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2018 أبريل 27

الحُفرة المزدوجة المُطورة المُهواة

Applicable to

Application level

City

Household

Neighborhood

Management level

Household

Public

Shared

المُدخلات

Faeces Excreta
+ Dry Cleansing Materials + Anal Cleansing Water

المُخرَجات

Pit Humus
المؤلف*
Eawag المعهد الفيدرالي السويسري لعلوم وتقنيات المياه
ترجمة وتعريب مؤسسة بناء
المُلخص التنفيذي

تحتوي الحُفرة المزدوجة المُطورة المُهواة Double Ventilated Improved Pit على نفس تصميم الحُفرة الواحدة المُطورة المُهواة ، ولكن بميزة مُضافة؛ وهي وجود حُفرة ثانية تسمح بالاستخدام المستمر والتفريغ السهل الآمن.

يتيح تواجد الحُفرتين إمكانية استخدام حُفرة واحدة، بينما يتوقف استخدام الحُفرة الثانية ليتم ترشيح ما بها وتقليل حجم محتوياتها وتحللها. فعند اقتراب امتلاء الحُفرة المُستخدمة (حين تكون المسافة بين فضلات الجسم وقمة الحُفرة 50 سم) يتم تغطيها، ومن ثَم إزالة محتويات الحُفرة الأخرى المتوقفة ليتم إعادة استخدامها من جديد. وينتج عن فترة التوقف الطويلة (التي لا تقل عن سنة أو سنتين بعد عدة سنوات من الامتلاء) مواد مُعقمة جُزئيًا وتُشبه الدُبال.

 

المزايا
عُمر افتراضي أطول من نموذج الحُفرة الواحدة المُطورة المُهواة (إذا تم صيانتها والاعتناء بها بشكل صحيح).
استخراج الدُبال أسهل من حَمْأَة مياه المجاري.
تخفيض ملحوظ في الكائنات المُسببة للأمراض.
إمكانية استخدام البُراز المُخزن كمُحسن للتربة.
تخفيض الذباب والروائح بشكل ملحوظ (مقارنة بالحُفر غير المهواة).
يُمكن بناؤها وإصلاحها بالمواد المتوفرة محليًا.
العيوب
يتطلب الإزالة اليدوية للدُبال.
احتمال تلوث المياه الجوفية.
ترتفع تكاليفها الإنشائية أكثر من الحُفرة الواحدة المُطورة المُهواة، ولكن تنخفض تكاليف التشغيل إذا أُفرغت الحُفرة ذاتيًا.
المُدخلات المُخرَجات

فضلات الجسم ، البراز،  مياه تنظيف الشرج، مواد التطهير الجافة.  

دبال الحفرة

Factsheet Block Title
اعتبارات التصميم
Factsheet Block Body

قد تكون البِّنية الفوقية )الحمَّام) مُثبتة فوق فتحات الحُفرتين، أو قد تكون مُصممة للانتقال من حُفرة إلى أخرى، وفي كلتا الحالتين ينبغي أن تُغطَّى الحُفرة غير المُمتلئة تغطية كاملة ومُحْكمَة؛ لمنع المياه أو القمامة أو الحيوانات أو الناس من السقوط فيها. يتم إتمام عملية التهوية في كلتا الحُفرتين باستخدام أنبوب التهوية، ويتكرر نقله بين الحُفر، أو تكون كل حُفرة مُجهزة بأنبوب التهوية الخاص بها. تُستخدم الحُفرتين في هذا النظام باستمرار ويجب أن تكونا مُبطنتين ومُدَعَّمَتين جيدًا؛ لضمان إطالة عمرهما.

 

Factsheet Block Title
المُلاءَمَة
Factsheet Block Body

يُعتبر هذا النموذج أكثر مُلاءمة من نموذج الحُفرة الواحدة المُطورة المُهواة للمناطق الشبه حضرية الأكثر كثافة. فبعد فترة التوقف، يتم تفريغ المواد الشبيهة بالتربة يدويًا )بالحَفر، وليس بالشفط(، لذلك ليس من الضروري تَدَخُّل شاحنة شفط.

تعمل تقنية الحُفرة المزدوجة المُطورة المُهواة بشكل صحيح فقط عند استخدام الحُفرتين بالتتابع، وليس في وقت واحد. ولذلك يتطلب وجود غطاء مناسب للحُفرة غير المُستخدمة. وتُعتبر هذه التقنية مناسبة في حالة نُدرَة المياه، وحيث يكون منسوب المياه الجوفية مُنخفضًا. وينبغي أن تتواجد في منطقة جيدة التهوية لضمان التهوية الفعالة. كما أنها غير مناسبة في حالة التربة الصخرية أو المدكوكة )التي يصعب حَفرها(، أو للأماكن التي تتكرر بها الفيضانات.

