2018 أبريل 27

الأرض الرطبة المنشأة ذات التدفق الأفقي المغمورُ

Application level

City

Household

Neighborhood

Management level

Household

Public

Shared

المُدخلات

Blackwater Brownwater Greywater Effluent

المُخرَجات

Effluent Biomass
المؤلف*
Eawag المعهد الفيدرالي السويسري لعلوم وتقنيات المياه
ترجمة وتعريب مؤسسة بناء

المُلخص التنفيذي

الأرض الرطبة المُنشأة ذات التدفق الأفقي المغمور (تحت السطحي) Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland هي عبارة عن حَوْض كبير مملوء بالحصى والرمال ويتم زراعته بنباتات مخصوصة للأراضي الرطبة. بتدفق مياه الصرف أفقيًّا خلال الحَوْض، فإن مادة المُرشِّح تقوم بترشيح الجُسيمات و تتحلل المواد العضوية بواسطة الكائنات الدقيقة.

يعمل وسط الترشيح كمُرشِّح لإزالة المواد الصلبة، وكسطح ثابت حيث يُمكن للبكتريا أن تلتصق به، وكقاعدة للغطاء النباتي. على الرغم من أنّ البكتيريا الاختيارية Facultative واللاهوائية تُحلّل مُعظم المواد العضوية، فإن النباتات تقوم بنقل كمية صغيرة من الأكسجين إلى منطقة الجذور، حيث يُمكن للبكتيريا الهوائية أن تستعمر تلك المنطقة وتُحلّل المواد العضوية أيضًا. وتلعب جُذور النباتات دورًا مهمًّا في الحفاظ على نفاذية المُرشِّح.

المزايا
تخفيض كبير للاحتياج الحيوي للأكسجين BOD، والعوالق، ومُسببات الأمراض.
ليس لديها مشكلة البعوض الموجودة في الأرض الرطبة المُشأة ذات التدفق السطحي.
لا تتطلب طاقة كهربائية.
تكاليف التشغيل مُنخفضة.
العيوب
تتطلب مساحة أرض كبيرة.
إزالة محدودة للمُغذيات.
تواجه خطر الانسداد، وذلك اعتمادًا على كفاءة المُعالجة الأولية والابتدائية.
تطلب فترة طويلة لبدء التشغيل حتى تعمل بكامل قدرتها.
تتطلب خبرة في التصميم والإنشاء.
المُدخلات المُخرَجات

 التدفقات السائلة الخارجة , المياه السوداء , المياه البنية , المياه الرمادية 

 التدفقات السائلة الخارجة , الكتلة الحيوية

المُلاءَمَة

Factsheet Block Body

 يُعتبر الانسداد مُشكلة شائعة، وبالتالي فإن التدفقات السائلة الداخلة المراد مُعالجتها يجب أن تُرسَّب جيدًا من خلال المُعالجة الابتدائية قبل تدفقها إلى الأرض الرطبة. هذه التقنية غير مُناسبة لمياه الصرف الصحي المنزلية غير المُعالجة)أي المياه الالسوداء(، بل إنها وسيلة مُعالجة جيدة للمُجتمعات التي لديها مُعالجة ابابتدائية )على سبيل المثال، خزَّان التحليل ( (التخمير ولكنها تتطلع إلى تحقيق تدفقات سائلة خارجة عالية الجودة.

الأرض الرطبة المُنشأة ذات التدفق الأفقي المغمور هي خيارٌ جيدٌ عندما تكون الأرض رخيصة ومُتاحة، ويُمكن أن تكون مناسبة لأجزاء صغيرة من المناطق الحضرية، وللمُجتمعات الريفية وشبه الحضرية، وذلك اعتمادًا على حجم المياه والمساحة المطلوبة لإنشاء الأراضي الرطبة. ويمكن أيضًا أن تُصمَّم للمنازل الفردية.

