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2018 أبريل 27

حُجرات التجفيف

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المُدخلات

Faeces
+ Dry Cleansing Materials

المُخرَجات

Dried Faeces
المؤلف*
Eawag المعهد الفيدرالي السويسري لعلوم وتقنيات المياه
ترجمة وتعريب مؤسسة بناء
المُلخص التنفيذي

تُستخدم حُجرات التجفيف Dehydration Vaults لجمع وتخزين وتجفيف البُراز. يجف البُراز فقط عندما تكون الحُجرات: مهواة جيدًا، ومعزولة -غير مُنفذة للمياه- بحيث تمنع تسرب الرطوبة إليها، ويتم تصريف البول ومياه تنظيف الشرج بعيدًا عنها.

يجف البُراز بشكل أسرع عندما لا يتم خلطه بالبول أو السوائل الأخرى. وفي غياب الرطوبة؛ لا تستطيع الكائنات الدقيقة أن تنمو، ويتم القضاء على مسببات الأمراض، وتقل الروائح.

يَسمح استخدام الحُجرتين بالتبادل بجفاف البُراز في إحداهما بينما يتم ملء الأخرى. عندما تمتلئ الحُجرة الأولى، يتم نقل المِرحاض الجاف الفاصل للبول للحُجرة الثانية، وبينما يتم ملء الحُجرة الثانية فإن البُراز في الحُجرة الأولى يجف ويقل حجمه، وعندما تمتليء الحُجرة الثانية تكون الحُجرة الأولى قد فُرِّغَت وتعود للعمل مرة أخرى.

ينبغى إضافة كمية صغيرة من الرماد أو الجير أو التربة الجافة أو نشارة الخشب لتغطية البُراز بعد كل استخدام، وذلك للحد من الحشرات وتقليل الروائح والمساعدة في عملية التجفيف.

 

المزايا
بسبب استخدام الحُجرتين بالتبادل، فإن فترة استخدامهما تكاد تكون غير محدودة.
تخفيض كبير في مسببات للأمراض.
إمكانية استخدام البُراز الجاف كمُحسِّن للتربة.
لا توجد مشاكل حقيقية مع الذباب أو الروائح إذا تم استخدامها وصيانتها بشكلٍ سليم (أي تبقى جافة).
يمكن بناؤها وإصلاحها من المواد المتوفرة محليًا.
مناسبة للمناطق الصخرية و/أو المناطق المُعرّضة للفيضانات أو حيث يكون منسوب المياه الجوفية مرتفعًا.
التكاليف الإنشائية مُنخفضة (لكنها متعددة) وذلك يعتمد على المواد المستخدمة؛ وتعتبر تكاليف التشغيل معدومة أو قليلة إذا تم تفريغها ذاتيًا.
العيوب
تتطلب التدريب والقبول ليتم استخدامها بشكل صحيح.
تتطلب مصدرًا دائمًا لمواد التغطية.
تتطلب الإزالة اليدوية للبُراز المجفف.
المُدخلات المُخرَجات

البُراز  مواد التطهير الجافة  ,

البُراز المجفف

Factsheet Block Title
اعتبارات التصميم
Factsheet Block Body

يمكن إنشاء حُجرات التجفيف داخل المنشأت أو ببِنيَة خاصة منفصلة. ومن الضروري وجود أنبوب تهوية لإزالة الرطوبة من الحُجرات والسيطرة على الحشرات والروائح، ويجب أن تكون الحُجرات مُحكمة الغلق لضمان عمل التهوية بشكل صحيح؛ لذلك يجب بناء الحُجرات من طوب مُحكم العزل أو الخرسانة لضمان عدم دخول المياه السطحية إليها.

توصي منظمة الصحة العالمية WHO بأن تكون فترة التخزين ستة أشهر على الأقل في حال استخدام الرماد أو الجير كمواد للتغطية )المعالجة قلوية)، وفي حالة عدم استخدام مواد التغطية ينبغي أن تكون فترة التخزين عامًا واحدًا على الأقل في الأجواء الدافئة )أكبر من 20 درجة مئوية في المتوسط( أو من عامٍ ونصف إلى عامين في الأجواء الأكثر برودة.