 

Factsheet Block Title
الجوانب الصحية / القبول
Factsheet Block Body

 تُعتبر الحُفرة المزدوجة المُطورة المُهواة من خيارات الصرف الصحي النظيفة والمريحة والمقبولة بشكلٍ جيد، وتكون في بعض الحالات أحسن من التقنيات القائمة على المياه، ومع ذلك، توجد بعض المخاوف الصحية منها:

  السوائل المرتشحة قد تُسبب تلوث المياه الجوفية.

  قد تكون الحُفر عُرضة للهدم و/أو الطفح أثناء الفيضانات.

  المخاطر الصحية من الذباب لا يتم تجنبها بشكل كامل بالتهوية فقط.

 

Factsheet Block Title
التشغيل والصيانة
Factsheet Block Body

 

للحفاظ على الحُفرة المزدوجة المُطورة المُهواة من الذباب والروائح، فإن ذلك يتطلب التنظيف المستمر والصيانة بشكل منتظم، ويجب إزالة الذباب الميت، شبكات العنكبوت، الغبار وغيرها من العوالق عن شبكة التهوية لضمان التدفق الجيد للهواء. يجب أن تُغطى الحُفرة غير المستخدمة بشكل جيد ومُحكم؛ للحد من تسرب المياه. كما يجب الحفاظ على جدول زمني مناسب للعمل بالتناوب بين الحُفر.

المراجع

حلول تقنيات وممارسات افضل للصرف الصحى دليل الاحياء الهاشمية فى نواكشوط -موريتانيا

.بيار بورقي واخرون (2014): حلول تقنيات وممارسات افضل للصرف الصحى دليل الاحياء الهاشمية فى نواكشوط -موريتانيا . نواكشوط -موريتانيا :

Language: Arabic

الصرف الصحي الموقعي والمركزي - للمدن والتجمعات السكانية الصغيرة

برنامج التوعية السكانية .الخدمات الاستشارية في قطاع المياه والصرف الصحي (2001): الصرف الصحي الموقعي والمركزي - للمدن والتجمعات السكانية الصغيرة . اليمن: GTZ التعاون الفني الألماني اليمني

Language: Arabic

Guidelines for Assessing the Risk to Groundwater from On-Site Sanitation

Many people in developing countries rely upon untreated groundwater supplies for their drinking water (e.g. from drilled boreholes, tube wells, dug wells or springs). The introduction of on-site sanitation systems might lead to groundwater contamination. The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance on how to assess and reduce the risk of contamination of groundwater supplies from on-site sanitation systems and is aimed at those responsible for planning low cost water supply and sanitation schemes.

ARGOSS (2001): Guidelines for Assessing the Risk to Groundwater from On-Site Sanitation. (= Commissioned Report , 142 ). Keyworth: British Geological Survey URL [Accessed: 30.09.2013]

Pit Latrines and Their Impacts on Groundwater Quality: a systematic Review

This study reviews empirical studies on the impact of pit latrines on groundwater quality and identifies knowledge gaps regarding the potential and consequences of groundwater contamination by latrines.

Graham, J. ; Polizotto, M.L. (2013): Pit Latrines and Their Impacts on Groundwater Quality: a systematic Review. Advance Publication. المُدخلات: Environmental Health Perspectives: URL [Accessed: 09.04.2013]

Ventilated Improved Latrine Construction in the Slum Areas of Kampala, Uganda

The Urban Affordable Clean Toilets (U-ACT) project aims at overcoming the constraints to private sanitation investment in poor urban areas. Field research was conducted in 40 randomly selected low-income areas of Uganda’s capital Kampala where people rely on on-site sanitation. The sanitation situation in these urban slum zones is characterised by a high number of users per toilet, and full or overflowing latrines that are not regularly emptied. This factsheet provides information on the construction and cost details of ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrines.

