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2018 أبريل 27

استخدام دُبال الحُفرة والسماد العضوي

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المُدخلات

Compost Pit Humus

المُخرَجات

Biomass
المؤلف*
Eawag المعهد الفيدرالي السويسري لعلوم وتقنيات المياه
ترجمة وتعريب مؤسسة بناء
المُلخص التنفيذي

السماد العضوي هو مادة شبيهة بالتربة تنتج عن التحلل الهوائي المُتحكم به للمواد العضوية. دُبال الحُفرة هو مُصطلح يُستخدم فقط لوصف المادة المُزالة من تقنيات الحُفر المزدوجة بسبب إنتاجه الطبيعي تحت الأرض ولما له من مكونات مختلفة قليلًا عن السماد العضوي. ويُمكن استخدام كِلا المُنْتَجيْن كمحسنات لخواص التربة.

عملية إعداد السماد الحرارية (الثرموفيللية Thermophilic) تُولِّد حرارة ما بين 50 إلى 80 درجة مئوية، حيث يتم فيها القضاء على معظم مسببات الأمراض. وتتطلب عميلة إعداد السماد كميات كافية من الكربون، والنيتروجين، والرطوبة، والهواء.

تختلف درجات الحرارة في الحُفرة المزدوجة المُطورة المُهواة ، أو حُفرة ألتِرنا ، أو حُفر التصريف المزدوجة حسب حرارة الجو، وذلك يختلف عن ظروف درجات الحرارة العالية لإعداد السماد؛ ولا يوجد -تقريبًا- في هذه التقنيات أي زيادات في الحرارة، لأن ظروف الحُفرة (من حيث: الأكسجين، الرطوبة، نسبة الكربون إلى النيتروجين) ليست مناسبة لحدوث عملية إعداد السماد؛ ولهذا السبب فالمادة ليست “سماد عُضوي”، بل يُشار إليها بمصطلح “دُبال الحُفرة”. ويعتمد قوام وجودة دُبال الحُفرة على المواد التي تُضاف إلى فضلات الجسم (على سبيل المثال، إضافة التربة إلى حُفرة ألتِرنا) وظروف التخزين.

اشترطت إرشادات مُنظمة الصحة العالمية WHO لاستخدام فضلات الجسم في الزراعة بأنه يجب حدوث عملية إعداد السماد في درجة حرارة تقدر بنحو 50 درجة مئوية، لمدة أسبوع على الأقل قبل اعتبارها اْمنة للاستخدام؛ ولكن تحقيق هذه القيمة يتطلب فترة طويلة. بالنسبة للتقنيات التي تُنتج دُبال الحُفرة، يوصى بأن لا تقل فترة التخزين عن سنة، وذلك للقضاء على مسببات الأمراض البكتيرية، وللحد من الفيروسات والبروتوزوا الطُفيلية. وينبغي الاستعانة بإرشادات منظمة الصحة العالمية للحصول على معلومات مفصلة.

المزايا
إمكانية تحسين مكونات التربة وقدرتها على الاحتفاظ بالماء، وتخفيض استخدام الأسمدة الكيمائية.
قد تشجع على توليد الدخل (بتحسين وزيادة الإنتاجية النباتية)
انخفاض خطر انتقال مُسببات الأمراض.
تكاليف منخفضة.
العيوب
قد تحتاج لسنة أو أكثر للنضوج.
قد يكون القبول المُجتمعي منخفضًا في بعض المناطق.
المُدخلات المُخرَجات

 دبال الحفرة ، السماد العضوي

الكتلة الحيوية

 

Factsheet Block Title
اعتبارات التصميم
Factsheet Block Body

يُمكن تحسين إنتاجية التربة الفقيرة بتوزيع كميات متساوية من السماد العضوي والطبقة العليا من أي تربة خصبة عليها، ويكون إنتاج حُفرة ألتِرنا الواحدة من الدُّبال كافيًا لحوضين زراعيين )1.5 * 3.5 أمتار(.

 

Factsheet Block Title
المُلاءَمَة
Factsheet Block Body

يُمكن استخدام السماد العضوي ودُبال الحُفرة لتحسين جودة التربة؛ حيث تتم إضافة المُغذيات والمواد العضوية وتُحسِّن من مقدرة التربة على الاحتفاظ بالماء والهواء، ويُمكن خلطهما بالتربة قبل زراعة المحاصيل، أو استخدامهما لإنماء الشتلات أو النباتات المنزلية، أو ببساطة خلطهما مع كومة سماد عضوي متوفرة أصلًا لزياة المُعالجة.

