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2018 يونيو 19

خزَّان التحليل (التخمير)

Applicable to

Application level

City

Household

Neighborhood

Management level

Household

Public

Shared

المُدخلات

Blackwater Brownwater Greywater

المُخرَجات

Sludge Effluent
المؤلف*
Eawag المعهد الفيدرالي السويسري لعلوم وتقنيات المياه
ترجمة وتعريب مؤسسة بناء
المُلخص التنفيذي

خزَّان التحليل (التخمير) Septic Tank هو عبارة عن غُرفة معزولة -غير مُنفذة للمياه- ومصنوعة من الخرسانة أو الألياف الزجاجية أو البولي فينيل كلوريد PVC أو البلاستيك، وإليها تتدفق المياه السوداء والمياه الرمادية للمعالجة الابتدائية. تقوم عمليات الترسيب و التحلّل اللاهوائية بتخفيض المواد الصلبة والعضوية، ولكن تعتبر المعالجة متوسطة وغير مكتملة.

تتدفق السوائل إلى الخزَّان حيث تسقط الجسيمات الثقيلة إلى القاع، بينما الخبث الطافي -أو الزَّبَد- (ومعظمها من الزيوت والشحوم) فتطفو لأعلى، ومع مرور الوقت تتحلل المواد الصلبة المستقرة في القاع تحللًا لاهوائيا. ومع ذلك، فإن معدل تراكم المواد الصلبة في القاع أسرع من معدل التحلّل، ويجب إزالة الحمأة المتراكمة والخبث دوريًا. يجب تصريف التدفقات السائلة الخارجة من خزَّان التحليل (التخمير) باستخدام حفرة الامتصاص  أو حقل التصريف الشبكي ، أو نقلها إلى تقنية معالجة أخرى عبر شبكات الصرف الصحي الخالية من المواد الصلبة .

يُتوقع - عمومًا - من الخزَّان المُصمم جيدًا والذي يتم صيانته جيدًا: إمكانية إزالة 50% من المواد الصلبة، و من 30 إلى 40% من الاحتياج الحيوي للأكسجين، وإزالة درجة واحدة لوغاريتمية 1-log removal (90%) من بكتريا الإشريكية القولونية E. coli. ولكن تختلف كفاءات الخزّانات بشكل كبير وفقًا للتشغيل والصيانة والظروف المناخية.

المزايا
تقنية بسيطة ومتينة.
لا تتطلب طاقة كهربائية.
تكاليف التشغيل منخفضة.
تقدم خدمة طويلة الأمد.
تتطلب مساحة أرض صغيرة (يمكن بناؤها تحت الأرض).
العيوب
تخفيض ضعيف لمسببات الأمراض والمواد الصلبة والعضوية.
يجب التأكد من إزالة الحمأة بشكل منتظم.
تتطلب التدفقات السائلة الخارجة والحمأة المزيد من المعالجة و/أو التصريف المناسب.
المُدخلات المُخرَجات

المياة السوداء, المياة الرمادية , المياة البنية

التدفقات السائلة الخارجة , الحمأة

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المُلاءَمَة
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تُستخدم هذه التقنية في الأغلب على مستوى المنزل. وتصمم الخزَّانات الكبيرة والمتعددة الغرف لمجموعات من البيوت و/أو المباني العامة )على سبيل المثال، المدارس.(

يعتبر خزَّان التحليل )التخمير( مناسبًا في حالة وجود وسيلة للتخلص أو لنقل التدفقات السائلة الخارجة منه. إذا تم استخدام خزَّانات التحليل )التخمير(في المناطق ذات الكثافة السكانية العالية فيجب تجنب الارتشاح في الموقع، وإلا فإن الأرض ستصبح مشبعة بالمياه وملوثة، وقد ترتفع مياه الصرف الصحي إلى السطح، مما يشكل مخاطر صحية بالغة. لذلك يجب اتصال خزَّانات التحليل )التخمير( بإحدى تقنيات النقل، التي يتم من خلالها نقل التدفقات السائلة الخارجة لمعالجتها أو التخلص منها. وعلى الرغم من أن خزَّانات التحليل )التخمير( معزولة -غير مُنفذة للمياه - فإنه لا يفضل إنشاؤها في المناطق ذات المنسوب العالي للمياه الجوفية أو المناطق متكررة الفيضانات.