LUETHI, C. NIWAGABA, B.C. GUENTHER, I. HORST, A. MULONGO, P. GRUETER, R. (2013): Ventilated Improved Latrine Construction in the Slum Areas of Kampala, Uganda. Technical Factsheet. Zuerich: Nachdiplomstudium fuer Entwicklungslaender (NADEL) Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH) URL [Accessed: 10.10.2013]

Low-cost Urban Sanitation

This book covers the public health, technical, socioeconomic, sociocultural and institutional aspects of sanitation in towns and cities of developing countries. The text features excreta-related diseases and the use of sanitation to reduce their transmission. The sanitation technologies covered in detail are VIP latrines, pour-flush toilets, septic tanks, settled sewerage and simplified sewerage, with additional chapters on sullage disposal, pit emptying, and sewage treatment and reuse. Sociocultural constraints on sanitation systems and their socioeconomic costing are described, together with hygiene education, which is essential in order to achieve maximum benefits to health. The text also explains how to choose the most appropriate sanitation option for a given low-income community. Finally, institutional aspects are reviewed, including effective sanitation programme planning, monitoring and evaluation.

MARA, D. (1996): Low-cost Urban Sanitation. United Kingdom: Wiley

Ecological Toilets

This book describes how to construct Arborloo toilets and how it can be upgraded to VIPs at a later stage.

MORGAN, P. EcoSanRes (2009): Ecological Toilets. (pdf presentation). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute

Informed Choice Catalogue

This informed choice catalogue for community based wastewater treatment technologies helps to identify suitable sanitation options and facilitates the assessment of different sanitation system components with regard to stakeholder preferences. A powerful tool for technical bottom-up planning giving overall information about technical options at a "glance".

SANIMAS (2005): Informed Choice Catalogue. pdf presentation. BORDA and USAID

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. LUETHI, C. MOREL, A. ZURBRUEGG, C. SCHERTENLEIB, R. (2008): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG) and Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) URL [Accessed: 15.02.2010] PDF

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

A Directory of Environmentally Sound Technologies for the Integrated Management of Solid, Liquid and Hazardous Waste for Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in the Pacific Region

This directory is part of UNEP collaboration with SIDS on the implementation of the Waste Management chapter of the Barbados Programme of Action. It focuses primarily on proven sound environmental technologies for solid, liquid and hazardous waste management plus those currently successfully being used in SIDS within the Pacific Region.

UNEP (2002): A Directory of Environmentally Sound Technologies for the Integrated Management of Solid, Liquid and Hazardous Waste for Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in the Pacific Region. The Hague: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) URL [Accessed: 28.03.2012]

A Guide to the Development of On-site Sanitation

The publication presents appropriate technologies for sanitation and highlights socio-economic aspects of planning and implementing. Emphasis is given to household-level sanitation improvements for urban areas, as well as rural areas and small communities. Background information on sanitation, in-depth technical information on the design, construction, operation and maintenance and project planning and development processes involved in projects and programmes complement the book.

WHO (1992): A Guide to the Development of On-site Sanitation. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 14.04.2010]
قراءات أخرى

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

Faecal Sludge Management.

This issue presents studies from different regions (Bangladesh, Cameroon, Burkina Faso) that mainly show the non-existence of faecal sludge management. Additionally, the last paper describes a new technological solution (LaDePa) for producing hygienically safe organic fertiliser from sludge from ventilated improved pit toilets (VIPs).

ECOSAN CLUB (2012): Faecal Sludge Management.. (= Sustainable Sanitation Practice , 13 ). Vienna: Ecosan Club URL [Accessed: 16.10.2012]

Emergency Sanitation: Assessment and Programme Design

This book has been written to help all those involved in planning and implementing emergency sanitation programmes. The main focus is a systematic and structured approach to assessment and programme design. There is a strong emphasis on socio-cultural issues and community participation throughout.Includes an extensive “guidelines” section with rapid assessment instructions and details on programme design, planning and implementation.

HARVEY, P. BAGHRI, S. REED, B. (2002): Emergency Sanitation: Assessment and Programme Design. Loughborough: Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC) URL [Accessed: 21.02.2011]

How to Select Appropriate Technical Solutions for Sanitation

The purpose of this guide is to assist local contracting authorities and their partners in identifying those sanitation technologies best suited to the different contexts that exist within their town. The first part of the guide contains a planning process and a set of criteria to be completed; these assist you in characterizing each area of intervention so that you are then in a position to identify the most appropriate technical solutions. The second part of the guide consists of technical factsheets which give a practical overview of the technical and economic characteristics, the operating principle and the pros and cons of the 29 sanitation technology options most commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa.

