2018 أغسطس 24

مُفاعل التدفق العلوي اللاهوائى عبر طبقة الحمأة

Application level

City

Household

Neighborhood

Management level

Household

Public

Shared

المُدخلات

Blackwater Brownwater
+ Greywater

المُخرَجات

Sludge Effluent Biogas
المؤلف*
Eawag المعهد الفيدرالي السويسري لعلوم وتقنيات المياه
ترجمة وتعريب مؤسسة بناء

المُلخص التنفيذي

مُفاعل التدفق العلوي اللاهوائي عبر طبقة الحمأة Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor (UASB) هو عبارة عن عملية تتم في خزَّان واحد، حيث تدخل مياه الصرف إلى المُفاعل من الأسفل، وتتدفق نحو الأعلى؛ ويتم ترشيح ومُعالجة مياه الصرف عن طريق تدفقها عبر طبقة الحمأة المُعلِّقة فى المُفاعل.

تتكون طبقة الحمأة من حبيبات ميكروبية (أقطارها تتراوح ما بين 1 إلى 3 ملليمتر)، وهي عبارة عن تجمّعات صغيرة من الكائنات الحية الدقيقة، والتي بسبب وزنها فإنّها تقاوم أن يتم إزاحتها خارج الخزَّان مع التدفق الصاعد. تتحلل المُركَّبات العضوية بواسطة الكائنات الحية الدقيقة المتواجدة في طبقة الحمأة المُعلَّقة؛ ونتيجة لذلك، تنطلق الغازات (الميثان وثاني أكسيد الكربون)، وتعمل فقاعات الغاز المُتصاعدة على تقليب الحمأة، بدون الاستعانة بأي أجزاء ميكانيكية. تعمل الجدران ذات الميول (حواجز الحمأة) على دفع المواد التي تصل إلى سطح الخزَّان إلى الأسفل، ويتم استخلاص التدفقات السائلة الخارجة المُروَّقة من فوق منطقة حواجز الحمأة.

بعد عدة أسابيع من الاستخدام تتكون حبيبات كبيرة من الحمأة، والتي تعمل كمُرشِّحات للجسيمات الأصغر عندما ترتفع التدفقات السائلة عبر طبقة الحمأة. وبسبب التدفق الصاعد فإن الكائنات الحية الدقيقة المُكوِّنة لحبيبات الحمأة تتراكم في حين يتم إزاحة البقية.

المزايا
تخفيض كبير في الاحتياج الحيوي للأكسجين BOD.
القدرة على تحمّل مُعدّلات مُرتفعة من الأحمال العضوية والهيدروليكية.
إنتاج مُنخفض للحمأة (وبالتالي عملية إزالة الحمأة المتكررة غير مطلوبة)
الغاز الحيوي يُمكن استخدامه للحصول على الطاقة (ولكن يتطلب -عادةً- عملية مُعالجة قبل استخدامه)
العيوب
عملية المُعالجة قد تكون غير مُستقرة مع الأحمال الهيدروليكية والعضوية المتغيرة.
يتطلب أن يقوم بأعمال التشغيل والصيانة أفرادًا ذا خبرة، ومن الصعب الحفاظ على الظروف الهيدروليكية المناسبة (يجب أن تكون معدلات التدفق الصاعد والترسيب متوازنة)
يتطلب فترة طويلة لبدء التشغيل.
يتطلب وجود مصدر دائم للكهرباء.
قد لا تكون جميع الأجزاء والمواد متوفرة محليًّا.
يتطلب خبرة في التصميم والإنشاء.
الحمأة والتدفقات السائلة الخارجة تتطلب مزيدًا من المُعالجة و/أو التصريف بشكل مُناسب.
المُدخلات المُخرَجات

