2018 يونيو 07

المِرحاض الجاف الفاصل للبول

Applicable to

Application level

Not applicable

Management level

Not applicable

المُدخلات

Dry Cleansing Materials Anal Cleansing Water
Urine Faeces

المُخرَجات

Anal Cleansing Water
Urine Faeces
+ Dry Cleansing Materials
المؤلف*
Eawag المعهد الفيدرالي السويسري لعلوم وتقنيات المياه
ترجمة وتعريب مؤسسة بناء

المُلخص التنفيذي

المِرحاض الجاف الفاصل للبول Urine-Diverting Dry Toilet (UDDT)؛ هو مِرحاض يعمل بدون مياه، وله فاصل مُقسَّم بحيث يمكن للمُستخدم -بالقليل من الجهد- أن يفصل البول بعيدًا عن البُراز.

المِرحاض الجاف الفاصل للبول؛ مصمم ومُنشأ بحيث يتم تجميع البول وتصريفه من المنطقة الأمامية للمِرحاض، بينما يقع البُراز من خلال فتحة في الجزء الخلفي. وبناءً على وحدة الجمع والتخزين/المُعالجة التالية، فإنه يجب أن تُضاف المواد المُجففة مثل: الجير، و/أو الرماد، و/أو التُراب إلى نفس الفتحة بعد قضاء الحاجة.

المزايا
لا يتطلب وجود مصدر مياه ثابت.
لا توجد مشاكل حقيقية مع الذُباب أو الروائح إذا ما تم استخدامه وصيانته بشكل صحيح.
يُمكن إنتاجه، وتركيبة، وصيانته بمواد متوفرة محليًّا.
تكاليف رأس المال والتشغيل مُنخفضة.
مناسب لجميع أنواع المُستخدمين (الذين يفضِّلون الجلوس المباشر على القاعدة أو الجلوس بوضعية القُرفصاء دون ملامسة القاعدة، والذين يفضِّلون الغسل، أو المسح).
العيوب
النماذج الجاهزة غير متوفرة في كل المناطق.
يتطلب التدريب والقبول ليتم استخدامه بشكل صحيح.
عُرضة لسوء الاستخدام والانسداد بالبُراز.
تكون أكوام فضلات الجسم مرئية.
عادةً ما يتطلب الرجال مبولة منفصلة؛ للتجميع الأمثل للبول.
المُدخلات المُخرَجات

البراز , البول , مياة تنظيف الشرج, مواد التنظيف الجافة 

البراز , مواد التنظيف الجاف , البول 

المُلاءمة

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يُعتبر المِرحاض الجاف الفاصل للبول بسيطًا في تصميمه وإنشاؤه، باستخدام مواد مثل: الخرسانة والشبكات السلكية، أو البلاستيك، ويُمكن تغيير تصميم المِرحاض الجاف الفاصل للبول ليتناسب مع احتياجات فئات معينة من السكان)بمعنى توفير نماذج أصغر للأطفال، وأخرى للذين يفضلون الجلوس بوضعية القُرفصاء، وما إلى ذلك).

اعتبارات التصميم

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 من المُهم أن يكون قسما المِرحاض مفصولين بشكل جيد لضمان: أ- ألا يصل البُراز إلى منطقة تجميع البول في المقدمة ويَسُدها. ب- ألا يتدفْق البول إلى المنطقة الجافة من المِرحاض

هناك أيضًا مراحيض مُزودة بثلاث فتحات فاصلة، تسمح بجمع مياه تنظيف الشرج في حوضٍ ثالث مُخصص لها، ومُنفصل عن مكان تجميع البُراز ومكان تصريف البول.

بناءً على تفضيل المُستخدم؛ فإنه يُمكن استخدام كلٍّ من قاعدة المِرحاض Pedestal، والبلاطة الأرضية المُستخدمة للجلوس فوقها بوضعية القُرفصاء Slab لفصل البول عن البُراز.

يؤدي البول إلى إصابة معظم المعادن بالصدأ؛ لذلك يجب تجنب استخدام المعادن في بناء المِرحاض الجاف الفاصل للبول والأنابيب الخاصة به. وللحد من الرواسب أو التكلس Scaling؛ يجب مراعاة أن تكون كافة الوصلات )الأنابيب( المتصلة بخزانات التخزين قصيرة قدر الإمكان، ويجب تثبيت الأنابيب -أينما كانت- بميل 1% على الأقل، ويجب تجنُّب الزوايا القائمة )90 درجة( وتعتبر الأنابيب ذات قطر 50 ملليمتر مناسبة للميول الحادة؛ لكونها سهلة الصيانة. وتُستخدم الأنابيب ذات القطر الأكبر )> 75 ملليمتر( في وضع آخر، وخاصةً للميول البسيطة والنقاط التي يصعب الوصول إليها.

