2018 أبريل 27

بِرَك الترسيب /التكثيف

Application level

City

Household

Neighborhood

Management level

Household

Public

Shared

المُدخلات

Sludge

المُخرَجات

Sludge Effluent
المؤلف*
Eawag المعهد الفيدرالي السويسري لعلوم وتقنيات المياه
ترجمة وتعريب مؤسسة بناء

المُلخص التنفيذي

بِرَك الترسيب أو التكثيف Sedimentation / Thickening Ponds هي عبارة عن بِرَك ترسيب تسمح للحمأة بأن تُصبِح كثيفة (مُغلَّظة) ومنزوعة الماء. يتم تصريف التدفقات السائلة الخارجة من البِرَك ومعالجتها، بينما تخضع الحمأة المتكثفة لمزيد من عمليات المُعالجة في تقنيات لاحقة.

حمأَة مياه المجاري Faecal Sludge ليست بمُنتج متجانس، لذلك فإن مُعالجتها لا بد أن تكون مُحددةً وفقًا لخصائص الحمأة. يصعب نزع الماء من الحمأة التي ما زالت غنية بالمواد العضوية ولم تخضع للتحلل بشكلٍ كافٍ؛ وهذا على العكس من الحمأة التي حدث لها تحللٌ لاهوائيٌ كافٍ التي يكون من السهل نزع الماء منها.

يجب تثبيت الحمأة المُنتجة حديثًا والغنية بالمواد العضوية (على سبيل المثال: حمأة المراحيض الخاصة، أو العامة)، وذلك من أجل تجفيفها بشكلٍ صحيح؛ ويتم ذلك بالسماح للحمأة أن تتحلل لاهوائيًا في بِرَك الترسيب/التكثيف. ويمكن استخدام هذه البِرَك لتكثيف الحمأة التي حدث لها تثبيت جزئي (مثل تلك التي تنشأ من خزَّان التحليل (التخمير)، ، على الرُّغم من أنَّها تخضع لعمليات تَحَلُّل أقل وتتطلب المزيد من الوقت من أجل ترسيبها. قد تُعيق عملية التحلل عملية ترسيب الحمأة؛ لأن الغازات التي تنتجها عملية التحلل تصعد على شكل فقاعات، وترفع المواد الصلبة لأعلى. كُلَّما تم ترسيب وهضم الحمأة، فإنه يجب مُعالجة السائل الطافي الرائق Supernatant (مياه مروَّقة) الناتج عن ذلك بشكل مُنفصل. الحمأة المتكثفة يمكِن أن تُجفَّف بعد ذلك، أو تدخل في عمليات إعداد السماد لاحقًا.

المزايا
الحمأة المكثفة يسهل التعامل معها، وتُعتبر أقل عُرضة لتناثر قطرات المياه والرذاذ.
يُمكن إنشاؤها وإصلاحها بالمواد المتوفرة محليًا.
تكاليف رأس المال مُنخفضة نسبيًا، وتكاليف التشغيل مُنخفضة.
لا تتطلب طاقة كهربائية.
العيوب
تتطلب مساحة أرض كبيرة.
تواجد ملحوظ للروائح والذباب.
طول وقت التخزين.
تتطلب معدة تحميل (لودر أمامي، أو تركس) لعملية إزالة الحمأة.
تتطلب خبرة في التصميم والإنشاء.
الحمأة والتدفقات السائلة الخارجة تتطلب مزيدًا من المُعالجة و/أو التصريف بشكل مُناسب.
المُدخلات المُخرَجات

الحمأة

الحمأة , التدفقات السائلة الخارجة

المُلاءَمَة

Factsheet Block Body

 بِرَك الترسيب/التكثيف مُناسبة عند توفر مساحة كافية غير مكلفة ومتواجدة بعيدًا عن المنازل ومناطق الأعمال؛ حيث يجب إنشاؤها على أطراف مناطق تجمع السكان. الحمأة المتكثفة تكون مُعدية، إلا إنه يسهل التعامل معها، حيث تصبح أقل تناثرًا لقطرات المياه و الرذاذ.

تتطلب طاقمًا مُدربًا لأعمال التشغيل والصيانة؛ لضمان عملها بشكل فعَّال.