أظهرت مزارع الخضروات المُستَخدِمة لدُبال حُفرة تحسنًا كبيراً مقارنة بتلك المزروعة بدون محسنات للتربة. استخدام دُبال الحُفرة جعل عملية الزراعة مُمكنة في المناطق التي ما كانت لتَدعَم زراعة المحاصيل الزراعية فيها.

 

Factsheet Block Title
الجوانب الصحية / القبول
Factsheet Block Body

 يوجد خطر قليل لانتقال مسببات الأمراض، ولكن إن كان هناك شك، فإن أي مادة تُزال من الحُفر أو الحُجرات يُمكن أن تُسمَّد في كومة سماد عُضوي عادية، قبل استخدامها أو خلطها مع تربة إضافية ووضعها فيحُفرة الشجرة أي الحُفرة الممتلئة بالمُغذيات لزراعة شجرة واحدة. وينبغي ألا يتم استخدام السماد العُضوي ودُبال الحُفرة مع المحاصيل خلال الشهر الأخير قبل الحصاد، هذه الفترة من الانتظار مهمة، خصوصًا مع المحاصيل التي تُستهلك طازجة بدون طهي.

وعلى عكس الحمأة التي تنتج عن مصادر منزلية، وكيميائية، وصناعية متنوعة، فإن السماد العُضوي ودُبال الحُفرة يحتويان على كميات قليلة من المُدخلات الكيميائية؛ والمصادر الكيميائية الوحيدة التي يُمكن أن تُلوث السماد العُضوي أو دُبال الحُفرة قد تكون من المواد العضوية الملوِّثة (على سبيل المثال، المبيدات الحشرية) أو من الكيماويات المُفرَزة بواسطة الإنسان (على سبيل المثال، متبقيات الأدوية). مقارنة بالكيماويات الموجودة التي قد تجد طريقها لحمأة مياه الصرف الصحي فحمأة السماد العُضوي ودُبال الحُفرة تُتعتبر أقل تلوثًا.

السماد العُضوي ودُبال الحُفرة منتجات شبيهة بالتربة وغير مُنفِّرة. ولكن، هناك احتمال لامتناع الناس عن التعامل معهما أو استخدامهما.ويُمكن القيام بأنشطة عملية تقدّم تجربة يدوية مباشرة تُظهر بشكل فعَّال طبيعة هذه المواد غير المؤذية واستخدامها المُفيد.

 

Factsheet Block Title
التشغيل والصيانة
Factsheet Block Body

 يجب أن تكون المواد ناضجة بالشكل الكافي قبل إزالتها من النظام. ومن ثُم يمكن استخدامها بدون مُعالجة إضافية. ويجب على العاملين ارتداء الملابس الواقية.

المراجع

حلول تقنيات وممارسات افضل للصرف الصحى دليل الاحياء الهاشمية فى نواكشوط -موريتانيا

.بيار بورقي واخرون (2014): حلول تقنيات وممارسات افضل للصرف الصحى دليل الاحياء الهاشمية فى نواكشوط -موريتانيا . نواكشوط -موريتانيا :

Language: Arabic

The Composting Toilet System Book

The Composting Toilet System Book is an impressive, comprehensive, reader friendly, and practical guide to choosing, planning and maintaining composting toilet systems for those seeking an alternative to traditional sewer and septic tank systems. It explains the technologies, sources, applications, greywater issues, and regulations relevant to a composting toilet system for the home, whether manufactured or site-built.

DEL PORTO, D. STEINFELD, C. (1999): The Composting Toilet System Book. A Practicle Guide to Choosing, Planning and Maintaining Composting Toilet Systems, an Alternative to Sewer and Septic Systems. Concord: Center for Ecological Pollution Prevention (CEPP)

Vermicomposting. Guide H-164

Factsheet on the operation and maintenance of vermi-composts.

DICKERSON, G. (2004): Vermicomposting. Guide H-164. New Mexico: New Mexico State University, Cooperative Extension Service, College of Agriculture and, Home Economics URL [Accessed: 11.08.2010]

An Ecological Approach to Sanitation in Africa: A Compilation of Experiences

This factsheet provides information and experiences of simple pit toilet and twin pit toilet. It also contains knowledge about upgrading technologies, hygiene and usage of faeces as fertilizer.

