2018 أبريل 27

البُحيرة السمكية

Application level

City

Household

Neighborhood

Management level

Household

Public

Shared

المُدخلات

Effluent

المُخرَجات

Biomass
المؤلف*
Eawag المعهد الفيدرالي السويسري لعلوم وتقنيات المياه
ترجمة وتعريب مؤسسة بناء

المُلخص التنفيذي

يمكن زراعة (إنماء) الأسماك في البرك (البُحيرات) التي تتلقى التدفقات السائلة الخارجة والحمأة، حيث يمكن للأسماك أن تتغذى على الطحالب وغيرها من الكائنات التي تنمو في المياه الغنية بالمُغذيات. وبذلك تقوم الأسماك بإزالة المُغذيات من مياه الصرف وفي نهاية المطاف يتم حصادها للاستهلاك.

توجد ثلاثة أنواع لتصاميم المزارع المائية من أجل تربية الأسماك:

1) تغذية البُحيرات السمكية بالتدفقات السائلة الخارجة؛

2) تغذية البُحيرات السمكية بالحمأة/فضلات الجسم؛

3) نمو السمك مباشرة في البِرك الهوائية عندما يتم تربية الأسماك في البِرك الهوائية،

فإن ذلك يؤدي بشكل فعَّال إلى تقليل الطحالب والتحكم في البعوض. ومن الممكن دمج السمك والنباتات العائمة (الطَّافية) في بركة واحدة. الأسماك بحد ذاتها لا تُحَسن بشكل كبير من جودة المياه، ولكن بسبب قيمتها الاقتصادية، يمكن أن تعوض تكاليف تشغيل محطة المُعالجة. تحت ظروف التشغيل المثالية، يمكن حصاد ما يقرب من 10 آلاف كجم من الأسماك /هكتار. إن لم تصلح الأسماك للاستهلاك البشري فيمكنها أن تكون مصدرًا قيمًا للبروتين بالنسبة لآكلات لحوم أخرى ذات قيمة عالية (مثل الجمبري)، أو يتم تحويلها إلى اعلاف من الأسماك لتغذية الخنازير والدجاج.

 

المزايا
يمكنها توفير مصدر بروتين محلي ورخيص
إمكانية خلق فرص عمل محلية، وتوليد مصدر للدخل.
تكاليف رأس المال منخفضة، وينبغي أن تُعوِّض إيرادات الإنتاج تكاليف التشغيل.
يمكن إنشاؤها وصيانتها بمواد متوفرة محليًا.
العيوب
تتطلب وجود مياة عذبة.
تتطلب مساحة أرض واسعة.
تتطلب خبرة في التصميم والتركيب.
ربما يُشكل السمك مخاطر صحية لو تم إعداده أو طهيه بشكل خاطئ.
قد تلقى قبولًا مجتمعيًا منخفضًا في بعض المناطق.
المُدخلات المُخرَجات

التدفقات السائلة الخارجة

الكتلة الحيوية

Introduction

Factsheet Block Body

Three kinds of aquaculture designs for raising fish exist:

  • fertilization of fish ponds with effluent;
  • fertilization of fish ponds with excreta/sludge; and
  • fish grown directly in aerobic ponds

 

Fish introduced into aerobic ponds can effectively reduce algae and help control the mosquito population. It is also possible to combine fish and floating plants in one single pond.

The fish themselves do not dramatically improve the water quality, but because of their economic value they can offset the costs of operating a treatment facility. Under ideal operating conditions, up to 10,000 kg/ha of fish can be harvested. If the fish are not acceptable for human consumption, they can be a valuable source of protein for other high-value carnivores (like shrimp) or converted into fishmeal for pigs and chickens.

Fish Pond (Aquaculture). Source: TILLEY et al. 2014
Fish Pond (Aquaculture). Source: TILLEY et al. 2014

 

اعتبارات التصميم

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 يعتمد التصميم على كمية المُغذيات المراد إزالتها والمُغذيات المطلوبة للأسماك وخصائص المياه اللازمة لضمان ظروف التربية الصحية )على سبيل المثال، مستويات أمونيا منخفضة، درجة الحرارة المطلوبة، ... الخ.( عند إضافة المُغذيات على صورة تدفقات سائلة أو حمأة، فمن المهم ترشيد هذه الإضافات بحيث يتم الحفاظ على الظروف الهوائية. كما ينبغي ألا تزيد قيمة االاحتياج الحيوي للأكسجين عن 1 جرام لكل متر مربع فى اليوم، والأكسجين الذائب لا يقل عن 4 ملليجرام/لتر.