المياة السوداء  , المياة الرمادية , المياة البنية

التدفقات السائلة الخارجة , الحمأة , الغاز الحيوى

المُلاءَمَة

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 مُفاعل التدفق العلوي اللاهوائي عبر طبقة الحمأة ليس مُناسبًا للمُجتمعات الصغيرة أو الريفية التي لا يتوفر بها مصدر دائم للماء والكهرباء. هذه التقنية سهلة التصميم والإنشاء نسبيًّا، ولكن تكوين طبقة الحمأة المُعلَّقة )حبيبات الحمأة( يُمكن أن يستغرق عدة أشهر. مُفاعل التدفق العلوي اللاهوائي عبر طبقة الحمأة لديه المقدرة على إنتاج تدفقات سائلة خارجة ذات جودة عالية، مقارنة بخزَّان التحليل )التخمير( ، ويمكن تطبيقه في مُفاعل صغير الحجم. واستخدام هذه التقنية لمُعالجة مياه الصرف الصحي المنزلي لا يزال حديث نسبيًّا على الرغم من أنَّها أثبتت كفاءتها بالنسبة لمُعالجة مياه الصرف الصناعية، ولمعدلات من الأحمال العضوية المرتفعة التي قد تصل إلى 10 كيلوجرام من الأكسجين المطلوب حيويًا لكل متر مُكعب في اليومBOD/m3/d

غالبًا ما يتم استخدامها في مُعالجة مياه تصنيع الجعة )البيرة(، والمشروبات الكحولية، والأغذية، ولُباب الورق، ومُعالجة مخلفات الورق، حيث إنَّ العملية عادةً ما تخفض من 80 إلى 90% من الاحتياج الكيميائي للأكسجين. لا يعمل المُفاعل بشكل جيد عندما تكون التدفقات السائلة الداخلة منخفضة التركيز، أو عندما تحتوي علي المواد الصلبة بكميات كبيرة، أوالبروتينات، أو الدهون. كما أن درجة الحرارة تُعتبر عاملًا أساسيًّا يؤثّر على الأداء.

 

اعتبارات التصميم

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العناصر الحرجة لتصميم مُفاعل التدفق العلوي اللاهوائي عبر طبقة الحمأة هي: نظام توزيع التدفقات السائلة الداخلة للمُفاعل، ونظام فصل الغازات عن المواد الصلبة، والتصميم الخاص بسحب التدفقات السائلة الخارجة. يتم تجميع الغاز الذي يرتفع إلى أعلى السطح في قبة لجمع الغاز، ويُمكن أن يتم استخدامه كمصدر للطاقة )غاز حيويسرعة التدفق الصاعد تتراوح ما بين 0.7 إلى 1 متر/ساعة، ويجب الحفاظ على تلك السرعة للإبقاء على طبقة الحمأة مُعلَّقة كما هي. وليس هناك حاجة لعملية الترسيب الابتدائية قبل مُفاعل التدفق العلوي اللاهوائي عبر طبقة الحمأة.

 

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الجوانب الصحية / القبول

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 يجب على المُشغّلين اتّخاذ تدابير الصحة والسلامة المُناسبة أثناء العمل في المحطة، مثل ارتداء الملابس الواقية المُناسبة. الحمأة والتدفقات السائلة الخارجة لا تزال تُشكِّل خطرًا على الصحة، ويجب عدم التعامل معها مباشرة.

 

التشغيل والصيانة

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يُعتبر مُفاعل التدفق العلوي اللاهوائي عبر طبقة الحمأة تقنية مُعالجة مركزية، ولا بد من تشغيلها وصيانتها بواسطة مُتخصصين. كما يتطلب الأمر وجود مُشغّلين ذوي خبرة لمتابعة المُفاعل، وإجراء عمليات الإصلاح للأجزاء التي تتطلب ذلك )كالمضخات على سبيل المثال، وذلك في حالة حدوث مشاكل( عملية إزالة الحمأة تُعتبر عملية غير متكررة، ويتم فيها فقط إزالة الفائض من الحمأة، وذلك كل عامين إلى ثلاثة أعوام.