EcoSanRes (2008): An Ecological Approach to Sanitation in Africa: A Compilation of Experiences. (= EcoSanRes Factsheet 12 ). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI)

Terra Preta Sanitation: re-discovered from an ancient Amazonian civilisation - integrating sanitation, bio-waste management and agriculture

The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of terra preta sanitation (TPS) systems as an alternative sanitation option. The effects of lactic-aid conditions in urine-separation dry toilets and a subsequent treatment by vermicomposting are assessed. Research focused on analysing standard chemical and biochemical properties of the toilet products to evaluate their stability and maturity, and establish nutrient status.

FACTURA, H. ; BETTENDORF, T. ; BUZIE, C. ; PIEPLOW, H. ; RECKIN, J. ; OTTERPOHL, R. (2010): Terra Preta Sanitation: re-discovered from an ancient Amazonian civilisation - integrating sanitation, bio-waste management and agriculture. المُدخلات: Water Science and Technology, accepted for publication:

The Humanure Handbook

A comprehensive book on recycling human excrement without chemicals, high technology or pollution. Well written, practical, and thoroughly researched, this self-published book is built on nearly twenty years of experience by the author, who tells us about every aspect of dealing with excrement on the home-scale level. Only available for free as web book.

JENKINS, J. (2005): The Humanure Handbook. A Guide to Composting Human Manure. (= 3rd Edition ). Grove City: Joseph Jenkins Inc. URL [Accessed: 16.08.2010]

Toilets That Make Compost

This book describes in an easy-to-understand and picture-based way how to construct three different low cost sanitation solutions, namely arborloos, fossa alterna and urine diversion toilets.

MORGAN, P. EcoSanRes (2007): Toilets That Make Compost . Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute

Ecological Toilets

This book describes how to construct Arborloo toilets and how it can be upgraded to VIPs at a later stage.

MORGAN, P. EcoSanRes (2009): Ecological Toilets. (pdf presentation). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute

Smart Sanitation Solutions

Smart Sanitation Solutions presents examples of low-cost household and community-based sanitation solutions that have proven effective and affordable. A wide range of innovative technologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatment and use of sanitation products that have already helped thousands of poor families to improve their lives is illustrated.

NWP (2006): Smart Sanitation Solutions. Examples of innovative, low-cost technologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatment and use of sanitation products. (= Smart water solutions ). Amsterdam: Netherlands Water Partnership (NWP) URL [Accessed: 13.04.2010]

Marketing Compost. A Guide for Compost Producers in Low and Middle-Income Countries

This guide describes a marketing approach to composting, and is intended to help compost producers run more viable initiatives by unlocking the value of their product. The handbook does not cover everything there is to know about marketing, but starts with the basics and introduces the key principles and techniques. These include understanding the ‘marketing environment’, identifying appropriate target customer groups, and developing and promoting products to suit the market.

ROUSE ROTHENBERGER, S. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2008): Marketing Compost. A Guide for Compost Producers in Low and Middle-Income Countries. Duebendorf: Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC), Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science (EAWAG) URL [Accessed: 05.05.2010]

Faecal Sludge Management

This is the first book to compile the current state of knowledge on faecal sludge management. It addresses the organization of the entire faecal sludge management service chain, from the collection and transport of sludge, to the current state of knowledge of treatment options, and the final end use or disposal of treated sludge. It presents an integrated approach that brings together technology, management, and planning, based on Sandec’s 20 years of experience in the field. It also discusses important factors to consider when evaluating and upscaling new treatment technology options. The book is designed for undergraduate and graduate students, engineers, and practitioners in the field who have some basic knowledge of environmental and/or wastewater engineering.

STRANDE, L. ; RONTELTAP, M. ; BRDJANOVIC, D. (2014): Faecal Sludge Management. Systems Approach for Implementation and Operation. London: IWA Publishing URL [Accessed: 16.07.2014]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 31.05.2018] PDF
قراءات أخرى

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

Nährstoffe und Verwendung von Düngern in der Landwirtschaft

These terms of references define the legal regulations in Switzerland concerning the water protection and air pollution control for the use of nutrients and fertilisers in agriculture.

