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2018 أبريل 27

إعداد السماد مع إضافة المواد العضوية

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المُدخلات

Organics Sludge

المُخرَجات

Compost
المؤلف*
Eawag المعهد الفيدرالي السويسري لعلوم وتقنيات المياه
ترجمة وتعريب مؤسسة بناء
المُلخص التنفيذي

إعداد السماد مع إضافة المواد العضوية Co-Composting هي عملية تحلل هوائي مُتحكم به للمواد العضوية، باستخدام أكثر من مادة للتغذية (حمأة مياه المجاري والمخلفات العضوية الصلبة). حمأة مياه المجاري لديها مُحتوًى عالٍ من الرطوبة والنيتروجين، في حين أن المخلفات الصلبة القابلة للتحلل الحيوي تحتوي على نسبة عالية من الكربون العضوي، ولها خصائص تكتل جيدة (أي أنها تسمح للهواء بالتدفق والسريان). من خلال الجمع بين الاثنين، فإن فوائد كل منهما يُمكن استخدامها لتحسين العملية والمُنتج.

هناك نوعان من التصاميم الخاصة بعملية إعداد السماد مع إضافة المواد العضوية: إما مفتوحة أو مقفولة. في عملية إعداد السماد المفتوحة، يتم تكويم المواد المُمتزجة معًا (الحمأة والمخلفات الصلبة) في أكوام ممتدة على هيئة صفوف للتجفيف (تهوية) Windrows وتُترك لتتحلل؛ ويتم تقليب الأكوام المصفوفة بصورة دورية لتزويدها بالأكسجين، ولضمان أن كل الأجزاء تخضع لنفس المُعالجة الحرارية. أما عملية إعداد السماد المقفولة فإنها تتطلب رطوبة وإمدادات هواء متحكم بها، بالإضافة إلى الخلط الميكانيكي؛ لذلك، فهي ليست مناسبة بشكل عام للمرافق اللامركزية. على الرغم من أن عملية إعداد السماد تبدو كتقنيةٍ بسيطةٍ وخاملة، فإن المرفق الذي يعمل بشكل جيد يتطلب عمليتي تخطيط وتصميم دقيقين لتجنب الإخفاقات.

 

المزايا
سهل نسبيًا فيما يخُص أعمال الإنشاء والصيانة مع وجود التدريب المناسب.
يُوفر موردًا قيمًا يُمكن أن يُحسّن من الزراعة المحلية وإنتاج الغذاء.
إزالة عالية لبويضات ديدان الأمعاء (أقل من بويضة واحدة لكل جرام من المواد الصلبة الكُليّة)
يُمكن إنشاء وإصلاح المرفق باستخدام المواد المتوفرة محليًا.
تكاليف رأس المال والتشغيل مُنخفضة.
لا يتطلب طاقة كهربائية.
العيوب
يتطلب مساحة أرض كبيرة (وتقع في مكان مناسب).
أوقات التخزين طويلة.
تتطلب خبرة في التصميم والتشغيل بواسطة أشخاص متخصصين.
تتطلب عمالة كثيفة.
السماد العضوي ثقيل جدًّا ليتم نقله بشكل اقتصادي لمسافات طويلة.
المُدخلات المُخرَجات

الحمأة , المواد العضوية

السماد العضوي

Factsheet Block Title
اعتبارات التصميم
Factsheet Block Body

يجب أن يقع المرفق بالقرب من مصادر المخلفات العضوية وحمأة مياه المجاري، وذلك لتقليل تكاليف النقل، ولكن يجب -ايضًا- أن تظل بعيدة عن المنازل ومناطق الأعمال حتى لا تسبب الإزعاج. اعتمادًا على المناخ والمساحة المتاحة، فإنه يُمكن تغطية المرفق لمنع التبخر الزائد و/أو توفير الحماية من المطر والرياح. بالنسبة إلى الحمأة منزوعة الماء )المُجففة(؛ فإنَّه يجب إستخدام نسبة تتراوح ما بين 2:1 إلى 3:1 من الحمأة إلى المخلفات الصلبة. أما بالنسبة إلى الحمأة السائلة؛ فإنه يجب استخدام نسبة تتراوح ما بين 1:5 إلى 10:1 من الحمأة إلى المخلفات الصلبة. ويجب أن يكون ارتفاع الأكوام المصفوفة للتجفيف 1 متر على الأقل، ويجب أن يتم وضع طبقة عازلة فوقها باستخدام السماد أو التربة، وذلك لتعزيز التوزيع المتساوي للحرارة داخل الأكوام.