 تُعتبر بِرَك الترسيب/التكثيف خيارًا مُنخفض التكلفة، ويُمكن إنشاؤها في مُعظم المناخات الحارة والمُعتدلة. ولكن قد تمنع الأمطار الغزيرة الحمأة من الترسيب والتكثيف بشكل صحيح.

اعتبارات التصميم

Factsheet Block Body

 تتطلب بِرَك الترسيب/التكثيف خزَّانين يعملان على التوازي: بحيث يُمكن تشغيل أحدهم، في حين يتم تفريغ الثاني في نفس الوقت. ولتحقيق الكفاءة القصوى، فإن فترات التحميل والراحة يجب أن لا تتعدى 4 إلى 5 أسابيع، على الرغم من أن دورات التشغيل الأطول هي الشائعة. حين تكون فترة التحميل 4 أسابيع وفترة الراحة 4 أسابيع، فإن تركيز المواد الصلبة الكلية Total Solids (TS) في الحمأة يزداد بنسبة قد تصل إلى 14% )اعتمادًا على التركيز الأولي(

 

الجوانب الصحية / القبول

Factsheet Block Body

تُعتبر الحمأة الداخلة والمكثَّفة مُسببة للأمراض؛ لذلك، يجب تزويد العاملين بوسائل الحماية المُناسبة )الأحذية الطويلة، والقفازات، والملابس الواقية(. تكون الحمأة المكثفة غير معقمة، وتتطلب مزيدًا من عمليات المُعالجة )على الأقل عملية تجفيف( وذلك قبل التخلص منها أو الاستخدام النهائي لها.

قد تسبب البِرَك إزعاجًا لسكان المناطق المجاورة؛ نتيجةً للروائح الكريهة ووجود الذباب. وبالتالي، فإنها يجب أن تتواجد بعيدًا بما فيه الكفاية عن المناطق السكنية.

 

التشغيل والصيانة

Factsheet Block Body

تُعتبر الصيانة مهمة لكي تعمل البِرَك بصورة جيدة، لكنها غير متكررة بشكلٍ كبير. يجب الحفاظ على صيانة منطقة التفريغ، وإبقائها نظيفةً للحد من احتمالية انتقال الأمراض والإزعاج (الذباب والروائح). ويجب إزالة النفايات الصلبة -التي يتم تصريفها مع الحمأة- من المصافي الموجودة عند مداخل البِرَك.

كما تَجب الإزالة الميكانيكية للحمأة المكثفة (بعد تكثيفها بدرجة كافية)، وذلك بواسطة معدَّة تحميل (لودر أمامي، أو تركس) أو معدات مُتخصصة أخرى.

 

المراجع

كراس استرشادى عن ادارة المخلفات السائلة للانشطة الخدمية محطات الصرف الصحى ووحدات المعالجة فى المؤسسات الصحية

حيدر محمد عبدالحميد واخرون (2012): كراس استرشادى عن ادارة المخلفات السائلة للانشطة الخدمية محطات الصرف الصحى ووحدات المعالجة فى المؤسسات الصحية. وزارة البئية العراقية

Language: Arabic

Faecal Sludge Management. Lecture Notes

This module pays special attention to the haulage, treatment and reuse or disposal of faecal sludge. It covers both technical and non-technical (socio-cultural, economic, political etc.) aspects and provides practical information on design, financing and planning of faecal sludge treatment plants.

EAWAG/SANDEC (2008): Faecal Sludge Management. Lecture Notes. (= Sandec Training Tool 1.0, Module 5 ). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 23.05.2012]

Solids Separation and Pond Systems for the Treatment of Faecal Sludges in the Tropics

The report sets out to provide guidelines for the preliminary design of faecal sludge treatment schemes comprising solids-liquid separation and stabilisation ponds. The document is based on the results of collaborative field research conducted by the Ghana Water Research Institute and SANDEC on full and pilot-scale faecal sludge (FS) treatment plants located in Accra, Ghana.