هذه التقنية هي أكثر مُلاءَمَةً في الأجواء الدافئة، لكن يُمكن أن تُصَمّم لتتحمل البرودة الشديدة وكذلك فترات النشاط الحيوي المُنخفض. إذا تم إعادة استخدام التدفقات السائلة الخارجة، فإن الخسائر نتيجة مُعدّلات التبخر النتحي العالية يُمكن أن تكون عيبًا لهذه التقنية، وذلك اعتمادًا على المناخ.

 

اعتبارات التصميم

Factsheet Block Body

 يعتمد تصميم الأراضي الرطبة المُنشأة ذات التدفق الأفقي المغمور على الهدف من عملية المُعالجة وكمية وجودة التدفقات السائلة الداخلة، ويشمل القرارت حول كمية وتقسيم مسارات التدفق المُتوازية. وتُعتبر كفاءة الإزالة بالأراضي الرطبة رهينة بالمساحة السطحية )الطول مضروبًا في العرض(، في حين أن مساحة المقطع العرضي)العرض مضروبًا في العُمق( تُحدِّد أقصى تدفق يمكن استعيابه. بشكل عام، فإنّ المساحة السطحية المطلوبة لكل فرد مكافئ تقدر بحوالي 5 إلى 10 متر مربع.

المُعالجة الأولية والابتدائية ضروريتان لمنع الانسدادات، ولضمان المُعالجة الفعَّالة. ويُمكن تهوية التدفقات السائلة الداخلة المراد مُعالجتها عن طريق تدفقها عبر شلال صغير)من مادة المُرشِّح( لدعم العمليات المُعتمدة على الأكسجين، مثل اختزال الاحتياج الحيوي للأكسجين BOD وعملية النترجة )أكسدة الأمونيا.(

يجب أن يكون القاع مُبطَّنًا بطبقة عازلة غير مُنفذة مثل الطين أو التكسية الأرضية) لمَنع التسرُّب الرشح). ويجب أن يكون الحَوْض واسعًا وضحلَ العمق لزيادة التلامس بين مسار المياه المتدفقة وجذور النباتات. كما يجب عمل منطقة دخول واسعة لتوزيع التدفق بانتظام؛ حيث إن المدخل المُصمَّم جيدًا -والذي يسمح بالتوزيع المنظم- يُعتبر مهمًّا لمنع حدوث دوائر القصر Short-circuting)اختصار المياه لمسارها). ويجب أن يكون مخرج الماء متغيرًا )سهل التحكم به( بحيث يُمكن أن يتم ضبط ارتفاع سطح المياه لتحسين أداء المُعالجة.

يعد/ استخدام الحصى الصغيرة المُستديرة المُتساوية في االحجم )ذات أقطار/ تتراوح ما بين 3 إلى 32 مملليمتر( هو الأكثر/ شيوعًا لملء قاعدة الحَوْض لعمق ما بين 0.5 إلى 1 متر. وللحد من الانسدادات، يجب أن يكون الحصى نظيفًا وخاليًا من الأتربة الدقيقة. وقد تكون الرمال مقبولة أيضًا، ولكنها تكون أكثر عُرضة للانسداد من الحصى، وفي السنوات الأخيرة ظهرت مواد ترشيح بديلة مثل البولي ايثلين PET وقد تم استخدامها بنجاح. ويتم الحفاظ على منسوب المياه في الأراضي الرطبة ما بين 5 إلى 15 سنتيمتر تحت السطح لضمان التدفق االمغمور )تحت السطحي(.

أي/ نبات محلي له جذور عريضة وعميقة، ويُمكن أن ينمو في البيئة الرطبة الغنية بالمغذيات، فهو نبات مناسب. البوص (ويُعرف أيضًا بالقيصوب الجنوبي أو القيصوب الأسترالي أو الغاب أو البَردي) هو خيار شائع؛ لأنه يُكوِّن جذورًا أفقية)ريزومات( يُمكنها اختراق عُمق المُرشِّح بالكامل.