 

Factsheet Block Title
المُلاءَمَة
Factsheet Block Body

تكون مرافق إعداد السماد مع إضافة المواد العضوية مُناسبة فقط عندما يكون هناك وفرة من المخلفات الصلبة القابلة للتحلل الحيوي والمفروزة جيدًا. ويجب أن يتم أولًا فرز المواد البلاستيكية والقمامة من المخلفات الصلبة؛ فإذا تم ذلك بشكل جيد، فإنه يُمكن إنتاج مُحسِّنٍ نظيف، وآمن، ومفيد للتربة. ولأن الرطوبة تلعب دور مهمًا في عملية إعداد السماد، فإنه يوصى بالمرافق المُغَطَّأة، خاصةً عندما يكون هناك هطول غزير للأمطار.

بصرف النظر عن الاعتبارات التقنية، فإن إعداد السماد يكون له أهمية فقط إذا كان هناك طلب على المُنتَج )من العملاء الذين يقومون بشراء المُنتَج.( ومن أجل جذب العملاء لشراء المُنتج، فإنّه يجب إنتاج نوعية سمادٍ جيدةٍ باستمرار؛ وهذا يعتمد على الفرز المبدئيّ الجيد، وعلى عملية المُعالجة الحرارية المُحكمة.

 

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الجوانب الصحية / القبول
Factsheet Block Body

الحفاظ على درجة حرارة تتراوح ما بين 55 إلى 60 درجة مئوية داخل الأكوام يُمكن أن تحد من مسببات الأمراض في الحمأة إلى مستوى آمنٍ للَمسِها والتعامل معها. على الرغم من أن السماد النهائي قد يكون آمنًا في تداوله، فإنه يجب توخّي الحذر -بغض النظر عن المُعالجة السابقة- أثناء التعامل مع الحمأة. إذا وُجِد أن المادة تثير الغبار، فإنه على العمال ارتداء الملابس الواقية واستخدام معدات تنفس مناسبة. كما أن التهوية المناسبة والسيطرة على الغبار تُعَدّ أمورًا مهمة للغاية.

 

Factsheet Block Title
التشغيل والصيانة
Factsheet Block Body

يجب تصميم الخليط بعناية بحيث يحتوي على النسبة الصحيحة من نسبة الكربون إلى النيتروجين، كذلك محتوى الرطوبة الأوكسجين المناسبين. يكون من المُفيد -إذا توفرت الوسائل- مُراقبة تثبيط بويضات ديدان الأمعاء Helminth كمقياس تقريبي لعملية التعقيم.

وجود طاقم مُدرب جيدًا هو أمر ضروري لأعمال التشغيل والصيانة الخاصة بالمرفق. يجب أن يراقب عُمَّال الصيانة جودة المواد الداخلة بحذر، وأن يتتبعوا مسار التدفقات الداخلة والخارجة، والجداول الزمنية للتقليب، وأوقات الإنضاج؛ لضمان الحصول على مُنتج عالِ الجودة. كما يجب التحكم والمتابعة لأنظمة التهوية الإجبارية بعناية.

يحب القيام بالتقليب بشكل دوري باستخدام إما مُعِّدة تقليب ميكانيكية )لودر أمامي، أو تركس( أو باليد. تساعد المفارم المتينة -الخاصة بتقطيع الأجزاء الكبيرة من المخلفات الصلبة )مثل فروع الأشجار(- ومقلّبات الأكوام على تحسين عملية إعداد السماد، وعلى تخفيض العمالة اليدوية، وضمان تجانس المُنتَج النهائي.

المراجع

Solid Waste Management. Lecture notes

This document provides an overview of the present state-of-the-art of solid waste production and management. It contains the characteristics of municipal solid waste and describes current waste treatment systems and technologies, as well as non-technical aspects like private sector involvement and financial arrangements.

EAWAG ; SANDEC (2008): Solid Waste Management. Lecture notes. (= Sandec Training Tool 1.0, Module 6 ). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 08.04.2010]

Composting and Its Applicability in Developing Countries

This informal paper argues that composting should be a more widespread practice, especially in developing countries. It reviews past composting experiences and provides an outline for municipal managers to use when evaluating composting programs within an integrated municipal waste management system.

