2019 يونيو 06
Alternative versions to

"Planted Drying Beds"

Planted Drying Beds

المؤلف*
Eawag (Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology)
Dorothee Spuhler (seecon international gmbh)

المُلخص التنفيذي

A planted drying bed is similar to an Unplanted Drying Bed, but has the added benefit of transpiration and enhanced sludge treatment due to the plants. It is a sealed shallow pond filled with several drainage layers and designed for the separation of the solid from the liquid fraction of (faecal) sludge from latrines, septic tanks, biogas reactors, trickling filters, etc. Sludge is dried naturally by a combination of percolation and evaporation. The key improvement of the planted bed over the unplanted bed is that the filters do not need to be desludged after each feeding/drying cycle. Fresh sludge can be directly applied onto the previous layer; the plants and their root systems maintain the porosity of the filter. Compared to unplanted drying beds, planted drying beds (also called humification beds), require desludging only once every 5 to 10 years and the removed sludge is a nutrient-rich soil amendment, that can be directly reused in agriculture.  

المزايا
Can handle high loading
Better sludge treatment than in unplanted drying beds
Easy to operate (no experts, but trained community required)
Can be built and repaired with locally available materials
Relatively low capital costs; low operating costs
Fruit or forage growing in the beds can generate income
No electrical energy required
العيوب
Requires a large land area
Odours and flies may be noticeable
Long storage times
Labour intensive removal
Requires expert design and construction supervision
Leachate requires further treatment
Only applicable during dry seasons or needs a roof and contour bund

Introduction

Factsheet Block Body
Schematic of a planted drying bed. Source: TILLEY et al. (2014)
Schematic of a planted drying bed. Source: TILLEY et al. (2014)

 

All organic degradation processes produce sludge (SASSE & BORDA 1998). Sludges from wastewater collection or treatment units are of variable consistency. Anaerobic sanitation systems (e.g. single pit latrines, septic tanks, biogas settlers, small and large scale anaerobic digesters, anaerobic digesters for organic waste, wastewater stabilisation pond systems) produce less sludge than aerobic treatments (e.g. from trickling filters, activated sludge) and anaerobic sludge also dries better and results in fewer odours as it is more stabilised. Generally, they do not have a higher solids content than 2 to 10 % and can therefore not be transported easily with simple equipment. Apart from this, sludge is contaminated and occupies large volumes for storage (SASSE & BORDA 1998). Therefore it is better to dry or dewater sludge before further use or disposal. Unplanted and Planted Drying beds are one of the simplest and oldest techniques for sludge dewatering (SANIMAS 2005). They are a simple means to reduce the volume of the sludge and prepare reuse as fertiliser.

Lettuce farm fertilised with safe compost made out of faecal sludge treated in drying beds at Gyenyasi farmers association in Kumasi. Source: ERIKSEN-HAMEL & DANSO (2008)
Lettuce farm fertilised with safe compost made out of faecal sludge treated in drying beds at Gyenyasi farmers association in Kumasi. Source: ERIKSEN-HAMEL & DANSO (2008)

 

This technology has the benefit of dewatering and stabilizing the sludge. When plants are present, evaporation is enhanced by transpiration (evapotranspiration) and sludge can be applied more frequently. Also, the roots of the plants create pathways through the thickening sludge that allow water to easily escape. Compared to unplanted drying beds, planted drying beds (also called humification beds), require desludging only once every 5 to 10 years and the removed sludge from is a nutrient-rich soil amendment, that can be directly reused in agriculture.

The appearance of the bed is similar to a Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland. The beds are filled with sand and gravel to support the vegetation. Instead of effluent, sludge is applied to the surface and the filtrate flows down through the subsurface where it is collected in drains. While the solid fraction remains on the filter surface and is dried the liquid percolates. The plants enhance evaporation by transpiration. This process is called evapotranspiration. The leachate collected in the drains may requires further treatment depending on the age and quality of the applied sludge.