 

الجوانب الصحية / القبول

Factsheet Block Body

تتم إزالة مُسببات الأمراض من المياه عن طريق التحلل الطبيعي، والاستهلاك بواسطة الكائنات الحية الأكبر، والترشيح. وحيث إن تدفق الماء يكون تحت السطح، فإنه يُقلّل أي تلامسٍ بين مُسبباتِ الأمراض والبشر أوالأحياء البرية إلى أدنى حد مُمكن. بما أنه لا توجد مياهٌ راكدة فإن خطر تكاثر البعوض يُعتبر قليلًا مُقارنةً بالأراضي الرطبة المُنشأة ذات التدفق الالسطحي . والأراضي الرطبة/يكون لها مظهر جمالي، ويُمكن دمجها في المناطق البرية أو الحدائق.

 

التشغيل والصيانة

Factsheet Block Body

 خلال موسم النمو الأول للنباتات، من المُهِم إزالة الحشائش الضارة التي يُمكن أن تتنافس مع نباتات الأراضي الرطبة المزروعة. مع مرور الوقت، سيتم  انسداد المسافات البينية بين الحصى بالمواد الصلبة المُتراكمة، وطبقة الغشاء البكتيري Bacterial film. تتطلب مواد المُرشِّح التي في منطقة المدخل أن يتم استبدالها كل 10 سنوات أو أكثر. ويجب أن تُركز أعمال الصيانة على ضمان أن تكون المُعالجة الابتدائية فعَّالة في خفض تركيز المواد الصلبة في مياه الصرف قبل أن تدخل الأرض الرطبة. كما يجب أن تضمن عملية الصيانة عدم نمو الأشجار في المنطقة المحيطة، حيث يُمكن للجذور أن تُلحق الضرر بالبطانة.

المراجع

معالجة مياه الصرف الصحي لمنطقة تقرت بواسطة نباتات منتقية محلية

العابد ابراهيم (2015): معالجة مياه الصرف الصحي لمنطقة تقرت بواسطة نباتات منتقية محلية. "رسالة دكتوراة كليـة الرياضيات وعلـوم المادة قسـم الكيمياء جـــــامـــــعــة قاصدي مرباح ورقـــلـــــــــة الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية"

Language: Arabic

Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems

Decentralised wastewater management presents a comprehensive approach to the design of both conventional and innovative systems for the treatment and disposal of wastewater or the reuse of treaded effluent. Smaller treatment plants, which are the concern of most new engineers, are the primary focus of this book.

CRITES, R. TCHOBANOGLOUS, G. (1998): Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc

Constructed Wetlands: A Promising Wastewater Treatment system for Small Localities. Experiences from Latin America

This report provides an overview of how constructed wetlands serve as natural wastewater treatment systems. It focuses especially on the subsurface horizontal flow type—a technology that has high potential for small and medium-size communities because of its simplicity, performance reliability, and low operation and maintenance requirements. The ability of this wetland to reduce pathogens renders the effluent suitable for irrigation of certain crop species if additional health and environmental protection measures are taken. This report describes several experiences with constructed wetland schemes in Central and South America: a full-scale pilot plant in Nicaragua, a community-managed constructed wetland scheme in El Salvador, and other systems in Colombia, Brazil, and Peru.

GAUSS, M. WSP (2008): Constructed Wetlands: A Promising Wastewater Treatment system for Small Localities. Experiences from Latin America. Washington D.C.: The World Bank URL [Accessed: 12.12.2011]

Technology Review of Constructed Wetlands

This publication intends to help spread awareness and knowledge about the technology of subsurface flow constructed wetlands in developing countries. Constructed wetlands (CWs) can be used as part of decentralised wastewater treatment systems, due to their “robust”, “low-tech” nature with none or few moving parts (pumps) and relatively low operational requirements. CWs can be used for the treatment of domestic and municipal wastewater or greywater, and play an important role in many ecological sanitation (ecosan) concepts.