HEINSS, U. LARMIE, S.A. STRAUSS, M. (1998): Solids Separation and Pond Systems for the Treatment of Faecal Sludges in the Tropics . Lessons Learnt and Recommendations for Preliminary Design . (= SANDEC Report , 5 ). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 12.04.2010]

SOS - Management of Sludges from On-Site Sanitation. Characteristics of Faecal Sludges and their Solids-Liquid Separation

This document gives an overview on the characteristics of different sludges as well as monitoring results and recommendations for design of solid-liquid separation. It is based on a field report.

HEINSS, U. LARMIE, S.A. STRAUSS, M. (1999): SOS - Management of Sludges from On-Site Sanitation. Characteristics of Faecal Sludges and their Solids-Liquid Separation. Duebendorf and Accra: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG)

Fecal Sludge Management in Developing Countries - A Planning Manual

This manual is a first approach to provide guidance on strategic planning of faecal sludge management. The study took place in the City of Nam Dinh, in Vietnam. The main principles for strategic sanitation planning have been adopted from the guide “Strategic Planning for Municipal Planning” from GHK Research and Training Ltd.

KLINGEL, F. MONTANGERO, A. KONE, M. STRAUSS, M. (2002): Fecal Sludge Management in Developing Countries - A Planning Manual. (= First Edition ). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science (EAWAG) URL [Accessed: 08.06.2019]

Effluent reuse from constructed wetland system Haran Al-Awamied, Syria

In the village of Haran Al-Awamied a gravity sewer system already existed and waste water was collected for irrigation without any treatment. GTZ and MHC (Syrian Ministry of Housing and Construction) initiated a project for a new ecological treatment plant (settling tank and a vertical flow CW).

MOHAMED, A. KLINGEL, F. BRACKEN, P. WERNER, C. (2009): Effluent reuse from constructed wetland system Haran Al-Awamied, Syria. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 26.01.2011]

Faecal Sludge Treatment

This document reviews current practices of faecal sludge management and treatment.

MONTANGERO, A. STRAUSS, M. (2004): Faecal Sludge Treatment. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 10.06.2019]

DEWATS

Exhaustive report on technological, operational and economic aspects of decentralised waste water treatment systems. Spreadsheet examples support the reader in designing and planning waste water treatment systems components.

SASSE, L. BORDA (1998): DEWATS. Decentralised Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries. Bremen: Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA) URL [Accessed: 03.06.2019]

Faecal Sludge Management

This is the first book to compile the current state of knowledge on faecal sludge management. It addresses the organization of the entire faecal sludge management service chain, from the collection and transport of sludge, to the current state of knowledge of treatment options, and the final end use or disposal of treated sludge. It presents an integrated approach that brings together technology, management, and planning, based on Sandec’s 20 years of experience in the field. It also discusses important factors to consider when evaluating and upscaling new treatment technology options. The book is designed for undergraduate and graduate students, engineers, and practitioners in the field who have some basic knowledge of environmental and/or wastewater engineering.

STRANDE, L. ; RONTELTAP, M. ; BRDJANOVIC, D. (2014): Faecal Sludge Management. Systems Approach for Implementation and Operation. London: IWA Publishing URL [Accessed: 16.07.2014]

Urban Excreta Management - Situation, Challenges, and Promising Solutions

The objective of this paper is to render planners, decision makers, and consultants aware that faecal sludge management (FSM) should form an integral part of the urban development planning process. For this, three illustrative cases are presented, based on which an array of measures or tools, as well as institutional/regulatory, financial/economic, and technical aspects are discussed.

STRAUSS, M. ; BARREIRO, W.C. ; STEINER, M. ; MENSAH, A. ; JEULAND, M. ; BOLOMEY, S. ; MONTANGERO, A. ; KONE, D. (2003): Urban Excreta Management - Situation, Challenges, and Promising Solutions. المُدخلات: IWA Asia-Pacific Regional Conference Bangkok, Thailand: URL [Accessed: 23.06.2010]

Co-composting of Faecal Sludge and Municipal Organic Waste

The document gives an overview on the combined composting of (faecal) sludges and organic solid waste based on a pilot project in Kumasi, Ghana. Results of the investigation should help the city’s waste management department to develop its biosolids management strategy and enable the project team to develop guidelines for planners and engineers on the option of co-composting.