HOORNWEG, D. THOMAS, L. OTTEN, L. (2000): Composting and Its Applicability in Developing Countries. (= Urban Waste Management Working Paper Series , 8 ). Washington, D.C.: The World Bank URL [Accessed: 21.07.2014]

Helminth Eggs Inactivation Efficiency by Faecal Sludge Dewatering and Co-Composting in Tropical Climates

This study investigates helminth eggs removal and inactivation efficiency in a treatment process combining faecal sludge (FS) dewatering and subsequent co-composting with organic solid waste as a function of windrow turning frequency.

KONE, D. ; COFIE, O. ; ZURBRUEGG, C. ; GALLIZZI, K. ; MOSER, D. ; DRESCHER, S. ; STRAUSS, M. (2007): Helminth Eggs Inactivation Efficiency by Faecal Sludge Dewatering and Co-Composting in Tropical Climates. المُدخلات: Water Research: Volume 41 , 4397-4402.

Integrated Resource Recovery. The Co-Composting of Domestic Solid and Human Wastes

This report a valuable reference for decision makers and planners on co-composting when addressing waste management and resource recovery issues in the developing countries.

OBENG, L. A. WRIGHT, F. W. (1987): Integrated Resource Recovery. The Co-Composting of Domestic Solid and Human Wastes. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank and UNDP URL [Accessed: 21.07.2014]

Co-composting faecal sludge & organic solid waste, Kumasi, Ghana

This project aimed to gain scientific knowledge on the technical, socio-economical and operational aspects of co-composting (organic solid waste and faecal material). Dried faecal sludge (drying bed) is co-composted with the organic fraction of solid waste. The final product is used as compost for urban and periurban agriculture.

OLUFUNKE, C. DOULAYE, K. (2009): Co-composting faecal sludge & organic solid waste, Kumasi, Ghana. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 22.05.2012]

Decentralized Composting for Cities of Low-and Middle-Income Countries A Users’ Manual

Based on the experiences of Waste Concern on implementing decentralized composting facilities in Dhaka and other Asian Cities, this manual provides step-by-step guidelines on how to initiate and operate small-scale composting facilities in developing countries so as to turn waste into jobs and food security.

ROTHENBERGER, S. ZURBRUGG, C. ENAYETULLAH, I. SINHA, A.H.M. (2006): Decentralized Composting for Cities of Low-and Middle-Income Countries A Users’ Manual. Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) at the Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science (EAWAG) and Waste Concern URL [Accessed: 11.08.2010]

Marketing Compost. A Guide for Compost Producers in Low and Middle-Income Countries

This guide describes a marketing approach to composting, and is intended to help compost producers run more viable initiatives by unlocking the value of their product. The handbook does not cover everything there is to know about marketing, but starts with the basics and introduces the key principles and techniques. These include understanding the ‘marketing environment’, identifying appropriate target customer groups, and developing and promoting products to suit the market.

ROUSE ROTHENBERGER, S. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2008): Marketing Compost. A Guide for Compost Producers in Low and Middle-Income Countries. Duebendorf: Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC), Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science (EAWAG) URL [Accessed: 05.05.2010]

Faecal Sludge Management

This is the first book to compile the current state of knowledge on faecal sludge management. It addresses the organization of the entire faecal sludge management service chain, from the collection and transport of sludge, to the current state of knowledge of treatment options, and the final end use or disposal of treated sludge. It presents an integrated approach that brings together technology, management, and planning, based on Sandec’s 20 years of experience in the field. It also discusses important factors to consider when evaluating and upscaling new treatment technology options. The book is designed for undergraduate and graduate students, engineers, and practitioners in the field who have some basic knowledge of environmental and/or wastewater engineering.

STRANDE, L. ; RONTELTAP, M. ; BRDJANOVIC, D. (2014): Faecal Sludge Management. Systems Approach for Implementation and Operation. London: IWA Publishing URL [Accessed: 16.07.2014]

Co-composting of Faecal Sludge and Municipal Organic Waste

The document gives an overview on the combined composting of (faecal) sludges and organic solid waste based on a pilot project in Kumasi, Ghana. Results of the investigation should help the city’s waste management department to develop its biosolids management strategy and enable the project team to develop guidelines for planners and engineers on the option of co-composting.