MONVOIS, J. GABERT, J. FRENOUX, C. GUILLAUME, M. (2010): How to Select Appropriate Technical Solutions for Sanitation. (= Six Methodological Guides for a Water and Sanitation Services' Development Strategy , 4 ). Cotonou and Paris: Partenariat pour le Développement Municipal (PDM) and Programme Solidarité Eau (pS-Eau) URL [Accessed: 19.10.2011]

A Blair VIP Latrine

This is a detailed description on how to build a simple Blair VIP toilet and how to upgrade it. e Blair VIP (BVIP) toilet is a Zimbabwean invention and the forerunner of all VIP toilets. It has been a standardised piece of sanitary hardware recommended by the Government of Zimbabwe for 30+ years. The family unit is multipurpose and doubles as a washroom. A multi-compartment version is recommended for schools.

MORGAN, P. (2011): A Blair VIP Latrine. A builder’s manual for the upgradeable BVIP model and a hand washing device. Zimbabwe: Government of Zimbabwe, National Action Committee for Rural Water Supply and Sanitation URL [Accessed: 19.06.2013]

Ecodesign: The Bottom Line

There is no single design solution to sanitation. But there are universal principles for systematically and safely detoxifying human excreta, without contaminating, wasting or even using water. Ecological sanitation design — which is focused on sustainability through reuse and recycling — offers workable solutions that are gaining footholds around the world, as Nature explores on the following pages through the work of Peter Morgan in Zimbabwe, Ralf Otterpohl and his team in Germany, Shunmuga Paramasivan in India, and Ed Harrington and his colleagues in California.

NATURE (Editor) ; MORGAN, P. ; OTTERPOHL, R. ; PARAMASIVAN, S. ; HARRINGTON, E. (2012): Ecodesign: The Bottom Line. المُدخلات: Nature: International Weekly Journal of Science: Volume 486 , 186-189. URL [Accessed: 19.06.2012]

The Blair VIP

This simple document shows the development of the VIP toilet designed by the Blair Institute in Zimbabwe.

MORGAN, P. (2011): The Blair VIP. A Short History. Peter Morgan URL [Accessed: 19.06.2013]

Adventures in search of the ideal portable pit-emptying machine

This article explores the ideal portable pit-emptying machine for South Africa owing to site access constraints. The Water Research Commission of South Africa funded experimental development of a number of technologies designed to fill the gap between large vacuum tankers and manual emptying. This paper describes these attempts.

STILL, D. O RIORDAN, M. MC BRIDE, A. LOUTON, B. (2013): Adventures in search of the ideal portable pit-emptying machine. Rugby: Practical Action Publishing URL [Accessed: 07.08.2013]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

How to Manage Public Toilets and Showers

The purpose of this decision-making aid is to provide practical advice and recommendations for managing toilet blocks situated in public places. It is primarily aimed at local decision-makers in developing countries and at their partners (project planners and managers).

TOUBKISS, J. (2010): How to Manage Public Toilets and Showers. (= Six Methodological Guides for a Water and Sanitation Services' Development Strategy , 5 ). Cotonou and Paris: Partenariat pour le Développement Municipal (PDM) and Programme Solidarité Eau (pS-Eau) URL [Accessed: 19.10.2011]

Latrine and Sanitation Options Manual

This Manual aims to serve as a practical guide for the selection of sanitation technology options to satisfy local desires and meet national needs in Afghanistan. It is useful for the professionals and organisations working to address fecal contamination across Afghanistan.

USAID Afghanistan (2010): Latrine and Sanitation Options Manual. Sustainable Water Supply and Sanitation (SWSS) Project. Kabul: USAID Afghanistan URL [Accessed: 15.01.2013]

Technology Notes

These technology notes have been prepared following many general enquiries for technical information having been received by WaterAid over the years. Their purpose is to give an outline of the technologies used by WaterAid on long-term development projects in Africa and Asia, and to show alternatives, which might be appropriate in different circumstances. It may be possible to determine from the notes the technology, which would be appropriate in a particular location.

WATERAID (2008): Technology Notes. London: WaterAid URL [Accessed: 04.01.2011] PDF

A Guide to the Development of On-site Sanitation

The publication presents appropriate technologies for sanitation and highlights socio-economic aspects of planning and implementing. Emphasis is given to household-level sanitation improvements for urban areas, as well as rural areas and small communities. Background information on sanitation, in-depth technical information on the design, construction, operation and maintenance and project planning and development processes involved in projects and programmes complement the book.

WHO (1992): A Guide to the Development of On-site Sanitation. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 14.04.2010]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 31.05.2018] PDF
حالات دراسية

Pit Latrines & their Impact on Groundwater in Small Towns in Uganda. A Case of Bugiri Town Council

This paper investigates the groundwater contamination due to poorly designed pit latrines and inadequate protected water sources.