ولمنع الروائح من العودة مرة أخرى عبر الأنبوب، يجب تثبيت مانع تسرب الروائح في مكان تصريف البول.

الجوانب الصحية / القبول

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إنَّ المِرحاض الجاف الفاصل للبول ليس بالشيء البديهي أو الواضح لبعض المُستخدمين، ففي البداية قد يتردد البعض في استخدامه، وقد تحدث بعض الأخطاء -على سبيل المثال: وجود البُراز في فتحة البول- قد تُثني مُستخدمين آخرين عن قبول هذا النوع من المراحيض، لذا فمن الضروري توفير الإرشادات التوضيحية والتدريب؛ لتحقيق القبول الجيد من قِبَل المُستخدمين. ولزيادة تقبل النظام وتجنُّب وجود البول في فتحة تجميع البُراز يمكن دمج المِرحاض بالمبولة  مما يسمح للرجال بالوقوف والتبوُّل.

التشغيل والصيانة

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 المِرحاض الجاف الفاصل للبول أكثر صعوبة نسبيًّا في الحفاظ على نظافته مقارنةً بالمراحيض الأخرى، لسببين وهما: عدم توفر المياه، وكذلك الحاجة لفصل البُراز الصلب عن البول السائل. ولن يتناسب تصميم واحد مع الجميع؛ وبالتالي فقد يجد بعض المُستخدمين صعوبة في الفصل التام بين الفتحتين، مما قد يتطلب مزيدًا من التنظيف والصيانة. ويُمكن أن يُودَع البُراز عن طريق الخطأ في الجزء المُخصَّص للبول؛ مما يُسبِّب انسداده، ومشاكل في التنظيف.

يجب أن يتم تنظيف كل الأسطح بانتظام؛ لمنع الروائح وتراكم الأوساخ قدر الإمكان. ويجب ألا يتم صَبَّ المياه في المِرحاض للتنظيف، وعِوضًا عن ذلك، يمكن استخدام قطعة مُبللة من القماش لمسح القاعدة أو الفتحات الداخلية. وبعض المراحيض يمكن نقلها بسهولة حيث يتم تنظيفها بطريقة أفضل. ومن المهم أن يبقى البُراز منفصلًا وجافًّا، وعندما يتم تنظيف المِرحاض بالماء يجب تَوخِي الحذر؛ لضمان عدم مَزج البُراز بالماء.

وحيث إنه يتم تجميع البول بشكل مُنفصل، فقد تترسب الأملاح المعدنية المُكونة من مُركبَّات الكالسيوم والمغنيسيوم، وتتراكم في الأنابيب، وعلى الأسطح المُعرَّضة للبول باستمرار. ويُمكن أن يُمنع تراكم الأملاح المعدنية والتكلس Scaling بغسل الوعاء بحمض متوسط (على سبيل المثال، الخل) و/أو الماء الساخن، ويمكن استخدام حمض أقوى )> 24% حمض الخليك Acetic( أو محلول الصودا الكاوية )جزئين من الماء مع جزء واحد من الصودا( لإزالة الانسدادات، ومع ذلك ففي بعض الحالات قد يتطلَّب الأمر الإزالة اليدوية للانسدادات.

يتطلب مانع تسرب الروائح صيانة أيضًا بين الحين والآخر، ومن المهم أن يتم التحقق من أدائه بانتظام.

المراجع

حلول تقنيات وممارسات افضل للصرف الصحى دليل الاحياء الهاشمية فى نواكشوط -موريتانيا

.بيار بورقي واخرون (2014): حلول تقنيات وممارسات افضل للصرف الصحى دليل الاحياء الهاشمية فى نواكشوط -موريتانيا . نواكشوط -موريتانيا :

Language: Arabic

Guidelines on the Use of Urine and Faeces in Crop Production

These guidelines provide a thorough background on the use of urine (and faeces) for agricultural purposes. Aspects discussed are requirements for plant growth, nutrients in excreta, hygiene aspects, and recommendations for cultivation. It provides detailed guidance on the use of urine for purposes.

JOENSSON, H. RICHERT, A. VINNERAAS, B. SALOMON, E. (2004): Guidelines on the Use of Urine and Faeces in Crop Production. (= EcoSanRes Publications Series , 2004 ). Stockholm: EcoSanRes URL [Accessed: 17.04.2012]

Ecological Toilets

This book describes how to construct Arborloo toilets and how it can be upgraded to VIPs at a later stage.

MORGAN, P. EcoSanRes (2009): Ecological Toilets. (pdf presentation). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019]

Toilets That Make Compost

This book describes in an easy-to-understand and picture-based way how to construct three different low cost sanitation solutions, namely arborloos, fossa alterna and urine diversion toilets.