STRAUSS, M. DRESCHER, S. ZURBRUEGG, C. MONTANGERO, A. OLUFUNKE, C. DRECHSEL, P. (2003): Co-composting of Faecal Sludge and Municipal Organic Waste. Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) and International Water Management Institute (IWMI) URL [Accessed: 23.06.2010]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

International Source Book on Environmentally Sound Technologies for Municipal Solid Waste Management

This Source Book is directed towards municipal solid waste management decision makers of developing countries and countries in transition, non-governmental organisations and community-based organizations involved in waste management. The book serves as a general reference guide to researchers, scientists, science and technology institutions and private industries on a global state-of-the-art on environmentally sound technologies for municipal solid waste management. It provides a list of information sources and overviews of practices in the world regions relating to environmentally sound management of municipal solid waste (waste reduction, collection and transfer, composting, incineration, landfills, special wastes, waste characterization, management and planning, training, public education and financing). Parts of the book can be viewed within this website.

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Decentralised Composting An Option for Indian Cities? Report of a Workshop Held in Bangalore India, 4-5 June, 2002

The report discusses the findings of a study of 20 compost plants, ranging in size from household composting to large centralized composting facilities, in six cities in Southern India and an analysis based on technical, organizational, financial, marketing, institutional and social aspects. It also describes two compost plants in Bangalore.

ZURBRUGG, C. DRESCHER, S. PATEL, A.H. SHARATCHANDRA S.C. (2002): Decentralised Composting An Option for Indian Cities? Report of a Workshop Held in Bangalore India, 4-5 June, 2002. Duebendorf: EAWAG
قراءات أخرى

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

Faecal Sludge Management.

This issue presents studies from different regions (Bangladesh, Cameroon, Burkina Faso) that mainly show the non-existence of faecal sludge management. Additionally, the last paper describes a new technological solution (LaDePa) for producing hygienically safe organic fertiliser from sludge from ventilated improved pit toilets (VIPs).

ECOSAN CLUB (2012): Faecal Sludge Management.. (= Sustainable Sanitation Practice , 13 ). Vienna: Ecosan Club URL [Accessed: 16.10.2012]

Faecal Sludge Management

This is the first book to compile the current state of knowledge on faecal sludge management. It addresses the organization of the entire faecal sludge management service chain, from the collection and transport of sludge, to the current state of knowledge of treatment options, and the final end use or disposal of treated sludge. It presents an integrated approach that brings together technology, management, and planning, based on Sandec’s 20 years of experience in the field. It also discusses important factors to consider when evaluating and upscaling new treatment technology options. The book is designed for undergraduate and graduate students, engineers, and practitioners in the field who have some basic knowledge of environmental and/or wastewater engineering.

STRANDE, L. ; RONTELTAP, M. ; BRDJANOVIC, D. (2014): Faecal Sludge Management. Systems Approach for Implementation and Operation. London: IWA Publishing URL [Accessed: 16.07.2014]

Decentralized Composting for Cities of Low-and Middle-Income Countries A Users’ Manual

Based on the experiences of Waste Concern on implementing decentralized composting facilities in Dhaka and other Asian Cities, this manual provides step-by-step guidelines on how to initiate and operate small-scale composting facilities in developing countries so as to turn waste into jobs and food security.

ROTHENBERGER, S. ZURBRUGG, C. ENAYETULLAH, I. SINHA, A.H.M. (2006): Decentralized Composting for Cities of Low-and Middle-Income Countries A Users’ Manual. Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) at the Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science (EAWAG) and Waste Concern URL [Accessed: 11.08.2010]

Marketing Compost. A Guide for Compost Producers in Low and Middle-Income Countries

This guide describes a marketing approach to composting, and is intended to help compost producers run more viable initiatives by unlocking the value of their product. The handbook does not cover everything there is to know about marketing, but starts with the basics and introduces the key principles and techniques. These include understanding the ‘marketing environment’, identifying appropriate target customer groups, and developing and promoting products to suit the market.

ROUSE ROTHENBERGER, S. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2008): Marketing Compost. A Guide for Compost Producers in Low and Middle-Income Countries. Duebendorf: Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC), Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science (EAWAG) URL [Accessed: 05.05.2010]

Co-composting of Faecal Sludge and Solid Waste

This report summarises the technical and operational aspects of the co-composting process (design and mode of operation) that were investigated at a pilot plant in Kumasi (Ghana) between February and June 2002.