ينبغي اختيار الأسماك التي تتحمل المستويات المنخفضة من الأكسجين الذائب. ولا ينبغي أن تكون الأسماك آكلة اللحوم، ويجب أن تكون مقاومة للأمراض والظروف البيئية الصعبة. وقد تم استخدام أنواع مختلفة من سمك الشبوط )المبروك(Carp، سمك السلماني Milkfish والبلطي Tilapia بنجاح، إلا أن تحديد النوع يعتمد على التفضيل المحلي والمُلاءَمَة.

 

المُلاءَمَة

Factsheet Block Body

بُحيرة السمك تكون مناسبة فقط عندما يكون هناك كمية كافية من الأرض )أو بِركة موجودة من قبل( ومصدر للمياه العذبة ومناخ مناسب. المياه المستخدمة لتخفيف المخلفات لا ينبغي أن تكون دافئة أكثر من اللازم، ويجب أن تبقى مستويات الأمونيا منخفضة أو ضئيلة لأنها تسبب التسمم للأسماك. هذه التقنية مناسبة للمناخات الدافئة أو الاستوائية والتي تخلو من التجمد، ويفضل أن تكون في مناطق غزيرة الأمطار وذات معدل تبخر منخفض.

 

الجوانب الصحية / القبول

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يُمكن اعتبار هذه التقنية كبديل عندما لا يتواجد أي مصدر آخر للبروتين. وتؤثر حالة وجودة الأسماك فى القبول المجتمعي لها. وقد يكون هناك قلق حول تلوث الأسماك، وخصوصًا عندما يتم حصادها، وتنظيفها وإعدادها. إذا تم طهيها بشكل جيد، فستكون آمنة، ولكن من المستحسن نقل الأسماك إلى بُحيرة مياه نظيفة لعدة أسابيع قبل أن يتم حصادها للاستهلاك. ينبغي الاستعانة بإرشادات منظمة الصحة العالمية بشأن استخدام مياه الصرف وفضلات الجسم في تربية الأحياء المائية للحصول على معلومات مُفصَّلة وتوجيهات محددة.

 

التشغيل والصيانة

Factsheet Block Body

 يتم حصاد السمك عندما ينمو ويصل للعمر والحجم المناسبين. ينبغي -أحيانًا- بعد جمع السمك أن يتم صرف مياه البُحيرة بحيث )أ ) يمكن إزالة الحمأة و(ب) يمكن أن تُترك لتجف في الشمس لمدة تتراوح من أسبوع إلى أسبوعين؛ للقضاء على أي من مسببات الأمراض التي تعيش في القاع أو جوانب البُحيرة. ويجب على العاملين ارتداء الملابس الواقية المناسبة.

المراجع

Wastewater-fed aquaculture.

EWARDS, P. ; PULLIN, R. (1990): Wastewater-fed aquaculture. . (= Proceedings of the international seminar on wastewater reclamation and reuse for aquaculture. ). Calcutta, India: International seminar on wastewater reclamation and reuse for aquaculture URL [Accessed: 18.01.2011]

Duckweed Aquaculture

This literature review provides a first overview of the possibilities, potentials and limits of duckweed aquaculture and its combined use in wastewater treatment and animal feed production in low and middle-income countries. It is somewhat limited as critical literature on duckweed field use is scarce and difficult to obtain (e.g. unpublished internal documents).

IQBAL, S. (1999): Duckweed Aquaculture. Potentials, Possibilities and Limitations for Combined Wastewater Treatment and Animal Feed Production in Developing Countries. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]

Aquaculture with Treated Wastewater

This study has shown that significant quantities of protein for either human consumption or livestock feed could be produced from wastewater—based aquaculture, which could be integrated with sewage stabilization lagoon systems. Reuse of treated sewage to fertilize the microbial food chain for aquaculture presents one of the most economic resource recovery options for cities in developing countries.

JOHNSON COINTREAU, S. (1987): Aquaculture with Treated Wastewater. A Status Report on Studies Conducted in Lima, Peru. (= Integrated Resource Recovery Project Technical Note , 3 ). Washington: The World Bank URL [Accessed: 15.04.2014]

Food Safety Issues Associated with Products from Aquaculture

This is the report of a Study Group that considered food safety issues associated with farmed finfish and crustaceans. The principal conclusion was that an integrated approach — involving close collaboration between the aquaculture, agriculture, food safety, health and education sectors — is needed to identify and control hazards associated with products from aquaculture.

FAO ; NACA ; WHO (1999): Food Safety Issues Associated with Products from Aquaculture. (= WHO Technical Report Series , 883 ). Washington: World Health Organization (WHO) URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]

Domestic Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries

The primary emphasis of the book is on low-cost, high-performance, sustainable domestic wastewater treatment systems. Most of the systems described are ‘natural’ systems – so called because they do not require any electromechanical power input. The secondary emphasis is on wastewater re-use in agriculture and aquaculture.