MORGAN, P. EcoSanRes (2007): Toilets That Make Compost . Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019]

Technology Review of Urine Diversion Components

The publication explains the purposes of urine diversion, its benefits and challenges, urine precipitation, urine treatment and reuse in agriculture. Further, it provides an overview on design and operational aspects for equipment needed, such as waterless urinals and urine diversion toilets including supplier information and indicative costs. Overall, it pulls together scattered knowledge around the topic of urine diversion in a concise manner.

MUENCH, E. von WINKER, M. (2011): Technology Review of Urine Diversion Components. Overview of Urine Diversion Components such as Waterless Urinals, Urine Diversion Toilets, Urine Storage and Reuse Systems. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 11.05.2019]

Appendix 1 for technology review of urine diversion components

This document contains a worldwide list of suppliers for waterless urinals. The tables of suppliers provided here are not complete listings but give only an indication of available products. If you spot errors or omissions, please contact the authors at ecosan@giz.de. In the brackets below each listing the date for provision of the information/last update of information is given. Please be aware that not all information is from 2011. An entry in this list does not imply a recommendation by GIZ. Costs are indicative only.

MUENCH, E., v. WINKER, M. GIZ (2011): Appendix 1 for technology review of urine diversion components. Worldwide listing of suppliers for waterless urinals. (= Technology Review ). Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 31.05.2019]

Appendix 2 of technology review of urine diversion components

This document contains a worldwide list of suppliers for urine diversion squatting pans. The tables of suppliers provided here are not complete listings but give only an indication of available products. If you spot errors or omissions, please contact the authors at ecosan@giz.de. In the brackets below each listing the date for provision of the information/last update of information is given. Please be aware that not all information is from 2011. An entry in this list does not imply a recommendation by GIZ. Costs are indicative only.

MUENCH, E., v. WINKER, M. GIZ (2011): Appendix 2 of technology review of urine diversion components. Worldwide listing of suppliers for urine diversion squatting pans (for UDDTs or for urine diversion flush toilets). (= Technology Review ). Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 29.04.2011]

Appendix 3 of technology review of urine diversion components

This document contains a worldwide list of suppliers for urine diversion pedestals/seats (for UDDTs or for UD flush toilets). The tables of suppliers provided here are not complete listings but give only an indication of available products. If you spot errors or omissions, please contact the authors at ecosan@giz.de. In the brackets below each listing the date for provision of the information/last update of information is given. Please be aware that not all information is from 2011. An entry in this list does not imply a recommendation by GIZ. Costs are indicative only.

MUENCH, E., v. WINKER, M. GIZ (2011): Appendix 3 of technology review of urine diversion components. Worldwide listing of suppliers for urine diversion pedestals/seats (for UDDTs or for UD flush toilets). (= Technology Review ). Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 29.04.2011]

Smart Sanitation Solutions

Smart Sanitation Solutions presents examples of low-cost household and community-based sanitation solutions that have proven effective and affordable. A wide range of innovative technologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatment and use of sanitation products that have already helped thousands of poor families to improve their lives is illustrated.

NWP (2006): Smart Sanitation Solutions. Examples of innovative, low-cost technologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatment and use of sanitation products. (= Smart water solutions ). Amsterdam: Netherlands Water Partnership (NWP) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019]

Technology Review of Urine-Diverting Dry Toilets (UDDTs)

This publication offers a complete overview of UDDT functions, design considerations, common operation and maintenance issues and generalised installation costs. Its focus is on applications in developing countries and countries in transition, although UDDTs are also applicable in developed countries.

RIECK, C. MUENCH, E. HOFFMANN, H. (2012): Technology Review of Urine-Diverting Dry Toilets (UDDTs). Overview on Design, Management, Maintenance and Costs. (= Technology Review ). Eschborn: German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 11.05.2019]

Guidelines on the Safe Use of Urine and Faeces in Ecological Sanitation Systems

These guidelines provide a thorough background on the safe use of urine and faeces for agricultural purposes. Aspects like the health risk associated we the use of human excreta in agriculture and how to limit them are discussed.

SCHOENNING, C. STENSTROEM, T.A. (2004): Guidelines on the Safe Use of Urine and Faeces in Ecological Sanitation Systems. (= EcoSanRes Publication Series ). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI)

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. LUETHI, C. MOREL, A. ZURBRUEGG, C. SCHERTENLEIB, R. (2008): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG) and Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) URL [Accessed: 15.02.2010] PDF

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Ecological Sanitation - revised and enlarged edition

This book is one of the most fundamental and important books that defined the concept of ecological sanitation. The first version came out in 1998 - this version presents the findings of over ten years of research and development in ecological sanitation supported by SIDA (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency).