IWMI ; SANDEC (2002): Co-composting of Faecal Sludge and Solid Waste. Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) and International Water Management Institute (IWMI) URL [Accessed: 11.08.2010]

Composting and Its Applicability in Developing Countries

This informal paper argues that composting should be a more widespread practice, especially in developing countries. It reviews past composting experiences and provides an outline for municipal managers to use when evaluating composting programs within an integrated municipal waste management system.

HOORNWEG, D. THOMAS, L. OTTEN, L. (2000): Composting and Its Applicability in Developing Countries. (= Urban Waste Management Working Paper Series , 8 ). Washington, D.C.: The World Bank URL [Accessed: 21.07.2014]

Sustainable Composting Case Studies and Guidelines for Developing Countries

This publication presents the findings of a research on “Promoting Composting as a Business for the Urban Poor” in the form of guidelines based on case studies from India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Ethiopia.

ALI, M. (2004): Sustainable Composting Case Studies and Guidelines for Developing Countries. Leicestershire: Water Engineering and Development Centre, Loughborough University URL [Accessed: 05.08.2010]

Co-composting of Faecal Sludge and Municipal Organic Waste

The document gives an overview on the combined composting of (faecal) sludges and organic solid waste based on a pilot project in Kumasi, Ghana. Results of the investigation should help the city’s waste management department to develop its biosolids management strategy and enable the project team to develop guidelines for planners and engineers on the option of co-composting.

STRAUSS, M. DRESCHER, S. ZURBRUEGG, C. MONTANGERO, A. OLUFUNKE, C. DRECHSEL, P. (2003): Co-composting of Faecal Sludge and Municipal Organic Waste. Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) and International Water Management Institute (IWMI) URL [Accessed: 23.06.2010]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

The Organic Waste Flow in Integrated Sustainable Waste Management. Tools for Decision-makers

This publication is part of Integrated Sustainable Waste Management - A Set of Five Tools for Decision-makers - Experiences from the Urban Waste Expertise Programme (1995 - 2001). It is designed to identify and understand the role that composting plays in integrated solid waste management systems. This is important since the organic waste stream is the largest waste component in most developing countries and the one that has the least chance of being recovered without intervention.

DULAC, N. (2001): The Organic Waste Flow in Integrated Sustainable Waste Management. Tools for Decision-makers. Gouda: WASTE URL [Accessed: 11.08.2010]

A Directory of Environmentally Sound Technologies for the Integrated Management of Solid, Liquid and Hazardous Waste for Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in the Pacific Region

This directory is part of UNEP collaboration with SIDS on the implementation of the Waste Management chapter of the Barbados Programme of Action. It focuses primarily on proven sound environmental technologies for solid, liquid and hazardous waste management plus those currently successfully being used in SIDS within the Pacific Region.

UNEP (2002): A Directory of Environmentally Sound Technologies for the Integrated Management of Solid, Liquid and Hazardous Waste for Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in the Pacific Region. The Hague: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) URL [Accessed: 28.03.2012]

Integrated Resource Recovery. The Co-Composting of Domestic Solid and Human Wastes

This report a valuable reference for decision makers and planners on co-composting when addressing waste management and resource recovery issues in the developing countries.

OBENG, L. A. WRIGHT, F. W. (1987): Integrated Resource Recovery. The Co-Composting of Domestic Solid and Human Wastes. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank and UNDP URL [Accessed: 21.07.2014]

Decentralised Composting in India – Lessons Learnt

The paper discusses the findings of a study of 20 compost plants, ranging in size from household composting to large centralised composting facilities, in Bangalore, Chennai, Pune and Mumbai.

ZURBRUGG, C. DRESCHER, S. PATEL, A.H. SHARATCHANDRA S.C. (2002): Decentralised Composting in India – Lessons Learnt. (= Paper presented at 28th WEDC Conference in Kolkata 18-22 November, 2002 ). Leicestershire: Water Engineering and Development Centre, Loughborough University URL [Accessed: 05.08.2010]

How to Select Appropriate Technical Solutions for Sanitation

The purpose of this guide is to assist local contracting authorities and their partners in identifying those sanitation technologies best suited to the different contexts that exist within their town. The first part of the guide contains a planning process and a set of criteria to be completed; these assist you in characterizing each area of intervention so that you are then in a position to identify the most appropriate technical solutions. The second part of the guide consists of technical factsheets which give a practical overview of the technical and economic characteristics, the operating principle and the pros and cons of the 29 sanitation technology options most commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa.