STRAUSS, M. DRESCHER, S. ZURBRUEGG, C. MONTANGERO, A. OLUFUNKE, C. DRECHSEL, P. (2003): Co-composting of Faecal Sludge and Municipal Organic Waste. Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) and International Water Management Institute (IWMI) URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019]

FS Management – Review of Practices, Problems and Initiatives

A study on management and institutional aspects regarding the challenges and possible improvements in managing faecal sludge.

STRAUSS, M. MONTANGERO, A. (2002): FS Management – Review of Practices, Problems and Initiatives. London and Duebendorf: DFID Project R8056, Capacity Building for Effective Decentralised Wastewater Management, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 28.05.2019]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. LUETHI, C. MOREL, A. ZURBRUEGG, C. SCHERTENLEIB, R. (2008): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG) and Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) URL [Accessed: 15.02.2010] PDF

Environmentally sound technologies in wastewater treatment for the implementation of the UNEP/GPA "Guidelines on Municipal Wastewater Management"

Technical information on environmentally sound technologies in wastewater treatment.

UNEP ; MURDOCH UNIVERSITY (2004): Environmentally sound technologies in wastewater treatment for the implementation of the UNEP/GPA "Guidelines on Municipal Wastewater Management". The Hague: United Nations Environment Programme Global Programme of Action (UNEP/GPA), Coordination Office
قراءات أخرى

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

Faecal Sludge Management.

This issue presents studies from different regions (Bangladesh, Cameroon, Burkina Faso) that mainly show the non-existence of faecal sludge management. Additionally, the last paper describes a new technological solution (LaDePa) for producing hygienically safe organic fertiliser from sludge from ventilated improved pit toilets (VIPs).

ECOSAN CLUB (2012): Faecal Sludge Management.. (= Sustainable Sanitation Practice , 13 ). Vienna: Ecosan Club URL [Accessed: 16.10.2012]

Solids Separation and Pond Systems for the Treatment of Faecal Sludges in the Tropics

The report sets out to provide guidelines for the preliminary design of faecal sludge treatment schemes comprising solids-liquid separation and stabilisation ponds. The document is based on the results of collaborative field research conducted by the Ghana Water Research Institute and SANDEC on full and pilot-scale faecal sludge (FS) treatment plants located in Accra, Ghana.

HEINSS, U. LARMIE, S.A. STRAUSS, M. (1998): Solids Separation and Pond Systems for the Treatment of Faecal Sludges in the Tropics . Lessons Learnt and Recommendations for Preliminary Design . (= SANDEC Report , 5 ). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 12.04.2010]

Low-cost Options for Treating Faecal Sludges (FS) in Developing Countries - Challenges and Performance

This article analyses and discusses the performances of low-cost technology for treating faecal sludges in developing countries. It shows that where septic tanks are the predominant type of on-site sanitation installations, septage is the only or predominant type of faecal sludge generated. It also shows that constructed wetlands, settling tanks/ponds, or unplanted drying beds might prove suitable as a pre-treatment.

KONE, D. STRAUSS, M. (2004): Low-cost Options for Treating Faecal Sludges (FS) in Developing Countries - Challenges and Performance. Duebendorf: Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC), Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science (EAWAG) URL [Accessed: 23.06.2010]

Faecal Sludge Treatment

This document reviews current practices of faecal sludge management and treatment.

MONTANGERO, A. STRAUSS, M. (2004): Faecal Sludge Treatment. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 10.06.2019]

Co-composting of Faecal Sludge and Municipal Organic Waste

The document gives an overview on the combined composting of (faecal) sludges and organic solid waste based on a pilot project in Kumasi, Ghana. Results of the investigation should help the city’s waste management department to develop its biosolids management strategy and enable the project team to develop guidelines for planners and engineers on the option of co-composting.

STRAUSS, M. DRESCHER, S. ZURBRUEGG, C. MONTANGERO, A. OLUFUNKE, C. DRECHSEL, P. (2003): Co-composting of Faecal Sludge and Municipal Organic Waste. Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) and International Water Management Institute (IWMI) URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019]

Treatment of sludges from on-site sanitation — Low-cost options

Published in 1997, this article gives an overview on current literature-based knowledge regarding faecal sludge treatment along with results and conclusions from field research.