ينبغي تسهيل وصول شاحنات الشفط إلى موقع الخزَّان لأنه يجب إزالة الحمأة منه بانتظام. في بعض الأحيان يتم إنشاء خزَّانات التحليل )التخمير( في المنزل أو تحت المطبخ أو الحمام مما يُؤدي إلى صعوبة تفريغها.

يمكن إنشاء خزَّانات التحليل )التخمير في أي مناخ، ولكن الكفاءة ستكون أقل في المناخات الباردة. كما أنها ليست فعالة في إزالة المغذيات ومسببات للأمراض.

 

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اعتبارات التصميم
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 يجب أن يحتوي خزَّان التحليل )التخمير( على غرفتين على الأقل. وينبغى ألا يقل طول الغُرفة الأولى عن 50% من الطول الكلي، أما في حالة وجود غرفتين فقط فينبغي أن يكون طول الغُرفة الأولى حوالي ثُلثي الطول الكُلي، حيث إن معظم المواد الصلبة تترسب في الغُرفة الأولى. يمنع الحاجز - أو الفاصل بين الغرف - خروج الخبث والمواد الصلبة مع التدفقات السائلة الخارجة. وكذلك تمنع أنبوب المُخرجات المُصمم على شكل حرف T من تصريف الخبث والمواد الصلبة.

تُعتبر إمكانية الوصول إلى كافة الغُرف )من خلال فتحات الوصول( ضرورية من أجل عملية الصيانة، ويجب تهوية الخزانات للتحكم في خروج الروائح والغازات الضارة.

يعتمد تصميم خزَّان التحليل )التخمير( على: عدد المستخدمين، كمية المياه المستخدمة للفرد الواحد، متوسط درجة الحرارة السنوية، معدل إزالة الحمأة، وخصائص مياه الصرف الصحي. ويجب أن يكون زمن البقاء لمدة 48 ساعة لتحقيق المعالجة المتوسطة.

يُوجد نوع آخر من خزَّانات التحليل )التخمير( يُعرف بخزَّان دورة المياة Aquaprivy، وهو عبارة عن خزَّان مُبسط للترسيب والتخزين، ويُوضع مباشرة أسفل دورة المياه بحيث تسقط فضلات الجسم فيه. وتُعتبر كفاءة خزَّان دورة المياه منخفضة في المعالجة.

 

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الجوانب الصحية / القبول
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 في ظل ظروف التشغيل العادية لا يتلامس المستخدمون مع التدفقات السائلة الداخلة أو الخارجة. ويجب التعامل مع التدفقات السائلة الخارجة والخبث الطافي والحمأة المترسبة بحذر حيث إنها تحتوي على مستويات عالية من الكائنات الحية المسببة للأمراض.

ويجب على المستخدمين توخي الحذر عند فتح الخزَّان بسبب الغازات الضارة والقابلة للاشتعال المتوقع خروجها.

 

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التشغيل والصيانة
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 ينبغي - بسبب بيئته الحساسة - عدم تفريغ المواد الكيميائية المُركزة في خزَّان التحليل (التخمير)، كما يجب مراقبة مستويات الخبث والحمأة للتأكد من عمل الخزَّان بشكل جيد. ويجب -عمومًا- تفريغ الخزانات كل سنتين إلى خمس سنوات، وذلك يتم بشكل أفضل عن طريق استخدام تقنية التفريغ والنقل بواسطة المحركات ، وممكن أيضًا اعتبار التفريغ بالمجهود البشري  كخيار.

ويجب فحص خزَّانات التحليل (التخمير) من وقت إلى آخر لضمان كونها معزولة -غير مُنفذة للمياه.