MONVOIS, J. GABERT, J. FRENOUX, C. GUILLAUME, M. (2010): How to Select Appropriate Technical Solutions for Sanitation. (= Six Methodological Guides for a Water and Sanitation Services' Development Strategy , 4 ). Cotonou and Paris: Partenariat pour le Développement Municipal (PDM) and Programme Solidarité Eau (pS-Eau) URL [Accessed: 19.10.2011]

Full-Chain Sanitation Services That Last

This paper sets out a framework for the delivery of non-sewered sanitation services that last, are accessible to all and are at scale. The framework is based on IRC International Water and Sanitation’s (IRC) experience and lessons learnt from its engagement in non-sewered sanitation service at scale.

VERHAGEN, J. CARRASCO, M. (2013): Full-Chain Sanitation Services That Last. Non-Sewered Sanitation Services. The Hague: International Water and Sanitation Center (IRC) URL [Accessed: 07.08.2013]

Sludge Treatment and Disposal

Sludge Treatment and Disposal is the sixth volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment. The book covers in a clear and informative way the sludge characteristics, production, treatment (thickening, dewatering, stabilisation, pathogens removal) and disposal (land application for agricultural purposes, sanitary landfills, landfarming and other methods). Environmental and public health issues are also fully described.

ANDREOLI, C.V. ; SPERLING, M. von ; FERNANDES, F. (2007): Sludge Treatment and Disposal. (= Biological Wastewater Treatment Series , 6 ). London: International Water Association (IWA) Publishing URL [Accessed: 01.11.2013]
حالات دراسية

Decentralised Composting: Lessons Learnt and Future Potentials for Meeting the Millennium Development Goals

This paper summarises the findings of SANDEC’s research programme on decentralized composting. It presents the strengths and weaknesses and provides indicators for sustainable decentralised composting schemes.

DRESCHER, S. ZURBRUGG, C. (2006): Decentralised Composting: Lessons Learnt and Future Potentials for Meeting the Millennium Development Goals. (= CWG-WASH Workshop, 1-5 February 2006 ). Kolkata: Collaborative Working Group on Solid Waste Management

Co-composting faecal sludge & organic solid waste, Kumasi, Ghana

This project aimed to gain scientific knowledge on the technical, socio-economical and operational aspects of co-composting (organic solid waste and faecal material). Dried faecal sludge (drying bed) is co-composted with the organic fraction of solid waste. The final product is used as compost for urban and periurban agriculture.

OLUFUNKE, C. DOULAYE, K. (2009): Co-composting faecal sludge & organic solid waste, Kumasi, Ghana. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 22.05.2012]

Pilot Project – Medium Scale Vermi Composting of Vegetable Market Waste in Kathmandu Metropolitan City

This report discusses key activities implemented and achievements made to demonstrate vermi-composting for managing market waste.

KATHMANDU METROPOLITAN CITY ; PESTICIDE MONITOR NEPAL ; CLEAN ENERGY NEPAL (2005): Pilot Project – Medium Scale Vermi Composting of Vegetable Market Waste in Kathmandu Metropolitan City. (= Final Report ).

Composting in the Philippines

This report analyzes the technical and financial aspects of Santa Maria Compost Plant operated by AWARE Inc.

LAPID, D.G. ANCHEPA, C.C. VILLAREAL, T.J. (1996): Composting in the Philippines. (= UWEP Case Study Composting ). Gouda: WASTE

Decentralized Composting in Developing Countries Financial and Technical Evaluation in the Case of Asmara City

This study was done in Asmara City in Eritrea by applying a combined approach of material flux analysis and process cost accounting to enable the comparison of different solid waste management systems (landfill, centralized compost plant and decentralized compost plants) regarding waste flows and costs.

MULLER, C. (2006): Decentralized Composting in Developing Countries Financial and Technical Evaluation in the Case of Asmara City. (= Diploma Thesis ). Zurich: ETH and EAWAG

Pro-Poor Solid Waste Management for Secondary Cities and Small Towns of Asia and the Pacific

Since 2005, ESCAP, together with Waste Concern and local partners, tested and further refined the decentralized community based composting approach in Matale, Sri Lanka and in Quy Nhon, Viet Nam. This leaflet describes a project for further replicating this approach in the Asia Pacific Region.

UNESCAP (2009): Pro-Poor Solid Waste Management for Secondary Cities and Small Towns of Asia and the Pacific. Bangkok: United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

Waste is Resource. Factsheet

This factsheet shares the experiences of implementation of community based solid waste management project at Dhaka. It describes summary of project activities including major lessons learnt, impact and replicability of the project.