STRAUSS, M. ; LARMIE, S.A. ; HEINSS, U. (1997): Treatment of sludges from on-site sanitation — Low-cost options. المُدخلات: Water Science and Technology: Volume 6 , 129-136. URL [Accessed: 23.06.2010]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. LUETHI, C. MOREL, A. ZURBRUEGG, C. SCHERTENLEIB, R. (2008): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG) and Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) URL [Accessed: 15.02.2010] PDF

Sludge Treatment and Disposal

Sludge Treatment and Disposal is the sixth volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment. The book covers in a clear and informative way the sludge characteristics, production, treatment (thickening, dewatering, stabilisation, pathogens removal) and disposal (land application for agricultural purposes, sanitary landfills, landfarming and other methods). Environmental and public health issues are also fully described.

ANDREOLI, C.V. ; SPERLING, M. von ; FERNANDES, F. (2007): Sludge Treatment and Disposal. (= Biological Wastewater Treatment Series , 6 ). London: International Water Association (IWA) Publishing URL [Accessed: 27.05.2019]
حالات دراسية

SOS - Management of Sludges from On-Site Sanitation. Characteristics of Faecal Sludges and their Solids-Liquid Separation

This document gives an overview on the characteristics of different sludges as well as monitoring results and recommendations for design of solid-liquid separation. It is based on a field report.

HEINSS, U. LARMIE, S.A. STRAUSS, M. (1999): SOS - Management of Sludges from On-Site Sanitation. Characteristics of Faecal Sludges and their Solids-Liquid Separation. Duebendorf and Accra: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG)

Effluent reuse from constructed wetland system Haran Al-Awamied, Syria

In the village of Haran Al-Awamied a gravity sewer system already existed and waste water was collected for irrigation without any treatment. GTZ and MHC (Syrian Ministry of Housing and Construction) initiated a project for a new ecological treatment plant (settling tank and a vertical flow CW).

MOHAMED, A. KLINGEL, F. BRACKEN, P. WERNER, C. (2009): Effluent reuse from constructed wetland system Haran Al-Awamied, Syria. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 26.01.2011]
مواد تدريبية

Faecal Sludge Management. Lecture Notes

This module pays special attention to the haulage, treatment and reuse or disposal of faecal sludge. It covers both technical and non-technical (socio-cultural, economic, political etc.) aspects and provides practical information on design, financing and planning of faecal sludge treatment plants.

EAWAG/SANDEC (2008): Faecal Sludge Management. Lecture Notes. (= Sandec Training Tool 1.0, Module 5 ). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 23.05.2012]

Fecal Sludge Management in Developing Countries - A Planning Manual

This manual is a first approach to provide guidance on strategic planning of faecal sludge management. The study took place in the City of Nam Dinh, in Vietnam. The main principles for strategic sanitation planning have been adopted from the guide “Strategic Planning for Municipal Planning” from GHK Research and Training Ltd.

KLINGEL, F. MONTANGERO, A. KONE, M. STRAUSS, M. (2002): Fecal Sludge Management in Developing Countries - A Planning Manual. (= First Edition ). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science (EAWAG) URL [Accessed: 08.06.2019]

FS Management – Review of Practices, Problems and Initiatives

A study on management and institutional aspects regarding the challenges and possible improvements in managing faecal sludge.

STRAUSS, M. MONTANGERO, A. (2002): FS Management – Review of Practices, Problems and Initiatives. London and Duebendorf: DFID Project R8056, Capacity Building for Effective Decentralised Wastewater Management, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 28.05.2019]
مواد لنشر الوعي

Urban Excreta Management - Situation, Challenges, and Promising Solutions

The objective of this paper is to render planners, decision makers, and consultants aware that faecal sludge management (FSM) should form an integral part of the urban development planning process. For this, three illustrative cases are presented, based on which an array of measures or tools, as well as institutional/regulatory, financial/economic, and technical aspects are discussed.

STRAUSS, M. ; BARREIRO, W.C. ; STEINER, M. ; MENSAH, A. ; JEULAND, M. ; BOLOMEY, S. ; MONTANGERO, A. ; KONE, D. (2003): Urban Excreta Management - Situation, Challenges, and Promising Solutions. المُدخلات: IWA Asia-Pacific Regional Conference Bangkok, Thailand: URL [Accessed: 23.06.2010]

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