في حالة المعالجة القلوية، تُهيّأ كل حُجرة لتستوعب تراكم البُراز لستة أشهر على الأقل، وهذا يعني أن فترة التخزين والتجفيف في الحُجرة خارج الخدمة تكون ستة أشهر. ينبغى أن تُحسب أبعاد الحُجرة مع الأخذ بعين الاعتبار: مواد التغطية، تدفق الهواء، التوزيع غير المتساوٍ للبُراز، المستخدمين المُحتملين، ومواد التنظيف الجافة. تُقدر مساحة التخزين لكل ستة أشهر للشخص الواحد بحوالي 50 لترًا. يوصى بأن يكون ارتفاع الحجرة من 60 سنتيمتر إلى 80 سنتيمتر على الأقل لتسهيل التفريغ والوصول لأنابيب البول.

 

Factsheet Block Title
المُلاءَمَة
Factsheet Block Body

يمكن إنشاء حُجرات التجفيف في أي مكان؛ بداية من المناطق الريفية إلى المناطق الحضرية المزدحمة، وذلك بسبب صِغر مساحة الأرض المطلوبة، ومحدودية الروائح وسهولة الاستخدام. ويعتمد استخدام هذه التقنية في المناطق الحضرية على خدمة نقل البراز الجاف )والبول( خارج المدينة حيث إن المستخدمين في المناطق الحضرية عادةً لا يكون لديهم الاهتمام أو الفرصة لاستخدامه محليًا. تتناسب حُجرات التجفيف بشكل أكبر مع المناطق شحيحة المياه والصخرية أو حيث يكون منسوب المياه الجوفية مرتفعًا، كما أنها مناسبة أيضًا في المناطق المُعرّضة للفيضانات بشكل متكرّر لأنها تُبنى بطريقة تجعلها غير مُنفذة للمياه.

 

Factsheet Block Title
الجوانب الصحية / القبول
Factsheet Block Body

 تُعد حُجرات التجفيف تقنية نظيفة ومريحة وسهلة الاستخدام. ومع ذلك فمن الضروري أن يتدرب المستخدمون جيدًا لفهم كيفية عمل التقنية واستيعاب فوائدها.

يمنع بقاء الحُجرات جافة وجود أي مشاكل مع الذباب أو الروائح. بعد مرور وقت التخزين الموصى به، يجب أن يكون البُراز جافًا تمامًا وآمن نسبيًا للتعامل معه، بشرط ألا يتعرّض للبلل، ومع ذلك لا يزال يُشكِّل خطرًا طفيفًا على الصحة. لا تسمح حُجرات أو صناديق التجفيف ذات الخزَّان الواحد بتجفيف البُراز بشكلٍ كافٍ، فعند إفراغ الحاوية الممتلئة، يكون البُراز الموجود في أعلى الخزَّان لا يزال رطبًا. وبالتالي فإن المخاطر المرتبطة بالتعامل مع البُراز في حالة الحُجرات ذات الخزَّان الواحد أعلى بالطبع مقارنةً بالحُجرات المزدوجة. لذلك يوصى باستخدام أكثر من حُجرة بالتناوب. ومع ذلك لا تزال البحوث والاختبارات الميدانية لحاويات البُراز مُحكمة الغلق جارية من أجل نقلها بأمان وتنظيفها بسهولة، مع الوضع في الاعتبار الخدمات اللوجستية.

 

Factsheet Block Title
التشغيل والصيانة
Factsheet Block Body

لا تتحلّل مواد التنظيف الجافة في الحُجرات كما هو حال البراز الذي يجف ولكن لا يتحلل، ويفضّل تجميع مواد التنظيف الجافة والتخلّص منها بشكل منفصل عندما يُراد استخدام محتويات الحُجرات في الحقل دون المزيد من المعالجة. في بعض الأحيان، يجب دفع البُراز المتراكم تحت فتحة المِرحاض إلى جوانب الحُفرة.