MARA, D. (2003): Domestic Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries. London: Earthscan URL [Accessed: 15.04.2014]

Community-Based Technologies for Domestic Wastewater Treatment and Reuse- options for urban agriculture

The report suggests that emerging trends in low-cost, decentralised naturally-based infrastructure and urban wastewater management which promote the recovery and reuse of wastewater resources are increasingly relevant. Technologies for these sanitation options are presented. The concept of managing urban wastewater flows at a decentralised or "intermediate" level, based on micro watersheds, is explored. Effluent treatment standards that are currently accepted in order to protect public health and safety are reviewed.

ROSE, D.G. (1999): Community-Based Technologies for Domestic Wastewater Treatment and Reuse- options for urban agriculture. (= Cities Feeding People (CFP) Report Series. , 27 ). Ottawa: International Development Research Center Canada (IDRC) URL [Accessed: 23.05.2018]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture

Volume III of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater deals with wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture and describes the present state of knowledge regarding the impact of wastewater-fed aquaculture on the health of producers, product consumers and local communities. It assesses the associated health risks and provides an integrated preventive management framework.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]

Volume III: Wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture.

This presentation gives a detailed overview on the 3. volume of the WHO guidelines on the safe use of wastewater and excreta in aquaculture including many pictures of existing wastewater-fed aquaculture and fish pond technologies all over the world. Apart from the health risk and appropriate health protection measures, a lot of information on socio-cultural, environmental and economic aspects is given as well as supporting information on planning and implementation of sewage-fed fish ponds.

EDWARDS, P. (2008): Volume III: Wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture.. (pdf presentation). Bangkok, Thailand: Asian Institute of Technology

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF
قراءات أخرى

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

Key Issues in the Safe Use of Wastewater and Excreta in Aquaculture

This document is a guidance note for program managers and engineers that summarises the key issues of the 3. Volume of the WHO Guidelines that focuses on the safe use of wastewater and excreta in aquaculture.

EDWARDS, P. Asian Institute of Technology (2008): Key Issues in the Safe Use of Wastewater and Excreta in Aquaculture. (pdf presentation). (= Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater in Agriculture and Aquaculture , 3 ). Bangkok, Thailand: World Toilet Organisation URL [Accessed: 19.02.2010]

Wastewater-fed aquaculture.

EWARDS, P. ; PULLIN, R. (1990): Wastewater-fed aquaculture. . (= Proceedings of the international seminar on wastewater reclamation and reuse for aquaculture. ). Calcutta, India: International seminar on wastewater reclamation and reuse for aquaculture URL [Accessed: 18.01.2011]

Duckweed Aquaculture

This literature review provides a first overview of the possibilities, potentials and limits of duckweed aquaculture and its combined use in wastewater treatment and animal feed production in low and middle-income countries. It is somewhat limited as critical literature on duckweed field use is scarce and difficult to obtain (e.g. unpublished internal documents).

IQBAL, S. (1999): Duckweed Aquaculture. Potentials, Possibilities and Limitations for Combined Wastewater Treatment and Animal Feed Production in Developing Countries. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]

Aquaculture with Treated Wastewater

This study has shown that significant quantities of protein for either human consumption or livestock feed could be produced from wastewater—based aquaculture, which could be integrated with sewage stabilization lagoon systems. Reuse of treated sewage to fertilize the microbial food chain for aquaculture presents one of the most economic resource recovery options for cities in developing countries.

JOHNSON COINTREAU, S. (1987): Aquaculture with Treated Wastewater. A Status Report on Studies Conducted in Lima, Peru. (= Integrated Resource Recovery Project Technical Note , 3 ). Washington: The World Bank URL [Accessed: 15.04.2014]

Food Safety Issues Associated with Products from Aquaculture

This is the report of a Study Group that considered food safety issues associated with farmed finfish and crustaceans. The principal conclusion was that an integrated approach — involving close collaboration between the aquaculture, agriculture, food safety, health and education sectors — is needed to identify and control hazards associated with products from aquaculture.

FAO ; NACA ; WHO (1999): Food Safety Issues Associated with Products from Aquaculture. (= WHO Technical Report Series , 883 ). Washington: World Health Organization (WHO) URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]

Possibilities and Limits of Wastewater-fed Aquaculture

At the University of Applied Sciences Waedenswil, Switzerland, wastewater-fed aquaculture is a research focus since 1993. This paper summarises some of the results and insights gained since then.