WINBLAD, U. SIMPSON-HERBERT, M. (2004): Ecological Sanitation - revised and enlarged edition. (pdf presentation). Sweden: Stockholm Environment Institute URL [Accessed: 04.08.2010]
قراءات أخرى

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

Simple Urine-diverting Dry Toilets (UDDTs) Built with Recycled or Readily Available Materials

The goal of this paper is to show that conversion to using UDDTs can be more a matter of shifting paradigms than capital investment. People can learn the concept and apply it on their own, with materials that they already have access to.

CANADAY, C. (2011): Simple Urine-diverting Dry Toilets (UDDTs) Built with Recycled or Readily Available Materials. Pastaza: Omaere Ethnobotanical Park URL [Accessed: 22.02.2012]

Toilets

The first part of a sanitation system is the „user interface“, i.e. the toilet, pedestal, pan or urinal. It is an important part of the sanitation system because this is the part the user comes in contact with. Acceptance of a sanitation system therefore often mainly depends on the acceptance of the user interface. This paper gives an overview on developments of different technologies for user interfaces (UDDTs and urinals). The contributions present developments in different geographical regions: South America, East Africa and the Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) countries.

ECOSAN CLUB (2011): Toilets. (= Sustainable Sanitation Practice , 6 ). Vienna: Ecosan Club URL

Low-Cost Sustainable Sanitation Solutions for Mindanao and the Philippines. A Practical Construction Field Guide

After a brief introductory chapter on the Philippine sanitation situation and basic principles of sustainable sanitation, the manual focuses on the introduction of different low-cost sanitation solutions comprising the arborloo toilet, the 1-chamber and 2-chamber UDDT, hanging UDDTs, and the ecopee urinal. Each technology is briefly described by giving general information on how it works, operation and maintenance requirements, reuse or safe disposal options, and in which setting this technology might be appropriate. In addition, a picture-based guide on how to construct each technology is provided as well as the necessary technical drawings and rough cost estimates based on current prices. Since a sanitation system does not end with the toilet itself, the last chapter also provides information on the overall management of the system including collection, transport, treatment, and final reuse of urine, feces and composting products in agriculture.

GENSCH, R. MISO, A. ITCHON, G. SAYRE, E. (2010): Low-Cost Sustainable Sanitation Solutions for Mindanao and the Philippines. A Practical Construction Field Guide. Cagayan de Oro City: Xavier University URL [Accessed: 31.05.2019]

Urine as Liquid Fertilizer in Agricultural Production in the Philippines

This field guide has been developed to accommodate the ever-increasing demand for more detailed and scientifically backed information on how to use urine in agricultural production. It is intended primarily for practitioners and experts in the water, sanitation, planning, and agriculture sectors, as well as local and national government officials from the various sectors, NGO and individuals interested and working in the field of agriculture and sustainable sanitation in the Philippines and the wider Southeast Asian region.

GENSCH, R. MISO, A. ITSCHON, G. (2011): Urine as Liquid Fertilizer in Agricultural Production in the Philippines. Cagayan de Oro: Sustainable Sanitation Center Xavier University (XU), the Philippine Sustainable Sanitation Knowledge Node, the Philippine Ecosan Network, and the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 07.05.2019]

Ventilation of dry toilets

This thesis aims at showing possibilities to improve ventilation standards of dry toilet facilities. Therefore, numerous structures were monitored over a period of three months, from March to June, in the southwestern districts of Uganda. The considerations and recommendations of this paper should support further development and improve future toilet structures in view of ventilation practices and design purviews. It should therefore contribute to a higher quality and acceptance of the dry toilets in the long term.

GROTH, F. (2005): Ventilation of dry toilets. (= Master Thesis ). Pinkafeld: Fachhochschulstudiengänge Burgenland GmbH URL [Accessed: 11.08.2010]

How to Select Appropriate Technical Solutions for Sanitation

The purpose of this guide is to assist local contracting authorities and their partners in identifying those sanitation technologies best suited to the different contexts that exist within their town. The first part of the guide contains a planning process and a set of criteria to be completed; these assist you in characterizing each area of intervention so that you are then in a position to identify the most appropriate technical solutions. The second part of the guide consists of technical factsheets which give a practical overview of the technical and economic characteristics, the operating principle and the pros and cons of the 29 sanitation technology options most commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa.