Design Considerations

Factsheet Block Body

In principle the construction of unplanted drying beds is similar to gravel/sand filters. The bed frame is usually made from concrete or a plastic liner with the bottom surfaces slightly sloped in order to facilitate percolation and drainage. Ventilation pipes connected to the drainage system contribute to aerobic conditions in the filter. A general design for layering the bed is: (1) 250 mm of coarse gravel (grain diameter of 20 mm); (2) 250 mm of fine gravel (grain diameter of 5 mm); and (3) 100 to 150 mm of sand (EAWAG/SANDEC 2008) . Free space (1 m) should be left above the top of the sand layer to account for about 3 to 5 years of accumulation. If there is enough space for sludge accumulation, desludging is only required every 5-10 years.

Pilot beds of the VFCW developed for faecal sludge dewatering study in sub-Saharan countries. Source: KONE & KENGE (2008)
Pilot beds of the VFCW developed for faecal sludge dewatering study in sub-Saharan countries. Source: KONE & KENGE (2008)

 

Reeds (Phragmites sp.), cattails (Typha sp.) antelope grass (Echinochloa sp.) and papyrus (Cyperus papyrus)are suitable plants, depending on the climate. Local, non-invasive species can be used if they grow in humid environments, are resistant to salty water and readily reproduce after cutting.

Sludge should be applied in layers between 75 to 100 mm thick and reapplied every 3 to 7 days, depending on the sludge characteristics, the environment and operating constraints. Unlike unplanted beds, planted beds do not need desludging before each new application as the root system of the plants maintains the permeability. Sludge application rates of 100 to 250 kg/m2/year have been reported in warm tropical climates. In colder climates, such as northern Europe, rates up to 80 kg/m2/year are typical. Once the sludge is removed it is well mineralised and has a soil-like structure with a TS content of 40 to 70 % (STRAUSS & MONTANGERO 2002). Therefore, planted sludge drying beds are also called humification beds. It is best to stop applying sludge one or two years before removing it. Two or more parallel beds can be alternately used to allow for sufficient degradation and pathogen reduction of the top layer of sludge before it is removed.

Planted sludge drying beds, also designated as reed beds or constructed wetlands, could minimise the need for frequent removal of dried sludge as they can be operated for several years before sludge removal becomes necessary. Source: EAWAG/SANDEC (2008)
Planted sludge drying beds, also designated as reed beds or constructed wetlands, could minimise the need for frequent removal of dried sludge as they can be operated for several years before sludge removal becomes necessary. Source: EAWAG/SANDEC (2008)

 

The leachate that is collected in the drainage pipes must be treated properly, depending on where it is discharged. Suited post-treatment for sludge drying bed effluents arefor instance simple waste stabilisation ponds which prepare the liquid for reuse in irrigation, aquaculture or for surface water disposal. Infiltration through soak pits or evaporation beds helps to recharge the groundwater.

Health Aspects/Acceptance

Factsheet Block Body

Because of the pleasing aesthetics, there should be few problems with acceptance, especially if located sufficiently away from dense housing. Undisturbed plantations can attract wildlife, including poisonous snakes.

Faecal sludge is hazardous and anyone working with it should wear protective clothing, boots and gloves. Also beds should be installed in a certain distance to settlements, as odour occur, especially when sludge has been recently applied. Percolates from sludge drying beds contain also pathogens and need to be further treated. The degree of pathogen reduction of the sludge will vary with the climate. Depending on the desired end-use, further storage and drying might be required. Dried sludge from planted drying beds (if there was no fresh application of sludge during the past 1 to 2 years) is generally free from pathogens and can be used directly in reuse in agriculture (STRAUSS et al. 1997).

Costs Considerations

Factsheet Block Body

The investment costs of sludge drying beds are moderate where land prices are low and filter material (gravel/sand) is locally available (SANIMAS 2005). However, the pond may need to be made impermeable and expert skills are required for design. Operation costs are low as no energy or complicated equipment is required. However, desludging is laborious.