 

المراجع

كراس استرشادى عن ادارة المخلفات السائلة للانشطة الخدمية محطات الصرف الصحى ووحدات المعالجة فى المؤسسات الصحية

حيدر محمد عبدالحميد واخرون (2012): كراس استرشادى عن ادارة المخلفات السائلة للانشطة الخدمية محطات الصرف الصحى ووحدات المعالجة فى المؤسسات الصحية. وزارة البئية العراقية

Language: Arabic

المعالجة البيولوجية لمياه الصرف الصحى المبادئ وأعمال النمذجة والتصميم

موجن هينز واخرون ترجمة مصطفى سمير موسى -نضال جودت محمود (2008): المعالجة البيولوجية لمياه الصرف الصحى المبادئ وأعمال النمذجة والتصميم. IWA Publishing URL

Language: Arabic

Community-Based Technologies for Domestic Wastewater Treatment and Reuse- options for urban agriculture

The report suggests that emerging trends in low-cost, decentralised naturally-based infrastructure and urban wastewater management which promote the recovery and reuse of wastewater resources are increasingly relevant. Technologies for these sanitation options are presented. The concept of managing urban wastewater flows at a decentralised or "intermediate" level, based on micro watersheds, is explored. Effluent treatment standards that are currently accepted in order to protect public health and safety are reviewed.

ROSE, D.G. (1999): Community-Based Technologies for Domestic Wastewater Treatment and Reuse- options for urban agriculture. (= Cities Feeding People (CFP) Report Series. , 27 ). Ottawa: International Development Research Center Canada (IDRC) URL [Accessed: 23.05.2018]

Informed Choice Catalogue

This informed choice catalogue for community based wastewater treatment technologies helps to identify suitable sanitation options and facilitates the assessment of different sanitation system components with regard to stakeholder preferences. A powerful tool for technical bottom-up planning giving overall information about technical options at a "glance".

SANIMAS (2005): Informed Choice Catalogue. pdf presentation. BORDA and USAID URL [Accessed: 29.05.2019]

DEWATS

Exhaustive report on technological, operational and economic aspects of decentralised waste water treatment systems. Spreadsheet examples support the reader in designing and planning waste water treatment systems components.

SASSE, L. BORDA (1998): DEWATS. Decentralised Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries. Bremen: Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA) URL [Accessed: 03.06.2019]

Full-scale Application of the UASB Technology for Sewage Treatment

This paper describes the experience obtained with the design, construction and initial operation of a large-scale wastewater treatment plant in Colombia, consisting of UASB reactors and a facultative pond in series.

SCHELLINGKOUT, A. COLLAZOS, C. J. (1999): Full-scale Application of the UASB Technology for Sewage Treatment. Water Science and Technology URL [Accessed: 18.01.2011]

Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions Volume 1

Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions gives a state-of-the-art presentation of the science and technology of biological wastewater treatment, particularly domestic sewage. The book covers the main treatment processes used worldwide with wastewater treatment in warm climate regions given a particular emphasis where simple, affordable and sustainable solutions are required. The 55 chapters are divided into 7 parts over two volumes: Volume One: (1) Introduction to wastewater characteristics, treatment and disposal; (2) Basic principles of wastewater treatment; (3) Stabilisation ponds; (4) Anaerobic reactors; Volume Two (also available in the SSWM library): (5) Activated sludge; (6) Aerobic biofilm reactors; (7) Sludge treatment and disposal.

SPERLING, M. von LEMOS CHERNICHARO, C.A. de (2005): Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions Volume 1. London: International Water Association (IWA) Publishing URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]

UASB Technology-expectations and reality

This paper highlights some inherent lacunae of UASB technology for sewage treatment based on a set of case studies, effluent data of UASB systems and a long-term monitoring of the performance of pilot plants in Kantapur (India).

TARE, V. NEMA, A. (n.y): UASB Technology-expectations and reality. United Nations Asian and Pacific Centre for Agricultural Engineering and Machinery URL [Accessed: 29.04.2010]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. LUETHI, C. MOREL, A. ZURBRUEGG, C. SCHERTENLEIB, R. (2008): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG) and Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) URL [Accessed: 15.02.2010] PDF

Chapter 4. Wastewater Technologies

Comprehensive overview (in form of factsheets) on the different components of wastewater treatment systems (collection, transfer, onsite treatment, centralised and decentralised treatment, reuse, sludge management and disposal) adapted to the Caribbean Region. Industrial wastewater treatment is also discussed.