MONVOIS, J. GABERT, J. FRENOUX, C. GUILLAUME, M. (2010): How to Select Appropriate Technical Solutions for Sanitation. (= Six Methodological Guides for a Water and Sanitation Services' Development Strategy , 4 ). Cotonou and Paris: Partenariat pour le Développement Municipal (PDM) and Programme Solidarité Eau (pS-Eau) URL [Accessed: 19.10.2011]

Appendix 1 for technology review of urine diversion components

This document contains a worldwide list of suppliers for waterless urinals. The tables of suppliers provided here are not complete listings but give only an indication of available products. If you spot errors or omissions, please contact the authors at ecosan@giz.de. In the brackets below each listing the date for provision of the information/last update of information is given. Please be aware that not all information is from 2011. An entry in this list does not imply a recommendation by GIZ. Costs are indicative only.

MUENCH, E., v. WINKER, M. GIZ (2011): Appendix 1 for technology review of urine diversion components. Worldwide listing of suppliers for waterless urinals. (= Technology Review ). Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 31.05.2019]

Appendix 2 of technology review of urine diversion components

This document contains a worldwide list of suppliers for urine diversion squatting pans. The tables of suppliers provided here are not complete listings but give only an indication of available products. If you spot errors or omissions, please contact the authors at ecosan@giz.de. In the brackets below each listing the date for provision of the information/last update of information is given. Please be aware that not all information is from 2011. An entry in this list does not imply a recommendation by GIZ. Costs are indicative only.

MUENCH, E., v. WINKER, M. GIZ (2011): Appendix 2 of technology review of urine diversion components. Worldwide listing of suppliers for urine diversion squatting pans (for UDDTs or for urine diversion flush toilets). (= Technology Review ). Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 29.04.2011]

Appendix 3 of technology review of urine diversion components

This document contains a worldwide list of suppliers for urine diversion pedestals/seats (for UDDTs or for UD flush toilets). The tables of suppliers provided here are not complete listings but give only an indication of available products. If you spot errors or omissions, please contact the authors at ecosan@giz.de. In the brackets below each listing the date for provision of the information/last update of information is given. Please be aware that not all information is from 2011. An entry in this list does not imply a recommendation by GIZ. Costs are indicative only.

MUENCH, E., v. WINKER, M. GIZ (2011): Appendix 3 of technology review of urine diversion components. Worldwide listing of suppliers for urine diversion pedestals/seats (for UDDTs or for UD flush toilets). (= Technology Review ). Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 29.04.2011]

Systems for Enhancing Ventilation for Improved Control of Odour and Fly Nuisance in Dry Urine Diverting Ecological Sanitation Toilets

This research report described information for improved ventilation, fly and odour control as well as impact of improved ventilation on drying within faecal chambers and pathogen die-off in dehydration toilets.

OKETCH, M. (2005): Systems for Enhancing Ventilation for Improved Control of Odour and Fly Nuisance in Dry Urine Diverting Ecological Sanitation Toilets. URL [Accessed: 22.07.2010]

Technology Review of Urine-Diverting Dry Toilets (UDDTs)

This publication offers a complete overview of UDDT functions, design considerations, common operation and maintenance issues and generalised installation costs. Its focus is on applications in developing countries and countries in transition, although UDDTs are also applicable in developed countries.

RIECK, C. MUENCH, E. HOFFMANN, H. (2012): Technology Review of Urine-Diverting Dry Toilets (UDDTs). Overview on Design, Management, Maintenance and Costs. (= Technology Review ). Eschborn: German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 11.05.2019]

How to Manage Public Toilets and Showers

The purpose of this decision-making aid is to provide practical advice and recommendations for managing toilet blocks situated in public places. It is primarily aimed at local decision-makers in developing countries and at their partners (project planners and managers).

TOUBKISS, J. (2010): How to Manage Public Toilets and Showers. (= Six Methodological Guides for a Water and Sanitation Services' Development Strategy , 5 ). Cotonou and Paris: Partenariat pour le Développement Municipal (PDM) and Programme Solidarité Eau (pS-Eau) URL [Accessed: 19.10.2011]

Assessment of Urine-Diversion Dehydration Toilet Designs with Respect to Construction Materials Used and Associated Costs

The document compiles the assessment of different UDDTs designs with respect to the construction materials used (e.g. country burned bricks, cement hollow blocks, ferro-cement, etc.) and their associated construction costs. Optimization and cost estimates are based upon the assessment of various designs of UDDTs applied in India and bills of quantity (BOQ).

WAFLER, M. (2008): Assessment of Urine-Diversion Dehydration Toilet Designs with Respect to Construction Materials Used and Associated Costs. URL [Accessed: 07.07.2010]

Construction of Ecological Sanitation Latrine

This document sets out the principles for adopting an ecological sanitation approach, as well as providing guidance on the construction ecological sanitation latrines and their operation. It is intended to support sanitation field practitioners and WaterAid in Nepal ’s partners in the delivery of appropriate services and technologies to fit the needs of different users. .It is also equally hoped that this document will be of value to other organisations and sector stakeholders involved in sanitation promotion and ecological sanitation.