Media PPT
المراجع

المياه ،الصرف الصحي النظافة الصحية وظروف الإقامة في السجون

بييـر جيورجيو نمبرينـي (2009): المياه ،الصرف الصحي النظافة الصحية وظروف الإقامة في السجون . (= الطبعة العربية الاولى ). جنيف .سويسرا: اللجنة الدولية للصليب الاحمر

Language: Arabic

الدليل الارشادى لادارة المياة الرمادية على مستوى المنزل فى التجمعات السكنية الصغيرة فى البادية الشمالية الشرقية الاردن

الجمعية العلمية الملكية المركز الكندى لبحوث التنمية (2007): الدليل الارشادى لادارة المياة الرمادية على مستوى المنزل فى التجمعات السكنية الصغيرة فى البادية الشمالية الشرقية الاردن. الاردن:

Language: Arabic

بناء الحمامات وطرق تحسينها وصيانتها

عبدالرقيب على حمادي (2001): بناء الحمامات وطرق تحسينها وصيانتها. المنصورية والمخأ / اليمن: ﺗﻤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻲ ﺍﻷﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ

Language: Arabic

Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems

Decentralised wastewater management presents a comprehensive approach to the design of both conventional and innovative systems for the treatment and disposal of wastewater or the reuse of treaded effluent. Smaller treatment plants, which are the concern of most new engineers, are the primary focus of this book.

CRITES, R. TCHOBANOGLOUS, G. (1998): Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc

Low-cost Urban Sanitation

This book covers the public health, technical, socioeconomic, sociocultural and institutional aspects of sanitation in towns and cities of developing countries. The text features excreta-related diseases and the use of sanitation to reduce their transmission. The sanitation technologies covered in detail are VIP latrines, pour-flush toilets, septic tanks, settled sewerage and simplified sewerage, with additional chapters on sullage disposal, pit emptying, and sewage treatment and reuse. Sociocultural constraints on sanitation systems and their socioeconomic costing are described, together with hygiene education, which is essential in order to achieve maximum benefits to health. The text also explains how to choose the most appropriate sanitation option for a given low-income community. Finally, institutional aspects are reviewed, including effective sanitation programme planning, monitoring and evaluation.

MARA, D. (1996): Low-cost Urban Sanitation. United Kingdom: Wiley

Greywater Management in Low and Middle-Income Countries, Review of Different Treatment Systems for Households or Neighbourhoods

This report compiles international experience in greywater management on household and neighbourhood level in low and middle-income countries. The documented systems, which vary significantly in terms of complexity, performance and costs, range from simple systems for single-house applications (e.g. local infiltration or garden irrigation) to rather complex treatment trains for neighbourhoods (e.g. series of vertical and horizontal-flow planted soil filters).

MOREL, A. DIENER, S. (2006): Greywater Management in Low and Middle-Income Countries, Review of Different Treatment Systems for Households or Neighbourhoods. (= SANDEC Report No. 14/06 ). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 27.05.2019]

Septic Tank and Septic Systems

This paper presents a review on the septic tank and septic systems. Information on design and functional aspects, and environmental effects of septic tank systems are presented.

POLPRASERT, C. RAJPUT, V.S. (1982): Septic Tank and Septic Systems. (= Environmental Sanitation Reviews , 7 ). Bangkok: Environmental Sanitation Information Center URL [Accessed: 08.04.2014]

Informed Choice Catalogue

This informed choice catalogue for community based wastewater treatment technologies helps to identify suitable sanitation options and facilitates the assessment of different sanitation system components with regard to stakeholder preferences. A powerful tool for technical bottom-up planning giving overall information about technical options at a "glance".

SANIMAS (2005): Informed Choice Catalogue. pdf presentation. BORDA and USAID URL [Accessed: 29.05.2019]

DEWATS

Exhaustive report on technological, operational and economic aspects of decentralised waste water treatment systems. Spreadsheet examples support the reader in designing and planning waste water treatment systems components.