UNEP (2004): Chapter 4. Wastewater Technologies. المُدخلات: UNEP (2004): A Directory of Environmentally Sound Technologies for the Integrated Management of Solid, Liquid and Hazardous Waste for SIDS in the Caribbean Region. Nairobi: 63-125.

Environmental Sanitation Reviews. Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment – Attached Growth and Sludge Blanket Process

The paper provides a good technical overview over the attached growth and sludge blanket process in anaerobic wastewater treatment.

VIGNESWARAN, S. BALASURIYA, B. L. N. VIRARAGHAVAN, T. (1986): Environmental Sanitation Reviews. Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment – Attached Growth and Sludge Blanket Process. Bangkok: Environmental Sanitation Information Center (ENSIC)

Anaerobic Digestion of Blackwater and Kitchen Refuse

Thesis assessing the anaerobic treatment of blackwater (toilet wastewater) from vacuum toilets without and with kitchen refuse and its potential for reuse and resources management sanitation concepts.

WENDLAND, C. (2008): Anaerobic Digestion of Blackwater and Kitchen Refuse. (PhD Thesis). (= Hamburger Berichte zur Siedlungswasserwirtschaft ). Hamburg: Institut fuer Abwasserwirtschaft und Gewaesserschutz (AWW), Technische Universitaet Hamburg-Hamburg (TUHH) URL [Accessed: 11.03.2010]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019] PDF

Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India. A Guide to Decision-Making

These guidance notes are designed to provide state governments and urban local bodies with additional information on available technologies on sanitation. The notes also aid in making an informed choice and explain the suitability of approaches.

WSP (2008): Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India. A Guide to Decision-Making. pdf presentation. New Delhi: Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) URL [Accessed: 03.06.2019]
قراءات أخرى

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

Integrated Application of the UASB Reactor and Ponds for Domestic Sewage Treatment in Tropical Regions

Thesis dealing with aspects of design, performance and operation of sewage treatment systems consisting of an UASB reactor followed by a polishing pond. The thesis investigates an experimental pilot plant in order to assess design and operation parameters with respect to the performance of the UASB reactor, followed by post-treatment in different configurations of polishing ponds.

FRASSINETTI-FEITOSA-CALVALCANTI, P. (2003): Integrated Application of the UASB Reactor and Ponds for Domestic Sewage Treatment in Tropical Regions. (= Thesis ). Wageningen: Wageningen University URL [Accessed: 29.04.2010]

UASB Technology-expectations and reality

This paper highlights some inherent lacunae of UASB technology for sewage treatment based on a set of case studies, effluent data of UASB systems and a long-term monitoring of the performance of pilot plants in Kantapur (India).

TARE, V. NEMA, A. (n.y): UASB Technology-expectations and reality. United Nations Asian and Pacific Centre for Agricultural Engineering and Machinery URL [Accessed: 29.04.2010]

Chapter 4. Wastewater Technologies

Comprehensive overview (in form of factsheets) on the different components of wastewater treatment systems (collection, transfer, onsite treatment, centralised and decentralised treatment, reuse, sludge management and disposal) adapted to the Caribbean Region. Industrial wastewater treatment is also discussed.

UNEP (2004): Chapter 4. Wastewater Technologies. المُدخلات: UNEP (2004): A Directory of Environmentally Sound Technologies for the Integrated Management of Solid, Liquid and Hazardous Waste for SIDS in the Caribbean Region. Nairobi: 63-125.

Anaerobic Digestion of Blackwater and Kitchen Refuse

Thesis assessing the anaerobic treatment of blackwater (toilet wastewater) from vacuum toilets without and with kitchen refuse and its potential for reuse and resources management sanitation concepts.