HOFFMANN, H. PLATZER, C. WINKER, M. MUENCH, E. von GIZ (2011): Technology Review of Constructed Wetlands. Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands for Greywater and Domestic Wastewater Treatment. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 01.06.2019]

Greywater Management in Low and Middle-Income Countries, Review of Different Treatment Systems for Households or Neighbourhoods

This report compiles international experience in greywater management on household and neighbourhood level in low and middle-income countries. The documented systems, which vary significantly in terms of complexity, performance and costs, range from simple systems for single-house applications (e.g. local infiltration or garden irrigation) to rather complex treatment trains for neighbourhoods (e.g. series of vertical and horizontal-flow planted soil filters).

MOREL, A. DIENER, S. (2006): Greywater Management in Low and Middle-Income Countries, Review of Different Treatment Systems for Households or Neighbourhoods. (= SANDEC Report No. 14/06 ). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 27.05.2019]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. LUETHI, C. MOREL, A. ZURBRUEGG, C. SCHERTENLEIB, R. (2008): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG) and Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) URL [Accessed: 15.02.2010] PDF

Constructed Wetlands Manual

This manual has been prepared as a general guide to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of constructed wetlands for the treatment of domestic wastewater as well as introduction to the design of constructed wetland for sludge drying.

UN-HABITAT (2008): Constructed Wetlands Manual. Kathmandu: UN-HABITAT, Water for Asian Cities Program URL [Accessed: 15.02.2012]

Manual – Constructed Wetlands Treatment of Municipal Wastewater

This manual discusses the capabilities of constructed wetlands, a functional design approach, and the management requirements to achieve the designed purpose. The manual also attempts to put the proper perspective on the appropriate use, design and performance of constructed wetlands. Furthermore, the document contains two case studies.

U.S. EPA (1999): Manual – Constructed Wetlands Treatment of Municipal Wastewater. Washington D.C.: United States: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) URL [Accessed: 09.06.2019]
قراءات أخرى

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems

Decentralised wastewater management presents a comprehensive approach to the design of both conventional and innovative systems for the treatment and disposal of wastewater or the reuse of treaded effluent. Smaller treatment plants, which are the concern of most new engineers, are the primary focus of this book.

CRITES, R. TCHOBANOGLOUS, G. (1998): Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc

Decentralised Wastewater Management Using Constructed Wetlands

This paper describes the importance of small-scale decentralised wastewater treatment using reed bed treatment systems (constructed wetlands) in Nepal. It shows how public/community participation can support small-scale construction work while ensuring checks on quality and price of construction, including examples.

ENPHO (n.y): Decentralised Wastewater Management Using Constructed Wetlands. Kathmandu: Environment and Public Health Organization (ENPHO) URL [Accessed: 10.06.2019]

Technology Review of Constructed Wetlands

This publication intends to help spread awareness and knowledge about the technology of subsurface flow constructed wetlands in developing countries. Constructed wetlands (CWs) can be used as part of decentralised wastewater treatment systems, due to their “robust”, “low-tech” nature with none or few moving parts (pumps) and relatively low operational requirements. CWs can be used for the treatment of domestic and municipal wastewater or greywater, and play an important role in many ecological sanitation (ecosan) concepts.

HOFFMANN, H. PLATZER, C. WINKER, M. MUENCH, E. von GIZ (2011): Technology Review of Constructed Wetlands. Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands for Greywater and Domestic Wastewater Treatment. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 01.06.2019]

Constructed Wetlands – Treating Wastewater with Cenoses of Plants and Microorganisms

The underlying philosophy of phytoremediation research at UFZ (Centre for Environmental Research) is to exploit and to optimise the processes in the rhizosphere. Low-cost, simple systems will be developed to control the environmental problems of different countries in several continents irrespective of their industrial capabilities and conditions – without losing sight of the key principle of cleaning up polluted environmental media in a natural, ecologically balanced way.

KUSCHK, P. WIESSNER, A. MUELLER, R. KAESTNER, M. (2005): Constructed Wetlands – Treating Wastewater with Cenoses of Plants and Microorganisms. Leipzig-Halle: UFZ Centre for Environmental Research URL [Accessed: 10.06.2019]

Greywater Management in Low and Middle-Income Countries, Review of Different Treatment Systems for Households or Neighbourhoods

This report compiles international experience in greywater management on household and neighbourhood level in low and middle-income countries. The documented systems, which vary significantly in terms of complexity, performance and costs, range from simple systems for single-house applications (e.g. local infiltration or garden irrigation) to rather complex treatment trains for neighbourhoods (e.g. series of vertical and horizontal-flow planted soil filters).