BAFU ; BLW (2012): Nährstoffe und Verwendung von Düngern in der Landwirtschaft. Ein Modul der Vollzugshilfe Umweltschutz in der Landwirtschaft. Bern: Bundesamt für Umwelt (BAFU) / Bundesamt für Landwirtschaft (BLW) URL [Accessed: 15.01.2013]

Technology Review of Composting Toilets

This GIZ publication explains the design, use and operational requirements of composting toilets. Ample examples for composting toilets from around the world are included in the publication to show that these types of toilets have a wide range of applications under a variety of circumstances (for wealthy or poor people; for cold, hot, wet or dry climates; for urban or rural settings). The appendix contains a listing of suppliers.

BERGER, W. (2011): Technology Review of Composting Toilets. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) URL [Accessed: 06.02.2012]

Decentralised Composting for Cities of Low- and Middle-Income Countries – A User’s Manual

This book describes approaches and methods of composting on neighbourhood level in small-and middle-scale plants. It considers issues of waste collection, composting technologies, management systems, occupational health concerns, product quality, marketing and end-user demands.

DRESCHER, S. ZURBRUEGG, C. ENAYETULLAH, I. SINGHA, M.A.D. (2006): Decentralised Composting for Cities of Low- and Middle-Income Countries – A User’s Manual. Dhaka: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) and Waste Concern URL [Accessed: 16.08.2010]

An Ecological Approach to Sanitation in Africa: A Compilation of Experiences

This factsheet provides information and experiences of simple pit toilet and twin pit toilet. It also contains knowledge about upgrading technologies, hygiene and usage of faeces as fertilizer.

EcoSanRes (2008): An Ecological Approach to Sanitation in Africa: A Compilation of Experiences. (= EcoSanRes Factsheet 12 ). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI)

Toilets That Make Compost. Factsheet

This information sheet summarises the Peter Morgan publication under the same name on two pages. It describes three types of simple and affordable composting toilets: Two types of shallow pit toilets (arborloo) and the urine diverting toilet.

EcoSanRes (2008): Toilets That Make Compost. Factsheet. (pdf presentation). (= EcoSanRes Factsheet 13 ). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute

Terra Preta Sanitation: re-discovered from an ancient Amazonian civilisation - integrating sanitation, bio-waste management and agriculture

The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of terra preta sanitation (TPS) systems as an alternative sanitation option. The effects of lactic-aid conditions in urine-separation dry toilets and a subsequent treatment by vermicomposting are assessed. Research focused on analysing standard chemical and biochemical properties of the toilet products to evaluate their stability and maturity, and establish nutrient status.

FACTURA, H. ; BETTENDORF, T. ; BUZIE, C. ; PIEPLOW, H. ; RECKIN, J. ; OTTERPOHL, R. (2010): Terra Preta Sanitation: re-discovered from an ancient Amazonian civilisation - integrating sanitation, bio-waste management and agriculture. المُدخلات: Water Science and Technology, accepted for publication:

The Humanure Handbook

A comprehensive book on recycling human excrement without chemicals, high technology or pollution. Well written, practical, and thoroughly researched, this self-published book is built on nearly twenty years of experience by the author, who tells us about every aspect of dealing with excrement on the home-scale level. Only available for free as web book.

JENKINS, J. (2005): The Humanure Handbook. A Guide to Composting Human Manure. (= 3rd Edition ). Grove City: Joseph Jenkins Inc. URL [Accessed: 16.08.2010]

Guidelines on the Use of Urine and Faeces in Crop Production

These guidelines provide a thorough background on the use of urine (and faeces) for agricultural purposes. Aspects discussed are requirements for plant growth, nutrients in excreta, hygiene aspects, and recommendations for cultivation. It provides detailed guidance on the use of urine for purposes.

JOENSSON, H. RICHERT, A. VINNERAAS, B. SALOMON, E. (2004): Guidelines on the Use of Urine and Faeces in Crop Production. (= EcoSanRes Publications Series , 2004 ). Stockholm: EcoSanRes URL [Accessed: 17.04.2012]

Plant Trials Using Fossa Alterna Humus

The ultimate proof of the usefulness of eco-humus and urine in agriculture is to demonstrate its effect on plant growth and yield directly. This chapter describes a series of trials in which the growth and yield of vegetables planted in humus derived from the Fossa alterna were studied.

MORGAN, P. (2004): Plant Trials Using Fossa Alterna Humus. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 20.06.2013]

The Value of Leaves as and Additive of Fossa Alterna Pits

This is a short description and findings of a trial adding leaves to fossa alterna pits. Leaves help the composting process considerably, by adding more air into the mix, and by adding a composting process undertaken largely by fungi to the already existing bacteriological process undertaken by soil micro-organisms.