KABONGO, I. KABISWA, C. (2008): Pit Latrines & their Impact on Groundwater in Small Towns in Uganda. A Case of Bugiri Town Council. Kampala: Ecological Christian Organisation URL [Accessed: 06.12.2010]

Ventilated Improved Latrine Construction in the Slum Areas of Kampala, Uganda

The Urban Affordable Clean Toilets (U-ACT) project aims at overcoming the constraints to private sanitation investment in poor urban areas. Field research was conducted in 40 randomly selected low-income areas of Uganda’s capital Kampala where people rely on on-site sanitation. The sanitation situation in these urban slum zones is characterised by a high number of users per toilet, and full or overflowing latrines that are not regularly emptied. This factsheet provides information on the construction and cost details of ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrines.

LUETHI, C. NIWAGABA, B.C. GUENTHER, I. HORST, A. MULONGO, P. GRUETER, R. (2013): Ventilated Improved Latrine Construction in the Slum Areas of Kampala, Uganda. Technical Factsheet. Zuerich: Nachdiplomstudium fuer Entwicklungslaender (NADEL) Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH) URL [Accessed: 10.10.2013]

Available Sanitation Technologies for Rural and Peri-Urban Africa

The presentation allows for a good overview on existing types of pit latrines in Africa, but also on other types of sanitation technologies such as the conventional flush toilet, the pour flush toilet, and the urine diversion dehydration toilet (UDDT).

MORGAN, P. (2007): Available Sanitation Technologies for Rural and Peri-Urban Africa. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 20.06.2013]

How We Made an Arborloo Which Can be Upgraded to VIP

The Arborloo is the simplest ecological toilet and is an effective way of starting low cost sanitation programmes. It also demonstrates how valuable the nutrients in human excreta can be. This presentation gives an insight into the following aspects: - What is anArborloo? - What is an Arborloo? - Stages in life of the Arborloo - Planting trees on or near Arborloo pits - Stages in the construction of the Arborloo - Vent pipes - Construction of the Blair VIP

SHANGWA, A. MORGAN, P. (2008): How We Made an Arborloo Which Can be Upgraded to VIP. The Chisungu Primary School Water and Sanitation project. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 19.06.2013]

A Directory of Environmentally Sound Technologies for the Integrated Management of Solid, Liquid and Hazardous Waste for Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in the Pacific Region

This directory is part of UNEP collaboration with SIDS on the implementation of the Waste Management chapter of the Barbados Programme of Action. It focuses primarily on proven sound environmental technologies for solid, liquid and hazardous waste management plus those currently successfully being used in SIDS within the Pacific Region.

UNEP (2002): A Directory of Environmentally Sound Technologies for the Integrated Management of Solid, Liquid and Hazardous Waste for Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in the Pacific Region. The Hague: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) URL [Accessed: 28.03.2012]
مواد تدريبية

Latrine Slabs

This poster is part of the series of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene posters designed by the Water, Engineering and Development Center of Loughborough University.

REED, B. SHAW, R. (2013): Latrine Slabs. (= WEDC Posters , 1 ). London: Water, Engineering and Development Center (WEDC) URL [Accessed: 07.08.2013]

Simple Pit Latrines

This poster is part of the series of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene posters designed by the Water, Engineering and Development Center of Loughborough University.

REED, B. SHAW, R. (2013): Simple Pit Latrines. Poster. (= WEDC Posters , 10 ). London: Water, Engineering and Development Center (WEDC) URL [Accessed: 28.08.2013]

Emptying Pit Latrines

This technical brief describes several possibilities of emptying pit latrines and helps to find the most suitable method.

PICKFORD, J. SHAW, R. (1997): Emptying Pit Latrines. (= Technical Briefs, No. 54 ). Loughborough: Water and Environmental health at London and Loughborough (WELL) URL [Accessed: 26.04.2010]

Latrine Slabs and Seats

This technical brief describes pit latrines and possible slabs and seats to cover them.

WELL (n.y): Latrine Slabs and Seats. (= WELL Technical Briefs , 45 ). Loughborough: Water and Environmental health at London and Loughborough (WELL) URL [Accessed: 26.04.2010]
مواد لنشر الوعي

The Microbial Contamination of Water Supplies from Pit Latrines

This factsheet describes the microbiological contamination of water supplies. It gives an overview on pathogens and its characteristics as well as methods to reduce the risk of contamination.

WELL (2006): The Microbial Contamination of Water Supplies from Pit Latrines. (= WELL Fact-sheets ). Loughborough: Water and Environmental health at London and Loughborough (WELL) URL [Accessed: 07.12.2010]

This is the compact version of the factsheet.

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