يجب توخي الحذر لضمان عدم دخول الماء أو البول في حُجرة التجفيف، وإذا حدث ذلك، يمكن إضافة المزيد من الرماد أو الجير أو التراب أو نشارة الخشب للمساعدة على امتصاص السائل.

ولإفراغ الحُجرات، يجب استخدام الجاروف والقفازات وربما قناع للوجة(من القماش) لتجنب التلامس المباشر مع البُراز الجاف.

المراجع

حلول تقنيات وممارسات افضل للصرف الصحى دليل الاحياء الهاشمية فى نواكشوط -موريتانيا

.بيار بورقي واخرون (2014): حلول تقنيات وممارسات افضل للصرف الصحى دليل الاحياء الهاشمية فى نواكشوط -موريتانيا . نواكشوط -موريتانيا :

Language: Arabic

Guidelines on the Use of Urine and Faeces in Crop Production

These guidelines provide a thorough background on the use of urine (and faeces) for agricultural purposes. Aspects discussed are requirements for plant growth, nutrients in excreta, hygiene aspects, and recommendations for cultivation. It provides detailed guidance on the use of urine for purposes.

JOENSSON, H. RICHERT, A. VINNERAAS, B. SALOMON, E. (2004): Guidelines on the Use of Urine and Faeces in Crop Production. (= EcoSanRes Publications Series , 2004 ). Stockholm: EcoSanRes URL [Accessed: 17.04.2012]

Smart Sanitation Solutions

Smart Sanitation Solutions presents examples of low-cost household and community-based sanitation solutions that have proven effective and affordable. A wide range of innovative technologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatment and use of sanitation products that have already helped thousands of poor families to improve their lives is illustrated.

NWP (2006): Smart Sanitation Solutions. Examples of innovative, low-cost technologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatment and use of sanitation products. (= Smart water solutions ). Amsterdam: Netherlands Water Partnership (NWP) URL [Accessed: 13.04.2010]

Systems for Enhancing Ventilation for Improved Control of Odour and Fly Nuisance in Dry Urine Diverting Ecological Sanitation Toilets

This research report described information for improved ventilation, fly and odour control as well as impact of improved ventilation on drying within faecal chambers and pathogen die-off in dehydration toilets.

OKETCH, M. (2005): Systems for Enhancing Ventilation for Improved Control of Odour and Fly Nuisance in Dry Urine Diverting Ecological Sanitation Toilets. URL [Accessed: 22.07.2010]

Technology Review of Urine-Diverting Dry Toilets (UDDTs)

This publication offers a complete overview of UDDT functions, design considerations, common operation and maintenance issues and generalised installation costs. Its focus is on applications in developing countries and countries in transition, although UDDTs are also applicable in developed countries.

RIECK, C. MUENCH, E. HOFFMANN, H. (2012): Technology Review of Urine-Diverting Dry Toilets (UDDTs). Overview on Design, Management, Maintenance and Costs. (= Technology Review ). Eschborn: German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 01.07.2013]

Guidelines on the Safe Use of Urine and Faeces in Ecological Sanitation Systems

These guidelines provide a thorough background on the safe use of urine and faeces for agricultural purposes. Aspects like the health risk associated we the use of human excreta in agriculture and how to limit them are discussed.

SCHOENNING, C. STENSTROEM, T.A. (2004): Guidelines on the Safe Use of Urine and Faeces in Ecological Sanitation Systems. (= EcoSanRes Publication Series ). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI)

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Ecological Sanitation - revised and enlarged edition

This book is one of the most fundamental and important books that defined the concept of ecological sanitation. The first version came out in 1998 - this version presents the findings of over ten years of research and development in ecological sanitation supported by SIDA (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency).