MORGAN, P. (2004): The Value of Leaves as and Additive of Fossa Alterna Pits. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 21.06.2013]

Toilets That Make Compost

This book describes in an easy-to-understand and picture-based way how to construct three different low cost sanitation solutions, namely arborloos, fossa alterna and urine diversion toilets.

MORGAN, P. EcoSanRes (2007): Toilets That Make Compost . Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute

Ecological Toilets

This book describes how to construct Arborloo toilets and how it can be upgraded to VIPs at a later stage.

MORGAN, P. EcoSanRes (2009): Ecological Toilets. (pdf presentation). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute

Smart Sanitation Solutions

Smart Sanitation Solutions presents examples of low-cost household and community-based sanitation solutions that have proven effective and affordable. A wide range of innovative technologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatment and use of sanitation products that have already helped thousands of poor families to improve their lives is illustrated.

NWP (2006): Smart Sanitation Solutions. Examples of innovative, low-cost technologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatment and use of sanitation products. (= Smart water solutions ). Amsterdam: Netherlands Water Partnership (NWP) URL [Accessed: 13.04.2010]

Compost Bins as an Alternative Solution to the Problem of Household Waste Problem in Urban Areas

This paper describes a household composting project implemented by SEVENATHA in Dehiwala Mt. Levenia Municipal Council near Colombo in Sri Lanka with support from UNDP.

PREMAKUJMARA, D.G.H. (2000): Compost Bins as an Alternative Solution to the Problem of Household Waste Problem in Urban Areas. URL [Accessed: 05.08.2010]

Marketing Compost. A Guide for Compost Producers in Low and Middle-Income Countries

This guide describes a marketing approach to composting, and is intended to help compost producers run more viable initiatives by unlocking the value of their product. The handbook does not cover everything there is to know about marketing, but starts with the basics and introduces the key principles and techniques. These include understanding the ‘marketing environment’, identifying appropriate target customer groups, and developing and promoting products to suit the market.

ROUSE ROTHENBERGER, S. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2008): Marketing Compost. A Guide for Compost Producers in Low and Middle-Income Countries. Duebendorf: Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC), Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science (EAWAG) URL [Accessed: 05.05.2010]

Guidelines for the Safe Use of Urine and Faeces in Ecological Sanitation Systems

These guidelines provide a thorough background on the safe use of urine and faeces for agricultural purposes. Aspects like the health risk associated we the use of human excreta in agriculture and how to limit them are discussed.

SCHOENNING, C. STENSTROEM, T. A. (2004): Guidelines for the Safe Use of Urine and Faeces in Ecological Sanitation Systems. (= EcoSanRes Publication Series, Report 2004-1 ). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 31.05.2018] PDF

Organic Waste Recycling

This book covers the principles and practices of technologies for the control of pollution originating from organic wastes (e.g. human faeces and urine, wastewater, solid wastes, animal manure and agro-industrial wastes) and the recycling of these organic wastes into valuable products such as fertilizer, biofuels, algal and fish protein and irrigated crops.

POLPRASERT, C. (2007): Organic Waste Recycling. Technology and Management. Bangkok, Thailand: Asian Institute of Technology URL [Accessed: 09.05.2016]
حالات دراسية

Vermicompost Tea Production and Plant Growth Impacts

This is part one of the research study of Ohio State University on the impact of vermicompost on tea production and plant growth where the research study found out that aerating vermicompost tea during brewing results in significant growth responses, even at the concentration tested.

ARANCON, N.Q. EDWARDS, C.A. DICK, R. DICK, L. (2007): Vermicompost Tea Production and Plant Growth Impacts. Ohio State University

Delivering Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Services in an Uncertain Environment: Piloting Ecological Sanitation (EcoSan) in the Emergency Context of Port-au-Prince, Haiti, after the 2010 Earthquake

The earthquake that struck Haiti in January 2010 and the cholera epidemic that followed from October 2010, resulted in one of the largest humanitarian relief efforts in history. Many of the internally displaced persons camps were located in urban neighbourhoods with high groundwater, making onsite sanitation extremely difficult. In response to these unique conditions a small local organization, SOIL, partnered with Oxfam Great Britain to pilot urine diversion EcoSan toilets in camps throughout Port-au-Prince. This briefing paper covers this pilot project from March 2010 through March 2012. During that 2-year period, SOIL’s toilets served over 20,000 people and treated more than 400,000 gallons of human waste, converting it to rich compost.