MOREL, A. DIENER, S. (2006): Greywater Management in Low and Middle-Income Countries, Review of Different Treatment Systems for Households or Neighbourhoods. (= SANDEC Report No. 14/06 ). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 27.05.2019]

Ecodesign: The Bottom Line

There is no single design solution to sanitation. But there are universal principles for systematically and safely detoxifying human excreta, without contaminating, wasting or even using water. Ecological sanitation design — which is focused on sustainability through reuse and recycling — offers workable solutions that are gaining footholds around the world, as Nature explores on the following pages through the work of Peter Morgan in Zimbabwe, Ralf Otterpohl and his team in Germany, Shunmuga Paramasivan in India, and Ed Harrington and his colleagues in California.

NATURE (Editor) ; MORGAN, P. ; OTTERPOHL, R. ; PARAMASIVAN, S. ; HARRINGTON, E. (2012): Ecodesign: The Bottom Line. المُدخلات: Nature: International Weekly Journal of Science: Volume 486 , 186-189. URL [Accessed: 19.06.2012]

DEWATS

Exhaustive report on technological, operational and economic aspects of decentralised waste water treatment systems. Spreadsheet examples support the reader in designing and planning waste water treatment systems components.

SASSE, L. BORDA (1998): DEWATS. Decentralised Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries. Bremen: Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA) URL [Accessed: 03.06.2019]

FS Management – Review of Practices, Problems and Initiatives

A study on management and institutional aspects regarding the challenges and possible improvements in managing faecal sludge.

STRAUSS, M. MONTANGERO, A. (2002): FS Management – Review of Practices, Problems and Initiatives. London and Duebendorf: DFID Project R8056, Capacity Building for Effective Decentralised Wastewater Management, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 28.05.2019]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Waste Stabilization Ponds and Constructed Wetlands Manual.

Design manual for designers, builders and operators on the design and operation of artificially constructed wetlands and waste stabilization ponds. The supporting information includes a standard systems approach which can be adopted universally; the theoretical background on the biological, chemical and physical processes of each method, the current state of the technology and technical knowledge on how to design, operate and maintain them; and theoretical knowledge on how best the models may be used to describe the systems.

UNEP (n.y): Waste Stabilization Ponds and Constructed Wetlands Manual. . United Nations Environmental Programme International Environmental Technology Center (UNEP-IETC) and the Danish International Development Agency (Danida) URL [Accessed: 19.04.2010]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019] PDF

Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India. A Guide to Decision-Making

These guidance notes are designed to provide state governments and urban local bodies with additional information on available technologies on sanitation. The notes also aid in making an informed choice and explain the suitability of approaches.

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حالات دراسية

Decentralised Wastewater Management Using Constructed Wetlands

This paper describes the importance of small-scale decentralised wastewater treatment using reed bed treatment systems (constructed wetlands) in Nepal. It shows how public/community participation can support small-scale construction work while ensuring checks on quality and price of construction, including examples.

ENPHO (n.y): Decentralised Wastewater Management Using Constructed Wetlands. Kathmandu: Environment and Public Health Organization (ENPHO) URL [Accessed: 10.06.2019]

Constructed Wetlands: A Promising Wastewater Treatment system for Small Localities. Experiences from Latin America

This report provides an overview of how constructed wetlands serve as natural wastewater treatment systems. It focuses especially on the subsurface horizontal flow type—a technology that has high potential for small and medium-size communities because of its simplicity, performance reliability, and low operation and maintenance requirements. The ability of this wetland to reduce pathogens renders the effluent suitable for irrigation of certain crop species if additional health and environmental protection measures are taken. This report describes several experiences with constructed wetland schemes in Central and South America: a full-scale pilot plant in Nicaragua, a community-managed constructed wetland scheme in El Salvador, and other systems in Colombia, Brazil, and Peru.