WENDLAND, C. (2008): Anaerobic Digestion of Blackwater and Kitchen Refuse. (PhD Thesis). (= Hamburger Berichte zur Siedlungswasserwirtschaft ). Hamburg: Institut fuer Abwasserwirtschaft und Gewaesserschutz (AWW), Technische Universitaet Hamburg-Hamburg (TUHH) URL [Accessed: 11.03.2010]

Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India. A Guide to Decision-Making

These guidance notes are designed to provide state governments and urban local bodies with additional information on available technologies on sanitation. The notes also aid in making an informed choice and explain the suitability of approaches.

WSP (2008): Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India. A Guide to Decision-Making. pdf presentation. New Delhi: Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) URL [Accessed: 03.06.2019]

Chapter 4. Methane production by anaerobic digestion of wastewater and solid wastes

This chapter is part of a publication, commissioned by the Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (Novem) on the status and perspectives of research and development in the field of high-tech biological production of methane and hydrogen. Chapter 4 gives a short but precise introduction the technological aspects of waste treatment by anaerobic digestion and the reuse of the produced biogas.

MES, T.Z.D. de STAMS, A.J.M. ZEEMAN, G. (2003): Chapter 4. Methane production by anaerobic digestion of wastewater and solid wastes. المُدخلات: REITH, J.H. ; WIJFFELS, R.H. ; BARTEN, H. (2003): Biomethane and Biohydrogen. Status and perspectives of biological methane and hydrogen production. 58-94.

How to Select Appropriate Technical Solutions for Sanitation

The purpose of this guide is to assist local contracting authorities and their partners in identifying those sanitation technologies best suited to the different contexts that exist within their town. The first part of the guide contains a planning process and a set of criteria to be completed; these assist you in characterizing each area of intervention so that you are then in a position to identify the most appropriate technical solutions. The second part of the guide consists of technical factsheets which give a practical overview of the technical and economic characteristics, the operating principle and the pros and cons of the 29 sanitation technology options most commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa.

MONVOIS, J. GABERT, J. FRENOUX, C. GUILLAUME, M. (2010): How to Select Appropriate Technical Solutions for Sanitation. (= Six Methodological Guides for a Water and Sanitation Services' Development Strategy , 4 ). Cotonou and Paris: Partenariat pour le Développement Municipal (PDM) and Programme Solidarité Eau (pS-Eau) URL [Accessed: 19.10.2011]

Anaerobic Reactors

Anaerobic Reactors is the forth volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment. The fundamentals of anaerobic treatment are presented in detail, including its applicability, microbiology, biochemistry and main reactor configurations. Two reactor types are analysed in more detail, namely anaerobic filters and especially UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactors. Particular attention is also devoted to the post-treatment of the effluents from the anaerobic reactors. The book presents in a clear and informative way the main concepts, working principles, expected removal efficiencies, design criteria, design examples, construction aspects and operational guidelines for anaerobic reactors.

LEMOS CHERNICHARO, C.A. de (2007): Anaerobic Reactors. (= Biological Wastewater Treatment Series , 4 ). London: International Water Association (IWA) Publishing. [Accessed: 01.11.2013]

Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions Volume 1

Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions gives a state-of-the-art presentation of the science and technology of biological wastewater treatment, particularly domestic sewage. The book covers the main treatment processes used worldwide with wastewater treatment in warm climate regions given a particular emphasis where simple, affordable and sustainable solutions are required. The 55 chapters are divided into 7 parts over two volumes: Volume One: (1) Introduction to wastewater characteristics, treatment and disposal; (2) Basic principles of wastewater treatment; (3) Stabilisation ponds; (4) Anaerobic reactors; Volume Two (also available in the SSWM library): (5) Activated sludge; (6) Aerobic biofilm reactors; (7) Sludge treatment and disposal.