Operation & Maintenance

Factsheet Block Body

Trained staff for operation and maintenance is required to ensure proper functioning. Even though experts are not compulsory, a well-organised community group, which has experience in organic fertiliser use and preparation should be involved (SANIMAS 2005). The drains must be maintained and the effluent properly collected and disposed of. The plants should have grown sufficiently before applying the sludge. The acclimation phase is crucial and requires much care. The plants should be periodically thinned and/or harvested. After 3 to 5 years the sludge can be removed.

At a Glance

Factsheet Block Body

Working Principle

Drying beds are simple sealed shallow ponds filled with several drainage layers. Sludge is applied on the top and dried by percolation and evaporation. The plants maintain the porosity of the soil and enhance the evaporation by transpiration (evaporation). Dried sludge can be used as biosolid in agriculture.

Capacity/Adequacy

Requires large land-surfaces and can cause odour; therefore generally installed in rural areas.

Performance

Depends strongly on the local climate (rain, runoff); TS content of 40 to 70 % can be achieved. Some of NH4 is lost to air. Pathogen removal is high for planted drying beds with long retention times.

Costs

Moderate investment costs and low operation costs.

Self-help Compatibility

Can be produced with locally available material, but requires expert design. Operation is simple but staff/community should be trained.

O&M

Application of sludge, desludging, control of drainage system and of the secondary treatment for percolate or dried sludge. Desludging every 5 to 10 years for planted drying beds.

Reliability

High, if the area is kept dry (rain, runoff).

Main strength

Low-tech and no requirement of energy.

Main weakness

Requires space; odour can occur.

التطيبق

Sludge drying beds are a secondary treatment for all kinds of sludge, including faecal sludge from on-site sanitation systems (e.g. septic tanks, semi-centralised systems (e.g. activated sludge), anaerobic digesters (e.g. UASB reactors).

This technology is effective at decreasing the sludge volume (down to 50%) through decomposition and drying, which is especially important when the sludge needs to be transported elsewhere for end-use or disposal.

The method is simple but requires professional design and informed manpower for the operation.

Because of their area requirements, planted drying beds are most appropriate for small to medium communities with populations up to 100,000 people, but they can also be used in bigger cities. If designed to service urban areas, planted drying beds should be at the border of the community, but within economic reach for motorized emptying operators.

Drying beds are not adapted for regions with heavy rainfalls and frequent flooding or where the water table is high. In any case, the ponds should be sealed to prevent infiltration of the pathogen containing percolate and a counter bound can prevent run-off to flow in and animals and people to enter.

المراجع

Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems

Decentralised wastewater management presents a comprehensive approach to the design of both conventional and innovative systems for the treatment and disposal of wastewater or the reuse of treaded effluent. Smaller treatment plants, which are the concern of most new engineers, are the primary focus of this book.

CRITES, R. TCHOBANOGLOUS, G. (1998): Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc

Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage (HWTS). Lecture Notes

Lecture notes on the technical and non-technical aspects of sanitation household-level drinking water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) in developing countries.

EAWAG/SANDEC (2008): Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage (HWTS). Lecture Notes. (= Sandec Training Tool 1.0, Module 3 ). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 08.04.2010]

Use of Reed Beds for Faecal Sludge Dewatering

This study project tested reed beds for their ability to treat septage.

HEINSS, U. KOOTAATEP, T. (1998): Use of Reed Beds for Faecal Sludge Dewatering. A Synopsis of Reviewed Literature and Interim Results of Pilot Investigations with Septage Treatment in Bangkok, Thailand. Duebendorf and Bangkok: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (Eawag), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (Sandec) and Asian Institute of Technology (AIT)

Solids Separation and Pond Systems for the Treatment of Faecal Sludges in the Tropics

The report sets out to provide guidelines for the preliminary design of faecal sludge treatment schemes comprising solids-liquid separation and stabilisation ponds. The document is based on the results of collaborative field research conducted by the Ghana Water Research Institute and SANDEC on full and pilot-scale faecal sludge (FS) treatment plants located in Accra, Ghana.