GAUSS, M. WSP (2008): Constructed Wetlands: A Promising Wastewater Treatment system for Small Localities. Experiences from Latin America. Washington D.C.: The World Bank URL [Accessed: 12.12.2011]

Wastewater treatment using constructed wetlands Tirana, Albania - draft

Within the BMZ (German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development) financed project on “Advice on the Decentralisation of the Water and Sewerage Sector in Albania” the GIZ and MPWT (Albanian Ministry of Public Works and Transport) initiated the pilot constructed wetland to raise awareness for low cost, appropriate and decentralised sanitation technologies in line with EU standards. It is aimed to be used as a model treatment plant by the main actors of the sector for training, demonstration, research and replication in peri-urban and rural areas of Albania.

GJINALI, E. NIKLAS, J. (2009): Wastewater treatment using constructed wetlands Tirana, Albania - draft. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 10.06.2019]

Constructed Wetland for a Peri-urban Housing Area Bayawan City, Philippines

Case study on constructed wetlands for a peri-urban housing area. Septic tanks are used to pre-treat the sewage. The pre-treated wastewater is transported through a small-bore sewer system.

LIPKOW, U. MUENCH, E. von (2010): Constructed Wetland for a Peri-urban Housing Area Bayawan City, Philippines. (= SuSanA – Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 10.06.2019]

Selected contributions from the 1st WATERBIOTECH conference, 9-11 October 2012, Cairo, Egypt

This issue publishes selected contributions from the 1st WATERBIOTECH conference. WATERBIOTECH („Biotechnology for Africa‘s sustainable water supply“) is a coordination and support action funded within the Africa call of the EU 7th Framework Programme.

ECOSAN CLUB (2013): Selected contributions from the 1st WATERBIOTECH conference, 9-11 October 2012, Cairo, Egypt. (= Sustainable Sanitation Pratice , 14 ). Vienna: Ecosan Club URL [Accessed: 29.01.2013]

Constructed Wetlands: Passive Systems for Wastewater Treatment

This report summarises the role of constructed wetlands to remove contaminants from wastewater, and profiles several sites where constructed wetlands have been implemented for treatment applications other than municipal wastewater. It contains information gathered from a range of currently available sources, including project documents, reports, periodicals, Internet searches, and personal communication with involved parties.

LORION, R. (2001): Constructed Wetlands: Passive Systems for Wastewater Treatment. Washington DC: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) URL [Accessed: 17.08.2011]

Opportunities in Fecal Sludge Management for Cities in Developing Countries: Experiences from the Philippines

In July 2012, a team from RTI International deployed to the Philippines to evaluate four FSM programs with the goal of reporting on best practices and lessons learned. The four cases—Dumaguete City, San Fernando City, Maynilad Water for the west zone of metro Manila, and Manila Water from the east zone of metro Manila—were chosen to highlight their different approaches to implementing FSM.

ROBBINS, D. STRANDE, L. DOCZI, J. (2012): Opportunities in Fecal Sludge Management for Cities in Developing Countries: Experiences from the Philippines. North Carolina: RTI International URL [Accessed: 10.06.2019]

Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment and Wildlife Habitat

This document provides brief descriptions of 17 wetland treatment systems from that are providing significant water quality benefits while demonstrating additional benefits such as wildlife habitat. The projects described include systems involving both constructed and natural wetlands, habitat creation and restoration, and the improvement of municipal effluent, urban stormwater and river water quality. Each project description was developed by individuals directly involved with or very familiar with the project in a format that could also be used as a stand-alone brochure or handout for project visitors.

U.S. EPA (1993): Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment and Wildlife Habitat. Washington DC: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) URL [Accessed: 10.06.2019]

Decentralized Urban Greywater Treatment at Klosterenga Oslo

Today it is possible to foresee completely decentralized wastewater treatment systems in urban areas where the blackwater fractions (urine and faecal matter) is reclaimed for fertilizer and potentially energy production. The water from kitchen sinks and showers (greywater) is treated locally in compact low maintenance systems that constitute attractive landscape elements. These systems can coexist with decentralized water supply.