SASSE, L. BORDA (1998): DEWATS. Decentralised Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries. Bremen: Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA) URL [Accessed: 03.06.2019]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. LUETHI, C. MOREL, A. ZURBRUEGG, C. SCHERTENLEIB, R. (2008): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG) and Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) URL [Accessed: 15.02.2010] PDF

Sanitation Technology Options

In this document, you will find more information on the various technical options that meet the requirements for basic sanitation. These need to be considered within all the sustainability requirements, e.g. affordability, operation and maintenance. The options are divided into two categories: Dry non-water reliant on-site systems and wet systems (that do require water for operation).

WAaF (2002): Sanitation Technology Options. Pretoria: Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (WAaF) URL [Accessed: 31.05.2019]

A Guide to the Development of On-site Sanitation

The publication presents appropriate technologies for sanitation and highlights socio-economic aspects of planning and implementing. Emphasis is given to household-level sanitation improvements for urban areas, as well as rural areas and small communities. Background information on sanitation, in-depth technical information on the design, construction, operation and maintenance and project planning and development processes involved in projects and programmes complement the book.

WHO (1992): A Guide to the Development of On-site Sanitation. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 14.04.2010]

Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India. A Guide to Decision-Making

These guidance notes are designed to provide state governments and urban local bodies with additional information on available technologies on sanitation. The notes also aid in making an informed choice and explain the suitability of approaches.

WSP (2008): Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India. A Guide to Decision-Making. pdf presentation. New Delhi: Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) URL [Accessed: 03.06.2019]
قراءات أخرى

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

A Homeowner's Guide to Septic Systems

This manual provides information on functionality of septic systems containing the modules septic tank and leach field and addresses the user at the household level. Construction, maintenance and operation are described.

IDAHO DEQ (2001): A Homeowner's Guide to Septic Systems. Boise: Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (IDAHO DEQ) URL [Accessed: 04.05.2010]

Faecal Sludge Management.

This issue presents studies from different regions (Bangladesh, Cameroon, Burkina Faso) that mainly show the non-existence of faecal sludge management. Additionally, the last paper describes a new technological solution (LaDePa) for producing hygienically safe organic fertiliser from sludge from ventilated improved pit toilets (VIPs).

ECOSAN CLUB (2012): Faecal Sludge Management.. (= Sustainable Sanitation Practice , 13 ). Vienna: Ecosan Club URL [Accessed: 16.10.2012]

A Guide to the Development of On-site Sanitation

The publication presents appropriate technologies for sanitation and highlights socio-economic aspects of planning and implementing. Emphasis is given to household-level sanitation improvements for urban areas, as well as rural areas and small communities. Background information on sanitation, in-depth technical information on the design, construction, operation and maintenance and project planning and development processes involved in projects and programmes complement the book.

WHO (1992): A Guide to the Development of On-site Sanitation. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 14.04.2010]

Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Manual

Rather old design manual for onsite wastewater treatment options. However, valuable information on established systems such as septic tanks, sand filters, aerobic treatment units (suspended growth and fixed film), disinfection, nutrient removal as well as wastewater segregation and recycling are given. Additional information is given on disposal methods and appurtenances.

U.S.EPA (1980): Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Manual. (= EPA 625/1-80 , 12 ). United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Office of Research and Development

Environmentally sound technologies in wastewater treatment for the implementation of the UNEP/GPA "Guidelines on Municipal Wastewater Management"

Technical information on environmentally sound technologies in wastewater treatment.

UNEP ; MURDOCH UNIVERSITY (2004): Environmentally sound technologies in wastewater treatment for the implementation of the UNEP/GPA "Guidelines on Municipal Wastewater Management". The Hague: United Nations Environment Programme Global Programme of Action (UNEP/GPA), Coordination Office

Philippines Sanitation Source Book and Decision Aid

This Sanitation Sourcebook distils some of the core concepts of sanitation in a user-friendly format so that the book can serve as a practical reference to sanitation professionals and investment decision-makers, particularly the local governments. The annexe contains a practical collection of factsheets on selected sanitation system options.