WINBLAD, U. SIMPSON-HERBERT, M. (2004): Ecological Sanitation - revised and enlarged edition. (pdf presentation). Sweden: Stockholm Environment Institute URL [Accessed: 04.08.2010]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 31.05.2018] PDF

Ecological Sanitation - revised and enlarged edition

This book is one of the most fundamental and important books that defined the concept of ecological sanitation. The first version came out in 1998 - this version presents the findings of over ten years of research and development in ecological sanitation supported by SIDA (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency).

WINBLAD, U. SIMPSON-HERBERT, M. (2004): Ecological Sanitation - revised and enlarged edition. (pdf presentation). Sweden: Stockholm Environment Institute URL [Accessed: 04.08.2010]
قراءات أخرى

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

Urine Diverting Dry Toilets

This manual provides the background of ecological sanitation and gives guidance how to construct and operate a UDDT. The manual, originally published in 2006, has been revised based on the experiences of more than 10 years in 12 countries by WECF with local partners.

DEEGENER, S. SAMWEL, M. WENDLAND, C. (2015): Urine Diverting Dry Toilets. Principles, Operation and Construction. Women in Europe for a Common Future (WECF) URL [Accessed: 29.11.2015]

Ecological Sanitation

This book puts forward ecological sanitation as an alternative to conventional sanitation, and was one of the very first of its kind. It documents different options of ecosan based on dehydrating and composting toilets in use around the world. The book has been reviewed and enlarged since then.

ESREY, S. A. ; GOUGH, J. ; RAPAPORT, D. ; SAWYER, R. ; MAYLING, S.H. ; VARGAS, J. ; WINBLAD, U. (1998): Ecological Sanitation. Stockholm: Novum Grafiska AB URL [Accessed: 22.07.2010]

Guidelines on the Use of Urine and Faeces in Crop Production

These guidelines provide a thorough background on the use of urine (and faeces) for agricultural purposes. Aspects discussed are requirements for plant growth, nutrients in excreta, hygiene aspects, and recommendations for cultivation. It provides detailed guidance on the use of urine for purposes.

JOENSSON, H. RICHERT, A. VINNERAAS, B. SALOMON, E. (2004): Guidelines on the Use of Urine and Faeces in Crop Production. (= EcoSanRes Publications Series , 2004 ). Stockholm: EcoSanRes URL [Accessed: 17.04.2012]

How to Select Appropriate Technical Solutions for Sanitation

The purpose of this guide is to assist local contracting authorities and their partners in identifying those sanitation technologies best suited to the different contexts that exist within their town. The first part of the guide contains a planning process and a set of criteria to be completed; these assist you in characterizing each area of intervention so that you are then in a position to identify the most appropriate technical solutions. The second part of the guide consists of technical factsheets which give a practical overview of the technical and economic characteristics, the operating principle and the pros and cons of the 29 sanitation technology options most commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa.

MONVOIS, J. GABERT, J. FRENOUX, C. GUILLAUME, M. (2010): How to Select Appropriate Technical Solutions for Sanitation. (= Six Methodological Guides for a Water and Sanitation Services' Development Strategy , 4 ). Cotonou and Paris: Partenariat pour le Développement Municipal (PDM) and Programme Solidarité Eau (pS-Eau) URL [Accessed: 19.10.2011]

Systems for Enhancing Ventilation for Improved Control of Odour and Fly Nuisance in Dry Urine Diverting Ecological Sanitation Toilets

This research report described information for improved ventilation, fly and odour control as well as impact of improved ventilation on drying within faecal chambers and pathogen die-off in dehydration toilets.

OKETCH, M. (2005): Systems for Enhancing Ventilation for Improved Control of Odour and Fly Nuisance in Dry Urine Diverting Ecological Sanitation Toilets. URL [Accessed: 22.07.2010]

Technology Review of Urine-Diverting Dry Toilets (UDDTs)

This publication offers a complete overview of UDDT functions, design considerations, common operation and maintenance issues and generalised installation costs. Its focus is on applications in developing countries and countries in transition, although UDDTs are also applicable in developed countries.