JENSSEN, P. (2005): Decentralized Urban Greywater Treatment at Klosterenga Oslo. المُدخلات: Ecological Engineering-Bridging between Ecology and Civil Engineering: , 84-86. URL [Accessed: 21.02.2012]

Treatment Wetlands

Issue 12 of Sustainable Sanitation Practice (SSP) on „Treatment wetlands“ includes 6 contributions: (1.) the Austrian experience with single-stage sand and gravel based vertical flow systems with intermittent loading (the Austrian type is for treating mechanically pre-treated wastewater), (2.) the French experiences with two-stage vertical flow systems treating raw wastewater. (3.) EcoSan Club‘s experiences with TWs in Uganda, (4.) results from multi-stage TW treating raw wastewater in Morocco. (5.) results from horizontal flow experimental systems from Egypt, and (6.) experiences from Denmark and UK on reed beds treating excess sludge from activated sludge plants.

MUELLEGGER, E. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; LECHNER, M. (2012): Treatment Wetlands. (= Sustainable Sanitation Practice , 12 ). Vienna: EcoSan Club URL [Accessed: 18.07.2012]

Greywater

This Sustainable Sanitation Practice (SSP) issue contains the following contributions: 1. Combined Greywater Reuse and Rainwater Harvesting in an Office Building - Austria, 2. Household Greywater Treatment for Peri-Urban Areas - Kenya, 3. Greywater Use in Peri-Urban Households - Uganda, 4. Greywater Treatment in Apartment Building - Austria, 5. Combined Greywater Treatment Using a Membrane Bioreactor.

MUELLEGGER, E. ; LANGEGRABER, G. ; LECHNER, M. (2009): Greywater . Treatment and Reuse. (= Sustainable Sanitation Practice , 1 ). Vienna: Ecosan Club URL [Accessed: 01.07.2013] PDF
مواد تدريبية

Constructed Wetlands Manual

This manual has been prepared as a general guide to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of constructed wetlands for the treatment of domestic wastewater as well as introduction to the design of constructed wetland for sludge drying.

UN-HABITAT (2008): Constructed Wetlands Manual. Kathmandu: UN-HABITAT, Water for Asian Cities Program URL [Accessed: 15.02.2012]

Manual – Constructed Wetlands Treatment of Municipal Wastewater

This manual discusses the capabilities of constructed wetlands, a functional design approach, and the management requirements to achieve the designed purpose. The manual also attempts to put the proper perspective on the appropriate use, design and performance of constructed wetlands. Furthermore, the document contains two case studies.

U.S. EPA (1999): Manual – Constructed Wetlands Treatment of Municipal Wastewater. Washington D.C.: United States: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) URL [Accessed: 09.06.2019]

Small-scale Constructed Wetlands for Greywater and Total Domestic Wastewater Treatment

This training material quantifies and characterises grey- and total domestic wastewater production and exemplifies designing of small-scale horizontal and vertical flow constructed wetland system.

WAFLER, M. (2008): Small-scale Constructed Wetlands for Greywater and Total Domestic Wastewater Treatment. Vienna: seecon international gmbh
مواد لنشر الوعي

Healthy Wetlands, Healthy People: A Review of Wetlands and Human Health Interactions

Despite the production of more food and extraction of more water globally, wetlands continue to decline and public health and living standards for many do not improve. Why is this – and what needs to change to improve the situation? If we manage wetlands better, can we improve the health and well-being of people? Indeed, why is this important? This report seeks to address these questions.

HORWITZ, P. FINLAYSON, M. WEINSTEIN, P. (2012): Healthy Wetlands, Healthy People: A Review of Wetlands and Human Health Interactions. Ramsar Technical Report No. 6. Gland and Geneva: Secretariat of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands and The World Health Organization (WHO) URL [Accessed: 10.06.2019]

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