WASTE CONCERN ; UNDP (2005): Waste is Resource. Factsheet.

Decentralized Composting in Bangladesh a Win-Win Situation for All Stakeholders

This paper describes the technical and financial parameters and marketing strategy of a decentralized compost plant located in Mirpur Dhaka, which was established by Waste Concern in 1995.

ZURBRUGG, C. ; DRESCHER, S. ; RYTZ, I. ; SINHA, A.H.M. ; ENAYETULLAH, I. (2004): Decentralized Composting in Bangladesh a Win-Win Situation for All Stakeholders. المُدخلات: Resources Conservation and Recycling: Volume 43 , 281-292.

Decentralised Composting An Option for Indian Cities? Report of a Workshop Held in Bangalore India, 4-5 June, 2002

The report discusses the findings of a study of 20 compost plants, ranging in size from household composting to large centralized composting facilities, in six cities in Southern India and an analysis based on technical, organizational, financial, marketing, institutional and social aspects. It also describes two compost plants in Bangalore.

ZURBRUGG, C. DRESCHER, S. PATEL, A.H. SHARATCHANDRA S.C. (2002): Decentralised Composting An Option for Indian Cities? Report of a Workshop Held in Bangalore India, 4-5 June, 2002. Duebendorf: EAWAG

Can We Sell EcoSan Compost in Haiti?: A Market Analysis Report

With the support of Oxfam Great Britain, SOIL conducted a market assessment of compost and fertilizer sales in Haiti with a specific focus on identifying possible markets for the sale of compost generated by Ecosan projects.

SOIL (2011): Can We Sell EcoSan Compost in Haiti?: A Market Analysis Report. Sherburne: Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods (SOIL) URL [Accessed: 22.02.2012]

Delivering Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Services in an Uncertain Environment: Thermophilic Composting of Human Wastes in Uncertain Urban Environments

This paper describes the project of constructing a thermophilic composting site in Haiti after the earthquake in 2010. The composting facilities have treated over 500,000 gallons of human waste in the past three years, converting it to pathogen free compost, over 10,000 gallons of which has been sold for use in agriculture and reforestation projects. The experience of thermophilic composting in Haiti is unique in scale and duration and can have global implications for waste treatment in both emergency and development contexts.

KRAMER, S. PRENETA, N. KILBRIDE, A. (2013): Delivering Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Services in an Uncertain Environment: Thermophilic Composting of Human Wastes in Uncertain Urban Environments. A Case Study from Haiti. (= WECD International Conference , 36 ). Oakland: Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods (SOIL) URL [Accessed: 01.11.2013]

Delivering Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Services in an Uncertain Environment: Piloting Ecological Sanitation (EcoSan) in the Emergency Context of Port-au-Prince, Haiti, after the 2010 Earthquake

The earthquake that struck Haiti in January 2010 and the cholera epidemic that followed from October 2010, resulted in one of the largest humanitarian relief efforts in history. Many of the internally displaced persons camps were located in urban neighbourhoods with high groundwater, making onsite sanitation extremely difficult. In response to these unique conditions a small local organization, SOIL, partnered with Oxfam Great Britain to pilot urine diversion EcoSan toilets in camps throughout Port-au-Prince. This briefing paper covers this pilot project from March 2010 through March 2012. During that 2-year period, SOIL’s toilets served over 20,000 people and treated more than 400,000 gallons of human waste, converting it to rich compost.

KILBRIDE, A. KRAMER, S. PRENETA, N. (2013): Delivering Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Services in an Uncertain Environment: Piloting Ecological Sanitation (EcoSan) in the Emergency Context of Port-au-Prince, Haiti, after the 2010 Earthquake. (= WECD International Conference , 36 ). Oakland: Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods (SOIL) URL [Accessed: 01.11.2013]
مواد تدريبية

Decentralised Composting for Cities of Low- and Middle-Income Countries – A User’s Manual

This book describes approaches and methods of composting on neighbourhood level in small-and middle-scale plants. It considers issues of waste collection, composting technologies, management systems, occupational health concerns, product quality, marketing and end-user demands.