RIECK, C. MUENCH, E. HOFFMANN, H. (2012): Technology Review of Urine-Diverting Dry Toilets (UDDTs). Overview on Design, Management, Maintenance and Costs. (= Technology Review ). Eschborn: German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 01.07.2013]

Guidelines on the Safe Use of Urine and Faeces in Ecological Sanitation Systems

These guidelines provide a thorough background on the safe use of urine and faeces for agricultural purposes. Aspects like the health risk associated we the use of human excreta in agriculture and how to limit them are discussed.

SCHOENNING, C. STENSTROEM, T.A. (2004): Guidelines on the Safe Use of Urine and Faeces in Ecological Sanitation Systems. (= EcoSanRes Publication Series ). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI)

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 31.05.2018] PDF

Ecological Sanitation - revised and enlarged edition

This book is one of the most fundamental and important books that defined the concept of ecological sanitation. The first version came out in 1998 - this version presents the findings of over ten years of research and development in ecological sanitation supported by SIDA (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency).

WINBLAD, U. SIMPSON-HERBERT, M. (2004): Ecological Sanitation - revised and enlarged edition. (pdf presentation). Sweden: Stockholm Environment Institute URL [Accessed: 04.08.2010]

The Characterization of Feces and Urine: A Review of the Literature to Inform Advanced Treatment Technology

Development of on-site sanitation facilities that treat excreta require knowledge of the waste stream entering the system. This paper contains data regarding the generation rate and the chemical and physical composition of fresh feces and urine. In addition, the impact on biological and thermal processes, physical separators, and chemical reactions is also assessed.

ROSE, C. ; PARKER, A. ; JEFFERSON, B. ; CARTMELL, E. (2015): The Characterization of Feces and Urine: A Review of the Literature to Inform Advanced Treatment Technology. المُدخلات: Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology: Volume 45 , 1827-1879. URL [Accessed: 25.11.2015]
حالات دراسية

UDD Toilets in Rural School Hayanist, Armenia

This case study reports the establishment of a sustainable, affordable and safe school sanitation system in a rural area in Armenia. A total number of 7 Double-Vault UDDTs serve ca. 350 students (females and males) and 26 staff members. Urine is stored for 6 months before application.

DEEGENER, S. SAMWEL, M. ANAKHASYAN, E. (2009): UDD Toilets in Rural School Hayanist, Armenia. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 07.07.2010]

Urban Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilets and Reuse Ouagadougou Burkina Faso - Draft

This case studies reports form the implementation of ecosan toilets in the peri-urban area of Ouagadougou financed by the European Union. The aim of the project was to demonstrate ecosan on an urban level with a centralised collection and treatment facilities and commercialisation of hygienised urine and faeces.

FALL, A. (2009): Urban Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilets and Reuse Ouagadougou Burkina Faso - Draft. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 07.07.2010]

Urine Diversion Dry Toilet (UDDT) for Agafari´s Household, Arba Minch, Ethiopia

This case study reports the replacement of pit latrine with UDDT at one household in Arba Minch, Ethiopia. A single-vault UDDT serves family members and rural merchants staying overnight. Urine is applied for banana, mango and lemon plants and the dried excreta are co-composted along with organic material in the owner’s farmland.

KASSA, K. (2010): Urine Diversion Dry Toilet (UDDT) for Agafari´s Household, Arba Minch, Ethiopia. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 12.12.2012]

Urine-Diversion Dehydration Toilets in Rural Areas, Bayawan City, Philippines

In Bayawan City (Philippines), UDDTs were installed on household and public level. Vegetable growers and small-scale farmers use the fertilising products.

LIPKOW, U. (2009): Urine-Diversion Dehydration Toilets in Rural Areas, Bayawan City, Philippines. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 07.07.2010]

Ecological Sanitation in Malawi

This illustrative presentation on ecological sanitation in Malawi, focuses on the concept of ecological sanitation, types of eco-toilets and basic methods of recycling nutrient from human excreta.