WSP (2007): Philippines Sanitation Source Book and Decision Aid. pdf presentation. Washington: Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). URL [Accessed: 01.06.2019]

Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India. A Guide to Decision-Making

These guidance notes are designed to provide state governments and urban local bodies with additional information on available technologies on sanitation. The notes also aid in making an informed choice and explain the suitability of approaches.

WSP (2008): Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India. A Guide to Decision-Making. pdf presentation. New Delhi: Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) URL [Accessed: 03.06.2019]

How to Select Appropriate Technical Solutions for Sanitation

The purpose of this guide is to assist local contracting authorities and their partners in identifying those sanitation technologies best suited to the different contexts that exist within their town. The first part of the guide contains a planning process and a set of criteria to be completed; these assist you in characterizing each area of intervention so that you are then in a position to identify the most appropriate technical solutions. The second part of the guide consists of technical factsheets which give a practical overview of the technical and economic characteristics, the operating principle and the pros and cons of the 29 sanitation technology options most commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa.

MONVOIS, J. GABERT, J. FRENOUX, C. GUILLAUME, M. (2010): How to Select Appropriate Technical Solutions for Sanitation. (= Six Methodological Guides for a Water and Sanitation Services' Development Strategy , 4 ). Cotonou and Paris: Partenariat pour le Développement Municipal (PDM) and Programme Solidarité Eau (pS-Eau) URL [Accessed: 19.10.2011]

Anaerobic Reactors

Anaerobic Reactors is the forth volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment. The fundamentals of anaerobic treatment are presented in detail, including its applicability, microbiology, biochemistry and main reactor configurations. Two reactor types are analysed in more detail, namely anaerobic filters and especially UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactors. Particular attention is also devoted to the post-treatment of the effluents from the anaerobic reactors. The book presents in a clear and informative way the main concepts, working principles, expected removal efficiencies, design criteria, design examples, construction aspects and operational guidelines for anaerobic reactors.

LEMOS CHERNICHARO, C.A. de (2007): Anaerobic Reactors. (= Biological Wastewater Treatment Series , 4 ). London: International Water Association (IWA) Publishing. [Accessed: 01.11.2013]

Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions Volume 1

Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions gives a state-of-the-art presentation of the science and technology of biological wastewater treatment, particularly domestic sewage. The book covers the main treatment processes used worldwide with wastewater treatment in warm climate regions given a particular emphasis where simple, affordable and sustainable solutions are required. The 55 chapters are divided into 7 parts over two volumes: Volume One: (1) Introduction to wastewater characteristics, treatment and disposal; (2) Basic principles of wastewater treatment; (3) Stabilisation ponds; (4) Anaerobic reactors; Volume Two (also available in the SSWM library): (5) Activated sludge; (6) Aerobic biofilm reactors; (7) Sludge treatment and disposal.

SPERLING, M. von LEMOS CHERNICHARO, C.A. de (2005): Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions Volume 1. London: International Water Association (IWA) Publishing URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF
حالات دراسية

Greywater treatment systems for hotel premises, Sri Lanka

This case study presents different cost-effective on-site treatment technologies with main focus on hotel greywater and blackwater treatment systems. The first greywater treatment plant was constructed for the Swiss Residence Hotel. Based on the experience gained by the Swiss Residence Hotel, further systems were implemented at the hotels Ivy Banks and Coral Sands.

MOREL, A. DIENER, S. (2006): Greywater treatment systems for hotel premises, Sri Lanka. المُدخلات: MOREL, A. ; DIENER, S. ; (2006): Greywater Management in Low and Middle-Income Countries, Review of Different Treatment Systems for Households or Neighbourhoods. Duebendorf: 80-84.

Opportunities in Fecal Sludge Management for Cities in Developing Countries: Experiences from the Philippines

In July 2012, a team from RTI International deployed to the Philippines to evaluate four FSM programs with the goal of reporting on best practices and lessons learned. The four cases—Dumaguete City, San Fernando City, Maynilad Water for the west zone of metro Manila, and Manila Water from the east zone of metro Manila—were chosen to highlight their different approaches to implementing FSM.