WATER AID (2011): Construction of Ecological Sanitation Latrine. Kathmandu: Water Aid URL [Accessed: 19.10.2011]
حالات دراسية

UDD Toilets in Rural School Hayanist, Armenia

This case study reports the establishment of a sustainable, affordable and safe school sanitation system in a rural area in Armenia. A total number of 7 Double-Vault UDDTs serve ca. 350 students (females and males) and 26 staff members. Urine is stored for 6 months before application.

DEEGENER, S. SAMWEL, M. ANAKHASYAN, E. (2009): UDD Toilets in Rural School Hayanist, Armenia. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 07.07.2010]

Urban Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilets and Reuse Ouagadougou Burkina Faso - Draft

This case studies reports form the implementation of ecosan toilets in the peri-urban area of Ouagadougou financed by the European Union. The aim of the project was to demonstrate ecosan on an urban level with a centralised collection and treatment facilities and commercialisation of hygienised urine and faeces.

FALL, A. (2009): Urban Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilets and Reuse Ouagadougou Burkina Faso - Draft. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 31.05.2019]

UDD Toilets for Nelson Mandela Private School, Arba Minch, Ethiopia

This case study reports replacement of pit latrines with a UDDT block (six single-vault UDDTs) for Nelson Mandela School, a private school from grade 1 to 9 with a total of 200 students and teachers, in Arba Minch, Ethiopia. The school staff operates and maintains the toilet (storage conditions of excreta, urine, hand washing facilities, cleaning of toilets, provision of drying agent like ash). The school janitor is responsible for providing the drying agents.

KASSA, K. (2010): UDD Toilets for Nelson Mandela Private School, Arba Minch, Ethiopia. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 11.08.2010]

Urine Diversion Dry Toilet (UDDT) for Agafari´s Household, Arba Minch, Ethiopia

This case study reports the replacement of pit latrine with UDDT at one household in Arba Minch, Ethiopia. A single-vault UDDT serves family members and rural merchants staying overnight. Urine is applied for banana, mango and lemon plants and the dried excreta are co-composted along with organic material in the owner’s farmland.

KASSA, K. (2010): Urine Diversion Dry Toilet (UDDT) for Agafari´s Household, Arba Minch, Ethiopia. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 12.12.2012]

Rural Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilets (after 6 years), Hanahai and Paje villages, Botswana

This case study reports the project history and lessons learnt (after 6 years) from construction of a total o 42 UDDTs in two villages in Botswana.

LORENZ, St. KHAWAJA, N. (2010): Rural Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilets (after 6 years), Hanahai and Paje villages, Botswana. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 11.08.2010]

Fertiliser value of human manure from pilot urine-diversion toilets

This study, evaluates the effectiveness of human manure as a source of nutrients using cabbage as a test crop at Ntselamanzi location, Alice, South Africa as part of a project intended to generate knowledge and good practice in ecological sanitation.

MNKENI, P.N.S. AUSTIN, L.M. (2009): Fertiliser value of human manure from pilot urine-diversion toilets. Fort Hare and Pretoria: Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Fort Hare and CSIR Built Environment Unit URL [Accessed: 05.01.2011]

Available Sanitation Technologies for Rural and Peri-Urban Africa

The presentation allows for a good overview on existing types of pit latrines in Africa, but also on other types of sanitation technologies such as the conventional flush toilet, the pour flush toilet, and the urine diversion dehydration toilet (UDDT).

MORGAN, P. (2007): Available Sanitation Technologies for Rural and Peri-Urban Africa. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 20.06.2013]

Ecological Sanitation in Malawi

This illustrative presentation on ecological sanitation in Malawi, focuses on the concept of ecological sanitation, types of eco-toilets and basic methods of recycling nutrient from human excreta.

MORGAN, P. (2010): Ecological Sanitation in Malawi. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 31.05.2019]

Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilets at a Residential Plot, Nakuru, Kenya - Draft

This case study reports the design and construction of a toilet block consisting of three single vault UDDTs for a population of 28 households at a residential plot in Hilton estate, a high-density low-income settlement in the North-Western part of Nakuru Town. To overcome problems associated to the misuse of the toilets by visitors and strangers who were not familiar with the proper use, a new toilet management system has been put in place, where the three UDDTs are divided among the 28 households, who are supposed to take care and maintain the toilets.