SPERLING, M. von LEMOS CHERNICHARO, C.A. de (2005): Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions Volume 1. London: International Water Association (IWA) Publishing URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]
حالات دراسية

Palestinian experience with enhanced pre-treatment of black wastewater from Birzeit University using a UASB septic tank system

This study demonstrates the successful implementation of a UASB (Anaerobic upflow sludge blanket) as a pre-treatment for black- and domestic wastewaters at pilot (400L) and full scale. Organic pollutants were removed quite efficiently due to biological and physical processes (sedimentation and microbial degradation), facilitating a natural post- treatment (waste stabilization ponds).

AL-JUAIDY, A. ; MIMI, Z. ; AL-SA'ED. R. (2003): Palestinian experience with enhanced pre-treatment of black wastewater from Birzeit University using a UASB septic tank system. المُدخلات: Proceedings of the 2nd international symposium E: Volume 2 , 563-566.

UASB Technology For Sewage Treatment In India: Experience, Economic Evaluation And Its Potential In Other Developing Countries

This paper reviews the overall implications of UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) technology in India. Institutional and technical aspects with special reference to the Yamuna Action Plan (YAP) are presented. It also presents the potential of UASB technology in other developing countries with its future within India as well based on the evaluation of life cycle cost.

KHALIL, N. SINHA, R. RAGHAV, A.K. MITTAL, A.K. (2008): UASB Technology For Sewage Treatment In India: Experience, Economic Evaluation And Its Potential In Other Developing Countries. (= Proceedings in: 12th Water Technology Conference, Alexandria, Egypt. ). URL [Accessed: 05.01.2011]

Anaerobic Pre-Treatment of Strong Sewage: A proper solution for Jordan

The main objective of this research was to assess the feasibility of applying low cost anaerobic technology for the treatment of relatively high strength sewage of Jordan usin two-stage and one-stage UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) reactors operated at ambient temperatures.

HALALSHEH M.M. (2002): Anaerobic Pre-Treatment of Strong Sewage: A proper solution for Jordan. (= PhD Thesis ). Wageningen: Wageningen University URL [Accessed: 11.01.2011]

Wastewater Treatment: The Experiences Of The Scientific Research Council In Jamaica

The availability of local water resources in Jamaica is threatened by environmental pollution caused by domestic, agricultural and industrial interference. The Scientific Research Council (SRC) of Jamaica has over the ten years focused on providing appropriate technological and economic alternatives to the agricultural, municipal and industrial sectors, in order to avoid, reduce and treat wastewater. This paper will present experiences of the SRC in providing cost effective solutions to waste producers in Jamaica enabling delivery of “green” products and services to satisfy local and international environmental standards.

BROWN, J. (2003): Wastewater Treatment: The Experiences Of The Scientific Research Council In Jamaica. Kingston: Scientific Research Council (SRC) URL [Accessed: 06.01.2011]

Utilization Of Biogas From Pig Farms For Energy Production And Environmental Amelioration

The waste from pig farms in Thailand polluting natural streams and generates odours and fly nuisance. This presentation shows how this problem can be solved in an ecological and sustainable way.

THIENGBURANATHUM, P. (n.y): Utilization Of Biogas From Pig Farms For Energy Production And Environmental Amelioration. Chiang Mai: Biogas Technology Center, Chiang Mai University
مواد تدريبية

Technology Review of Biogas Sanitation

This document provides an overview and introduction on biogas sanitation (anaerobic digestion) for blackwater or for brown water, or excreta treatment for reuse in developing countries. The main technologies discussed are biogas settlers (BSs), biogas septic tanks, anaerobic baffled reactor (ABRs), anaerobic filter (AFs) and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors (UASBs).

MANG, H.-P. LI, Z. (2010): Technology Review of Biogas Sanitation. (= Technology Review ). Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]
مواد لنشر الوعي

Informed Choice Catalogue

This informed choice catalogue for community based wastewater treatment technologies helps to identify suitable sanitation options and facilitates the assessment of different sanitation system components with regard to stakeholder preferences. A powerful tool for technical bottom-up planning giving overall information about technical options at a "glance".

SANIMAS (2005): Informed Choice Catalogue. pdf presentation. BORDA and USAID URL [Accessed: 29.05.2019]

This is the compact version of the factsheet.

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