DRESCHER, S. ZURBRUEGG, C. ENAYETULLAH, I. SINGHA, M.A.D. (2006): Decentralised Composting for Cities of Low- and Middle-Income Countries – A User’s Manual. Dhaka: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) and Waste Concern URL [Accessed: 16.08.2010]

Solid Waste Management. Lecture notes

This document provides an overview of the present state-of-the-art of solid waste production and management. It contains the characteristics of municipal solid waste and describes current waste treatment systems and technologies, as well as non-technical aspects like private sector involvement and financial arrangements.

EAWAG ; SANDEC (2008): Solid Waste Management. Lecture notes. (= Sandec Training Tool 1.0, Module 6 ). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 08.04.2010]

Innovations in Organic Waste Management

This presentation with 76 slides includes details on the community composting plants established and operated by Waste Concern in Bangladesh.

ENAYETULLAH, I. (2010): Innovations in Organic Waste Management. المُدخلات: Workshop on Innovations for Scaling Up Organic Waste Management in South Asia, April 2-3, 2010:

Decentralized Approach to Waste Management and Composting for Climate/co-benefits: Case of Bangladesh

This presentation with 47 slides provides case studies on decentralized approach of waste management being implemented at Bangladesh.

MD. SINHA, A.H.M. (2010): Decentralized Approach to Waste Management and Composting for Climate/co-benefits: Case of Bangladesh. (= Presentation made during Plenary Session 2 at International Consultative Meeting on Expanding Waste Management Service in Developing Countries, March 18-19 2010 Tokyo, Japan ).

Decentralized Composting for Cities of Low-and Middle-Income Countries A Users’ Manual

Based on the experiences of Waste Concern on implementing decentralized composting facilities in Dhaka and other Asian Cities, this manual provides step-by-step guidelines on how to initiate and operate small-scale composting facilities in developing countries so as to turn waste into jobs and food security.

ROTHENBERGER, S. ZURBRUGG, C. ENAYETULLAH, I. SINHA, A.H.M. (2006): Decentralized Composting for Cities of Low-and Middle-Income Countries A Users’ Manual. Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) at the Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science (EAWAG) and Waste Concern URL [Accessed: 11.08.2010]

Developing Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan – Training Manual

This document is the fourth and last of the four sets of guidelines on ISWM. It focuses on how to develop an ISWM Plan by utilizing the information collected and generated with the help of the previous three sets of the guidelines. This document could also be used as a standalone document to build the capacity of experts and policy makers on planning for ISWM.

UNEP (2009): Developing Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan – Training Manual . (= ISWM Plan , 4 ). Osaka/Shiga, Japan: UNEP URL [Accessed: 29.10.2012]

Organic Waste Management in Nepal

This presentation with 24 slides provides an overview of organic waste management in Nepal and includes examples of compost plants in Nepal.

TULADHAR, B. (2010): Organic Waste Management in Nepal. المُدخلات: Workshop on Innovations for Scaling Up Organic Waste Management in South Asia, April 2-3, 2010:

International Source Book on Environmentally Sound Technologies for Municipal Solid Waste Management

This Source Book is directed towards municipal solid waste management decision makers of developing countries and countries in transition, non-governmental organisations and community-based organizations involved in waste management. The book serves as a general reference guide to researchers, scientists, science and technology institutions and private industries on a global state-of-the-art on environmentally sound technologies for municipal solid waste management. It provides a list of information sources and overviews of practices in the world regions relating to environmentally sound management of municipal solid waste (waste reduction, collection and transfer, composting, incineration, landfills, special wastes, waste characterization, management and planning, training, public education and financing). Parts of the book can be viewed within this website.

UNEP ; IETC (1996): International Source Book on Environmentally Sound Technologies for Municipal Solid Waste Management. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and International Environmental Technology Centre Japan (IETC) URL [Accessed: 28.04.2010]
مواد لنشر الوعي

Community based Composting

This brochure describes composting and the “Community-based Waste Management and Composting Pilot Program,” implemented in urban slum and suburban areas of Bangladesh by Waste Concern, with support from Government of Bangladesh and UNICEF.

WASTE CONCERN Community based Composting. Dhaka: Waste Concern

What Happens When the Pit is Full?

This seminar report helps people responsible for the sustainable operation of on-site sanitation systems. It shows new developments in the field and contains a lot of detailed information about Faecal Sludge Management (FSM).

WINSA (2011): What Happens When the Pit is Full?. Developments in On-Site Faecal Sludge Management (FSM). Durban: Water Information Network South Afrika (WINSA) URL [Accessed: 06.10.2011]

This is the compact version of the factsheet.

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