MUCHIRI, E. MUTUA, B. (2010): Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilets at a Residential Plot, Nakuru, Kenya - Draft. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 12.12.2012]

Solutions for Mountain Regions

This Sustainable Sanitation Practice (SSP) issue contains the following contributions: 1. Source Separating Solutions for Mountain Regions, 2. "Gloggnitzer Huette" Sanitation System, 3. Solid Waste Management in Mountain Refuges.

MUELLEGGER, E. ; LANGEGRABER, G. ; LECHNER, M. (2011): Solutions for Mountain Regions. (= Sustainable Sanitation Practice , 8 ). Vienna: Ecosan Club URL [Accessed: 01.07.2013]

The ROSA Project

The ROSA project stands for Resource-Oriented Sanitation concepts for peri-urban areas in Africa. This Sustainable Sanitation Practice (SSP) issue contains the following contributions: 1. Introduction to the ROSA Project, 2. From Pilot Units to Large-Scale Implementation - Ethiopia, 3. Implementation of UDDTs at Schools - Kenya, 4. Urban Agriculture for Sanitation Promotion, 5. Operation an Maintenance in Practice, 6. Experiences from Strategic Sanitation Planning, 7. Main Findings and Main Achievements.

MUELLEGGER, E. ; LANGEGRABER, G. ; LECHNER, M. (2010): The ROSA Project. (= Sustainable Sanitation Practice , 4 ). Vienna: Ecosan Club URL [Accessed: 01.07.2013]

Ecological Sanitation in Uganda

This document presents a range of different projects implemented in Uganda around ecological sanitation, such as school sanitation, biogas and sludge treatmemt. These documented cases have been compiled in completion of a 15 months Ecological Sanitation Research Project implemented by Network for Water and Sanitation (NETWAS) Uganda as the ecosanres Uganda Knowledge Node with support from the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI).

NETWAS EcoSanRes SEI (2011): Ecological Sanitation in Uganda. Inspirational Success Stories from the Field. Kampala: NETWAS Uganda URL [Accessed: 29.08.2011]

Rural Community and School UDD Toilets in Misamis Oriental, Libertad, Initao and Manticao, Philippines

This case study reports the establishment of 23 community ecosan UDDTs at “barrio centres” and at primary schools (at 14 different locations), frequented by an estimated total of 1,000 people in the province Misamis Oriental, Philippines. The double-vault UDDT design was adopted from ecosan projects of the allotment gardens in Cagayan de Oro City. The concrete urine-diversion pedestals are manufactured by the WAND Foundation. Urine is diluted with water (1:15 dilution) and is used as fertilizer in household vegetable gardens, fruit orchards, and seedling nurseries where the seedlings are raised. When both faeces vaults are full (approximately one year for each vault, so 2 years in total), the faeces will be further decomposed in a vermicomposting process before being used as soil conditioner.

SAYRE, E. MUENCH, E. (2009): Rural Community and School UDD Toilets in Misamis Oriental, Libertad, Initao and Manticao, Philippines. (= SuSanA Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 11.08.2010]

Sanitation Improvements at Navsarjan Boarding Schools, Gujarat, India – Draft

This case study reports design and construction of UDDTs at 3 primary boarding schools (with up to 210 pupils each) in rural Gujarat, India. The “compost” (i.e. desiccated faeces and cover material) and urine are applied as soil conditioner and nitrogen-rich liquid fertilizer to flower beds, kitchen gardens, etc.

WAFLER, M. (2009): Sanitation Improvements at Navsarjan Boarding Schools, Gujarat, India – Draft. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 11.08.2010]

Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilets in Rural Schools, Yemen – Draft

This case study reports the construction of UDDTs at 30 schools in rural areas (desert areas, tropical low land, and mountains) in Yemen. Rainwater harvesting is the only economic way to provide water in the toilets. If the rainwater is insufficient, the water has to be bought and delivered by a water truck (which is expensive). Due to the resentments among the local population the reuse of urine was not a priority of the project.

WOLF, H. ZOCH, B. (2010): Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilets in Rural Schools, Yemen – Draft. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 11.08.2010]

Delivering Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Services in an Uncertain Environment: Thermophilic Composting of Human Wastes in Uncertain Urban Environments

This paper describes the project of constructing a thermophilic composting site in Haiti after the earthquake in 2010. The composting facilities have treated over 500,000 gallons of human waste in the past three years, converting it to pathogen free compost, over 10,000 gallons of which has been sold for use in agriculture and reforestation projects. The experience of thermophilic composting in Haiti is unique in scale and duration and can have global implications for waste treatment in both emergency and development contexts.