JUNGE-BERBEROVIC, R. University of Applied Sciences Waedenswil. (2001): Possibilities and Limits of Wastewater-fed Aquaculture. Waedenswil: University of Applied Sciences Waedenswil URL [Accessed: 19.02.2010]

Domestic Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries

The primary emphasis of the book is on low-cost, high-performance, sustainable domestic wastewater treatment systems. Most of the systems described are ‘natural’ systems – so called because they do not require any electromechanical power input. The secondary emphasis is on wastewater re-use in agriculture and aquaculture.

MARA, D. (2003): Domestic Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries. London: Earthscan URL [Accessed: 15.04.2014]

Wastewater Re-use in Aquaculture

This chapter gives a comprehensive overview on what is aquaculture, including some examples and elements useful for dimensioning.

MARA, D.D. (2004): Wastewater Re-use in Aquaculture. المُدخلات: Domestic Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries: , 252-261. URL [Accessed: 17.02.2011]

Wastewater Treatment and Use in Agriculture

This Irrigation and Drainage Paper is intended to provide guidance to national planners and decision-makers, agricultural and municipal managers, field engineers and scientists, health and agricultural field workers, wastewater treatment plant operators and farmers. Consequently, it covers a broad range of relevant material, some in considerable depth but some more superficially. It is meant to encourage the collection, treatment and use of wastewater in agriculture in a safe manner, with maximum advantage taken of this resource. Informal, unplanned and unorganized wastewater use is not recommended, nor is it considered adviseable from the health or agricultural points of view.

PESCOD, M.B. (1992): Wastewater Treatment and Use in Agriculture. (= FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper , 47 ). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) URL [Accessed: 25.10.2011]

Community-Based Technologies for Domestic Wastewater Treatment and Reuse- options for urban agriculture

The report suggests that emerging trends in low-cost, decentralised naturally-based infrastructure and urban wastewater management which promote the recovery and reuse of wastewater resources are increasingly relevant. Technologies for these sanitation options are presented. The concept of managing urban wastewater flows at a decentralised or "intermediate" level, based on micro watersheds, is explored. Effluent treatment standards that are currently accepted in order to protect public health and safety are reviewed.

ROSE, D.G. (1999): Community-Based Technologies for Domestic Wastewater Treatment and Reuse- options for urban agriculture. (= Cities Feeding People (CFP) Report Series. , 27 ). Ottawa: International Development Research Center Canada (IDRC) URL [Accessed: 23.05.2018]

Health (Pathogen) Considerations Regarding the Use of Human Waste in Aquaculture

This study reviews the potential health risks and current epidemiological evidence for actual risks from pathogen transmission through wastewater aquaculture.

STRAUSS, M. (n.y): Health (Pathogen) Considerations Regarding the Use of Human Waste in Aquaculture. (pdf presentation). Switzerland: Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries at the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Waste Stabilisation Ponds

This document provides information and instructions on waste stabilisation ponds. Various case studies are mentioned, e.g. the wastewater-fed fishponds in Calcutta in India.

VARON, M. P. MARA, D. D. (2004): Waste Stabilisation Ponds. Delft: International Water and Sanitation Centre URL [Accessed: 17.05.2012]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture

Volume III of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater deals with wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture and describes the present state of knowledge regarding the impact of wastewater-fed aquaculture on the health of producers, product consumers and local communities. It assesses the associated health risks and provides an integrated preventive management framework.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]
حالات دراسية

Traditional Aquaculture Practice at East Calcutta Wetland. The Safety Assessment.

Case study on the traditional aquaculture practise at the East Kolkata Wetlands, India with special focus on the risk assessment in fish cultivation and subsequent consumption in terms of metal accumulation in the fish.

RAYCHAUDHURI, S. MISHRA, M. SALODKAR, S. SUDARSHAN, M. THAKUR, A. R. (2008): Traditional Aquaculture Practice at East Calcutta Wetland. The Safety Assessment.. (pdf presentation). (= American Journal of Environmental Sciences , 2 / 4 ). Calcutta: American Journal of Environmental Sciences URL [Accessed: 22.02.2010]
مواد تدريبية

Volume III: Wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture.

This presentation gives a detailed overview on the 3. volume of the WHO guidelines on the safe use of wastewater and excreta in aquaculture including many pictures of existing wastewater-fed aquaculture and fish pond technologies all over the world. Apart from the health risk and appropriate health protection measures, a lot of information on socio-cultural, environmental and economic aspects is given as well as supporting information on planning and implementation of sewage-fed fish ponds.

EDWARDS, P. (2008): Volume III: Wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture.. (pdf presentation). Bangkok, Thailand: Asian Institute of Technology

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