ROBBINS, D. STRANDE, L. DOCZI, J. (2012): Opportunities in Fecal Sludge Management for Cities in Developing Countries: Experiences from the Philippines. North Carolina: RTI International URL [Accessed: 10.06.2019]
مواد تدريبية

Sanitation Technology Options

In this document, you will find more information on the various technical options that meet the requirements for basic sanitation. These need to be considered within all the sustainability requirements, e.g. affordability, operation and maintenance. The options are divided into two categories: Dry non-water reliant on-site systems and wet systems (that do require water for operation).

WAaF (2002): Sanitation Technology Options. Pretoria: Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (WAaF) URL [Accessed: 31.05.2019]
مواد لنشر الوعي

It's Your Choice: A Guidebook for Local Officials on Small Community Wastewater Management Options

This booklet was prepared by the United States Environmental Protection Agency U.S. EPA for officials from communities of less than 10000 people to present them available options and thus to enable an informed choice.

U.S. EPA (1987): It's Your Choice: A Guidebook for Local Officials on Small Community Wastewater Management Options . (= EPA/430-87-006 ). United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Office of Research and Development

Decentralized Systems Technology Fact Sheet - Septic System Tanks

Four-page factsheet by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), describing septic tanks, their applicability and the design of septic tank systems for household-level black and greywater treatment.

U.S. EPA (2000): Decentralized Systems Technology Fact Sheet - Septic System Tanks. (= EPA 832-F-00 , 40 ). Washington, D.C.: United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Office of Research and Development (US EPA) URL [Accessed: 15.04.2010]

Decentralized Systems Technology Fact Sheet - Septic Tank Leaching Chamber

Seven-page factsheet by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), describing the system, its applicability and the design of a leaching field following a septic tank.

U.S. EPA (2000): Decentralized Systems Technology Fact Sheet - Septic Tank Leaching Chamber. (= EPA 832-F-00 , 44 ). Washington, D.C.: United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Office of Research and Development. URL [Accessed: 15.04.2010]

Decentralized Systems Technology Fact Sheet: Septic Tank Systems for Large Flow Application

Ten-page factsheet by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), describing the system, its applicability and design of a septic tanks for large-flow applications.

U.S. EPA (2000): Decentralized Systems Technology Fact Sheet: Septic Tank Systems for Large Flow Application. (= EPA 832-F-00 , 79 ). Washington, D.C.: United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Office of Research and Development. URL [Accessed: 15.04.2010]

Homeowner's Guide to Septic Systems

Booklet that describes how a septic system works and what homeowners can do to help their systems treat wastewater effectively.

U.S. EPA (2002): Homeowner's Guide to Septic Systems. (= EPA 832-B-02 , 5 ). United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Office of Research and Development. URL [Accessed: 15.04.2010]

    This module introduces the importance of market-based RRR solutions. At the end of this module you have identified key challenges in your local sanitation and waste management system and a RRR-related business idea.

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    This module sheds light on the importance of studying the business environment and its components like waste supply, market demand, competition and the institutional framework. At the end of this module you have gained insights to evaluating the potential of your business idea.

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    This module shows how a business idea can be turned into a business model while putting a specific focus on understanding the customer and designing products that meet their needs. At the end of this module you will have developed a business model and positioned your offer in the market.

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    This module focusses on planning the operations of a RRR related business. During this part RRR technologies will be introduced for different waste streams and tools for planning the production process. At the end of this module you will have blueprinted your production process and the required technology and production inputs.

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    This module covers key aspects of financial planning and analysis. At the end of this module you will have forecasted your profits, cash flows, required investment and evaluated the financial viability of your business model.

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    This module enables you to set objectives and plan activities for the launch of your RRR business and identify potential financing sources. At the end of this module you will have developed an action plan for launch and identified appropriate financing sources.