KRAMER, S. PRENETA, N. KILBRIDE, A. (2013): Delivering Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Services in an Uncertain Environment: Thermophilic Composting of Human Wastes in Uncertain Urban Environments. A Case Study from Haiti. (= WECD International Conference , 36 ). Oakland: Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods (SOIL) URL [Accessed: 01.06.2019]

Delivering Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Services in an Uncertain Environment: Piloting Ecological Sanitation (EcoSan) in the Emergency Context of Port-au-Prince, Haiti, after the 2010 Earthquake

The earthquake that struck Haiti in January 2010 and the cholera epidemic that followed from October 2010, resulted in one of the largest humanitarian relief efforts in history. Many of the internally displaced persons camps were located in urban neighbourhoods with high groundwater, making onsite sanitation extremely difficult. In response to these unique conditions a small local organization, SOIL, partnered with Oxfam Great Britain to pilot urine diversion EcoSan toilets in camps throughout Port-au-Prince. This briefing paper covers this pilot project from March 2010 through March 2012. During that 2-year period, SOIL’s toilets served over 20,000 people and treated more than 400,000 gallons of human waste, converting it to rich compost.

KILBRIDE, A. KRAMER, S. PRENETA, N. (2013): Delivering Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Services in an Uncertain Environment: Piloting Ecological Sanitation (EcoSan) in the Emergency Context of Port-au-Prince, Haiti, after the 2010 Earthquake. (= WECD International Conference , 36 ). Oakland: Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods (SOIL) URL [Accessed: 01.06.2019]
مواد تدريبية

Urine Diverting Dry Toilets

This manual provides the background of ecological sanitation and gives guidance how to construct and operate a UDDT. The manual, originally published in 2006, has been revised based on the experiences of more than 10 years in 12 countries by WECF with local partners.

DEEGENER, S. SAMWEL, M. WENDLAND, C. (2015): Urine Diverting Dry Toilets. Principles, Operation and Construction. Women in Europe for a Common Future (WECF) URL [Accessed: 29.11.2015]

Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilet (UDDT) - Construction Manual

Design and construction manual on that also provides information on the nutrient value of human urine and faecal matter, general hygiene aspects, the reuse of sanitized urine and faecal matter, and costs of various Indian UDDT designs.

ESF (2009): Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilet (UDDT) - Construction Manual. Pune: Ecosan Services Foundation (ESF) URL [Accessed: 07.07.2010]

Sanitation & Cleanliness for a Healthy Environment

This booklet is a chapter from “A Community Guide to Environmental Health”. It offers basic information and learning activities to help communities understand and prevent sanitation-related health problems. The booklet includes instructions for building several kinds of latrines, as well as ecological sanitation solutions.

HESPERIAN FOUNDATION (2004): Sanitation & Cleanliness for a Healthy Environment. The Hesperian Foundation in Collaboration with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) URL [Accessed: 01.08.2010]

Construction of Bench Style Double Vault Urine Diversion Toilet and Alternatives

The use of Urine Diversion (UD) in dry toilets allows faeces dehydration. Urine can be reused as urea, while faeces are dried in a double vault system of alternate use. The moisture comes out using ventilation pipes. After 2 years the end product can be emptied and reused without having any health risk. Water from washing can be treated in a constructed wetland and reused for instance for irrigation.

HOFFMANN, H. (2012): Construction of Bench Style Double Vault Urine Diversion Toilet and Alternatives. Lima: Rotaria del Peru SAC URL [Accessed: 26.03.2012]

Technology Review of Urine-Diverting Dry Toilets (UDDTs)

This publication offers a complete overview of UDDT functions, design considerations, common operation and maintenance issues and generalised installation costs. Its focus is on applications in developing countries and countries in transition, although UDDTs are also applicable in developed countries.

RIECK, C. MUENCH, E. HOFFMANN, H. (2012): Technology Review of Urine-Diverting Dry Toilets (UDDTs). Overview on Design, Management, Maintenance and Costs. (= Technology Review ). Eschborn: German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 11.05.2019]
مواد لنشر الوعي

Introduction of Ecological Sanitation (Ecosan) - Urine Diversion Dry Toilet (UDDT) into the Public Health System

This document shows how the government of Sri Lanka has accepted dry composting toilets as a appropriate on-site sanitation system.

MoHN (2007): Introduction of Ecological Sanitation (Ecosan) - Urine Diversion Dry Toilet (UDDT) into the Public Health System. Colombo: Ministry of Healthcare and Nutrition (MoHN) (Sri Lanka)

How to Separate Urine

This flyer contains information about the importance of urine reuse. The nutrients in urine are easily taken up by plants. The fertilised plant will grow faster, develop more leaves and produce higher yields. Applying urine to crops instead of chemical fertilisers saves money and energy and produces a similar yield. One person produces about 500 liter urine per year.

WECF (2010): How to Separate Urine. Utrecht/Munich/Annemasse: Women in Europe for a Common Future URL [Accessed: 06.01.2011]

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