KILBRIDE, A. KRAMER, S. PRENETA, N. (2013): Delivering Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Services in an Uncertain Environment: Piloting Ecological Sanitation (EcoSan) in the Emergency Context of Port-au-Prince, Haiti, after the 2010 Earthquake. (= WECD International Conference , 36 ). Oakland: Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods (SOIL) URL [Accessed: 01.11.2013]

Composting at Households in Kitgum Town, Uganda - Draft

A case study on household-level composition in Kitgum, Uganda. The project aims at using composting to develop practical operation and management strategies for peri-urban areas and to demonstrate the safe reuse of faces by co-composting them.

KINOBE, J. OLWENY, S. NIWAGABA, C. (2010): Composting at Households in Kitgum Town, Uganda - Draft. (= Susana Case Study ). Eschborn: Susana URL [Accessed: 16.08.2010]

Delivering Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Services in an Uncertain Environment: Thermophilic Composting of Human Wastes in Uncertain Urban Environments

This paper describes the project of constructing a thermophilic composting site in Haiti after the earthquake in 2010. The composting facilities have treated over 500,000 gallons of human waste in the past three years, converting it to pathogen free compost, over 10,000 gallons of which has been sold for use in agriculture and reforestation projects. The experience of thermophilic composting in Haiti is unique in scale and duration and can have global implications for waste treatment in both emergency and development contexts.

KRAMER, S. PRENETA, N. KILBRIDE, A. (2013): Delivering Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Services in an Uncertain Environment: Thermophilic Composting of Human Wastes in Uncertain Urban Environments. A Case Study from Haiti. (= WECD International Conference , 36 ). Oakland: Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods (SOIL) URL [Accessed: 01.11.2013]

Composting in the Philippines

This report analyzes the technical and financial aspects of Santa Maria Compost Plant operated by AWARE Inc.

LAPID, D.G. ANCHEPA, C.C. VILLAREAL, T.J. (1996): Composting in the Philippines. (= UWEP Case Study Composting ). Gouda: WASTE

Efficiency of the Household Compost bin as a Waste Management Technique in Sri Lanka

The paper presents the findings of a survey of 70 households using compost bins in Gampaha Municipality. During the study two compost samples from each of the bins were also tested.

LEKAMMUDIYANSE, L.M.M.U. ; GUNATILAKE, S.K. (2009): Efficiency of the Household Compost bin as a Waste Management Technique in Sri Lanka . المُدخلات: International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences IJBAS-IJENS: Volume 10 , 89-94. URL [Accessed: 05.08.2010]

Ecological Sanitation in Southern Africa

This document describes the ecological sanitation situation in South Africa, focussing on the range of technological options, promotional methods and recycling methods and the problem areas.

MORGAN, P. (2005): Ecological Sanitation in Southern Africa. Many Approaches to a Varied Need. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 21.06.2013]

Ecological Sanitation in Malawi

This illustrative presentation on ecological sanitation in Malawi, focuses on the concept of ecological sanitation, types of eco-toilets and basic methods of recycling nutrient from human excreta.

MORGAN, P. (2010): Ecological Sanitation in Malawi. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 20.06.2013]

The ROSA Project

The ROSA project stands for Resource-Oriented Sanitation concepts for peri-urban areas in Africa. This Sustainable Sanitation Practice (SSP) issue contains the following contributions: 1. Introduction to the ROSA Project, 2. From Pilot Units to Large-Scale Implementation - Ethiopia, 3. Implementation of UDDTs at Schools - Kenya, 4. Urban Agriculture for Sanitation Promotion, 5. Operation an Maintenance in Practice, 6. Experiences from Strategic Sanitation Planning, 7. Main Findings and Main Achievements.

MUELLEGGER, E. ; LANGEGRABER, G. ; LECHNER, M. (2010): The ROSA Project. (= Sustainable Sanitation Practice , 4 ). Vienna: Ecosan Club URL [Accessed: 01.07.2013]

Co-composting faecal sludge & organic solid waste, Kumasi, Ghana

This project aimed to gain scientific knowledge on the technical, socio-economical and operational aspects of co-composting (organic solid waste and faecal material). Dried faecal sludge (drying bed) is co-composted with the organic fraction of solid waste. The final product is used as compost for urban and periurban agriculture.

