related to water, sanitation, hygiene and various crosscutting issues.GLOBAL WASH LEARNING PROJECT (2008): Lessons Learned in WASH Response During Urban Flood Emergencies. New York: Global WASH Cluster URL [Accessed: 23.04.2012]