    Cover image Module  6

    Week 1: Identify challenges in your local sanitation & waste management

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    SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles

    This AGUASAN publication illustrates how the water and nutrient cycles can be used as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system and aligning it with SDG 6.

    BROGAN, J., ERLMANN, T., MUELLER, K. and SOROKOVSKYI, V. (2017): SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles. Using the water and nutrient cycles as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system - including workshop material. Bern (Switzerland): AGUASAN and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

    Why shit matters [Video File]

    TEDX TALKS (2019): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d4yD0kz34jg [Accessed: 28.03.2019]

    "3 billion people worldwide live in cities without sewers or wastewater treatment plant infrastructure. This forces them to dump their waste into open waters, contaminating the drinking water for others downstream. Imagine if we could harness nutrients in wastewater instead of harming human and environmental health. Christoph Lüthi sees a renewable, locally produced and growing resource where others see only human waste. Watch his talk to learn why shit matters! "

    Week 2: Identify RRR products and business opportunities

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    A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

    AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

    GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

    OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Week 1: Analyse waste supply

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    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 2: Analyse market demand

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    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 3: Analyse your competition

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    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 4: Analyse the institutional environment

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    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 1: Meet the Business Model Canvas

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    A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

    AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

    GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

    OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Week 1: Plan your production process

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    Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

    This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

    TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

    Week 2: Understand the treatment process

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    Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings

    LOHRI, C. R., DIENER, S., ZABALETA, I. MERTENAT, A. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2017): Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings. In: Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 81–130. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

    Week 3A: Design technology systems for nutrient recovery

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    Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery

    COFIE, O., NIKIEMA, J., IMPRAIM, R., ADAMTEY, N., PAUL, J. and KONÉ, D. (2016): Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 3. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Decentralized composting in India

    DRESCHER, S. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2004): Decentralized composting in India. In: Harper et al. Sustainable Composting: Case Studies in Guidelines for Developing Countries. Loughborough (UK): Water Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), Loughborough University, Part2: Case Studies, Chapter 3, pp.15-27. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

    Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives

    KARANJA, N., KWACH, H. and NJENGA, M. (2005): Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives. Nairobi (Kenya): UN-Habitat. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 3B: Design technology systems for energy recovery

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    Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market

    FERGUSON, H. (2012): Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market. London (UK): Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) International. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 3C: Design technology systems for water recovery

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    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Chapter 3 - Technology Selection

    VEENSTRA, S., ALAERTS, G. and BIJLSMA, M. (1997): Chapter 3 - Technology Selection. In: Helmer, R. and Hespanhol, I. (Eds). Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles. London (UK): World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects

    Volume I of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater focuses on policy, regulation and institutional arrangements. Accordingly, its intended readership is made up of policy-makers and those with regulatory responsibilities. It provides guidance on policy formulation, harmonisation and mainstreaming, on regulatory mechanisms and on establishing institutional links between the various interested sectors and parties. It also presents a synthesis of the key issues from Volumes II, III, and IV and the index for all four volumes as well as a glossary of terms used in all four volumes is presented in Annex 1.

    WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 10.04.2019]

    Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture

    Volume II of the Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater provides information on the assessment and management of risks associated with microbial hazards and toxic chemicals. It explains requirements to promote the safe use of wastewater in agriculture, including minimum procedures and specific health-based targets, and how those requirements are intended to be used. It also describes the approaches used in deriving the guidelines, including health-based targets, and includes a substantive revision of approaches to ensuring microbial safety.

    WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019] PDF

    Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture

    Volume III of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater deals with wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture and describes the present state of knowledge regarding the impact of wastewater-fed aquaculture on the health of producers, product consumers and local communities. It assesses the associated health risks and provides an integrated preventive management framework.

    WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]

    Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

    Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

    WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019] PDF

    Week 3: Analyse financial viability

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    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 1: Set objectives and plan activities for launch

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    Week 2: Finance the launch

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    This is the compact version of the factsheet.

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