OLUFUNKE, C. DOULAYE, K. (2009): Co-composting faecal sludge & organic solid waste, Kumasi, Ghana. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 22.05.2012]

Can We Sell EcoSan Compost in Haiti?: A Market Analysis Report

With the support of Oxfam Great Britain, SOIL conducted a market assessment of compost and fertilizer sales in Haiti with a specific focus on identifying possible markets for the sale of compost generated by Ecosan projects.

SOIL (2011): Can We Sell EcoSan Compost in Haiti?: A Market Analysis Report. Sherburne: Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods (SOIL) URL [Accessed: 22.02.2012]

Co-composting of Faecal Sludge and Municipal Organic Waste

The document gives an overview on the combined composting of (faecal) sludges and organic solid waste based on a pilot project in Kumasi, Ghana. Results of the investigation should help the city’s waste management department to develop its biosolids management strategy and enable the project team to develop guidelines for planners and engineers on the option of co-composting.

STRAUSS, M. DRESCHER, S. ZURBRUEGG, C. MONTANGERO, A. OLUFUNKE, C. DRECHSEL, P. (2003): Co-composting of Faecal Sludge and Municipal Organic Waste. Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) and International Water Management Institute (IWMI) URL [Accessed: 23.06.2010]

Sustainable Composting Case Studies and Guidelines for Developing Countries

This publication presents the findings of a research on “Promoting Composting as a Business for the Urban Poor” in the form of guidelines based on case studies from India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Ethiopia.

ALI, M. (2004): Sustainable Composting Case Studies and Guidelines for Developing Countries. Leicestershire: Water Engineering and Development Centre, Loughborough University URL [Accessed: 05.08.2010]

A Practical Guide to the Application of Compost in Vineyards

This document provides growers very practical information on the use of compost in vineyards. It focused on determining the correct rate of compost to use based on the nitrogen contained in the compost and the nitrogen needs of the vineyards.

TRAVIS, J.W. HALBRENDT, N. HED, B. RYTTER, J. ANDERSON, E. JARJOUR, B. GRIGGS, J. (2003): A Practical Guide to the Application of Compost in Vineyards. Penn State University in Cooperation with Cornell University

Decentralised Composting in India – Lessons Learnt

The paper discusses the findings of a study of 20 compost plants, ranging in size from household composting to large centralised composting facilities, in Bangalore, Chennai, Pune and Mumbai.

ZURBRUGG, C. DRESCHER, S. PATEL, A.H. SHARATCHANDRA S.C. (2002): Decentralised Composting in India – Lessons Learnt. (= Paper presented at 28th WEDC Conference in Kolkata 18-22 November, 2002 ). Leicestershire: Water Engineering and Development Centre, Loughborough University URL [Accessed: 05.08.2010]
مواد تدريبية

Home Compost Bins

This article describes the home compost bins that were promoted in Kathmandu.

TULADHAR, B. (2003): Home Compost Bins. المُدخلات: ENPHO Magazine: URL [Accessed: 05.08.2010]

Composting in the Tropics II

This booklet follows on from ‘Composting in the Tropics’, which concentrated especially the heap method. This second booklet looks at other methods of producing compost, including variations on the heap method and also describes practices suitable for different climates in the tropics, for example arid areas.

HRDA (1998): Composting in the Tropics II. The Organic Organisation URL [Accessed: 11.08.2010]

Decentralised Composting for Cities of Low- and Middle-Income Countries – A User’s Manual

This book describes approaches and methods of composting on neighbourhood level in small-and middle-scale plants. It considers issues of waste collection, composting technologies, management systems, occupational health concerns, product quality, marketing and end-user demands.

DRESCHER, S. ZURBRUEGG, C. ENAYETULLAH, I. SINGHA, M.A.D. (2006): Decentralised Composting for Cities of Low- and Middle-Income Countries – A User’s Manual. Dhaka: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) and Waste Concern URL [Accessed: 16.08.2010]
مواد لنشر الوعي

Vermi-Composting brings better yields and returns – A farmer shows the way

This is the case of a small farmer who chose to be different from the typical resource-poor farmers struggling to make a living in the degraded drylands. His deep ‘love for life’ has not only earned him a decent living, but more importantly, it has inspired many other farmers to emulate him.

AME FOUNDATION (2007): Vermi-Composting brings better yields and returns – A farmer shows the way. (= AMEF Case Study Series 6 ). Bangalore: AME Foundation URL [Accessed: 05.08.2010]

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