MORGAN, P. (2010): Ecological Sanitation in Malawi. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 20.06.2013]
مواد تدريبية

Urine Diverting Dry Toilets

This manual provides the background of ecological sanitation and gives guidance how to construct and operate a UDDT. The manual, originally published in 2006, has been revised based on the experiences of more than 10 years in 12 countries by WECF with local partners.

DEEGENER, S. SAMWEL, M. WENDLAND, C. (2015): Urine Diverting Dry Toilets. Principles, Operation and Construction. Women in Europe for a Common Future (WECF) URL [Accessed: 29.11.2015]

Guidelines on the Safe Use of Urine and Faeces in Crop Production. Factsheet N0. 6

This factsheet is a short version of the guidelines for the safe use of urine and faeces for agricultural purposes providing information about requirements for plant growth, nutrients in excreta, hygiene aspects, and recommendations and guidance for cultivation.

ECOSANRES (2008): Guidelines on the Safe Use of Urine and Faeces in Crop Production. Factsheet N0. 6. Harare (Zimbabwe): Stockholm Environment Institute EcoSanRes Programme URL [Accessed: 20.07.2010]

Guidelines on the Safe Use of Urine and Faeces in Ecological Sanitation Systems

These guidelines provide a thorough background on the safe use of urine and faeces for agricultural purposes. Aspects like the health risk associated we the use of human excreta in agriculture and how to limit them are discussed.

SCHOENNING, C. STENSTROEM, T.A. (2004): Guidelines on the Safe Use of Urine and Faeces in Ecological Sanitation Systems. (= EcoSanRes Publication Series ). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI)

Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilet (UDDT) - Construction Manual

Design and construction manual on that also provides information on the nutrient value of human urine and faecal matter, general hygiene aspects, the reuse of sanitized urine and faecal matter, and costs of various Indian UDDT designs.

ESF (2009): Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilet (UDDT) - Construction Manual. Pune: Ecosan Services Foundation (ESF) URL [Accessed: 07.07.2010]

Dehydration Toilets. Dehydration toilets. Dehydration Toilets without Urine-diversion

Short general and technical description on dehydration toilets without urine diversion.

GTZ (2006): Dehydration Toilets. Dehydration toilets. Dehydration Toilets without Urine-diversion. (= Technical Data Sheets for Ecosan Components, 02-B3 ). Eschborn: German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 07.07.2010]

Technology Review of Urine-Diverting Dry Toilets (UDDTs)

This publication offers a complete overview of UDDT functions, design considerations, common operation and maintenance issues and generalised installation costs. Its focus is on applications in developing countries and countries in transition, although UDDTs are also applicable in developed countries.

RIECK, C. MUENCH, E. HOFFMANN, H. (2012): Technology Review of Urine-Diverting Dry Toilets (UDDTs). Overview on Design, Management, Maintenance and Costs. (= Technology Review ). Eschborn: German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 01.07.2013]

Smart Sanitation Solutions

Smart Sanitation Solutions presents examples of low-cost household and community-based sanitation solutions that have proven effective and affordable. A wide range of innovative technologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatment and use of sanitation products that have already helped thousands of poor families to improve their lives is illustrated.

NWP (2006): Smart Sanitation Solutions. Examples of innovative, low-cost technologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatment and use of sanitation products. (= Smart water solutions ). Amsterdam: Netherlands Water Partnership (NWP) URL [Accessed: 13.04.2010]
مواد لنشر الوعي

Food security and productive sanitation systems

The factsheet describes the food security situation especially in light of limited global resources, the role of sustainable sanitation in closing the nutrient loop and increasing productivity, and challenges in implementing productive sanitation systems.

SUSANA (2009): Food security and productive sanitation systems. (= SuSanA fact sheet 05/2009 ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 17.04.2012]

This is the compact version of the factsheet.

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