HEINSS, U. LARMIE, S.A. STRAUSS, M. (1998): Solids Separation and Pond Systems for the Treatment of Faecal Sludges in the Tropics . Lessons Learnt and Recommendations for Preliminary Design . (= SANDEC Report , 5 ). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 12.04.2010]

Potentials of Sludge Drying Beds Vegetated with Cyperus papyrus L. and Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.) Hitchc. & Chase for Faecal Sludge Treatment in Tropical Regions

KENGE NOUMS, I. M. (2008): Potentials of Sludge Drying Beds Vegetated with Cyperus papyrus L. and Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.) Hitchc. & Chase for Faecal Sludge Treatment in Tropical Regions. (= PhD Thesis ). Yaounde: University of Yaounde

Technology Transfer – Forage Plants Used in Faecal Sludge Dewatering Beds in Sub-Saharan Africa

In collaboration with the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Bangkok, Eawag has previously demonstrated that constructed wetlands, especially in Thailand, offer a viable solution for the treatment of faecal sludge. However, since the characteristics of sludge vary widely from one region to another, appropriate indigenous plants had to be identified so as to ensure successful operation of these facilities.

KONE, D. ; KENGE, I. (2008): Technology Transfer – Forage Plants Used in Faecal Sludge Dewatering Beds in Sub-Saharan Africa. المُدخلات: Sandec News: Volume 9

Treatment of Septage in Constructed Wetlands in Tropical Climate – Lessons Learnt after Seven Years of Operation

This study presents lessons that have been learned from the operation of pilot-scale constructed wetlands (CWs) for septage treatment since 1997. The experiments have been conducted by using three CW units planted with narrow-leave cattails (Typha augustifolia) and operating in a vertical-flow mode.

KOTTATEP, T. SURINKUL, N. POLPRASERT, C. KAMAL, A. S. M. KONE, D. MONTANGERO, A. HEINSS, U. STRAUSS, (2005): Treatment of Septage in Constructed Wetlands in Tropical Climate – Lessons Learnt after Seven Years of Operation. Duebendorf and Pathumthani: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (Eawag), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (Sandec) and Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) URL [Accessed: 06.06.2019]

Faecal Sludge Treatment

This document reviews current practices of faecal sludge management and treatment.

MONTANGERO, A. STRAUSS, M. (2004): Faecal Sludge Treatment. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 10.06.2019]

Informed Choice Catalogue

This informed choice catalogue for community based wastewater treatment technologies helps to identify suitable sanitation options and facilitates the assessment of different sanitation system components with regard to stakeholder preferences. A powerful tool for technical bottom-up planning giving overall information about technical options at a "glance".

SANIMAS (2005): Informed Choice Catalogue. pdf presentation. BORDA and USAID URL [Accessed: 29.05.2019]

DEWATS

Exhaustive report on technological, operational and economic aspects of decentralised waste water treatment systems. Spreadsheet examples support the reader in designing and planning waste water treatment systems components.

SASSE, L. BORDA (1998): DEWATS. Decentralised Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries. Bremen: Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA) URL [Accessed: 03.06.2019]

Faecal Sludge Management

This is the first book to compile the current state of knowledge on faecal sludge management. It addresses the organization of the entire faecal sludge management service chain, from the collection and transport of sludge, to the current state of knowledge of treatment options, and the final end use or disposal of treated sludge. It presents an integrated approach that brings together technology, management, and planning, based on Sandec’s 20 years of experience in the field. It also discusses important factors to consider when evaluating and upscaling new treatment technology options. The book is designed for undergraduate and graduate students, engineers, and practitioners in the field who have some basic knowledge of environmental and/or wastewater engineering.

STRANDE, L. ; RONTELTAP, M. ; BRDJANOVIC, D. (2014): Faecal Sludge Management. Systems Approach for Implementation and Operation. London: IWA Publishing URL [Accessed: 16.07.2014]

Treatment of sludges from on-site sanitation — Low-cost options

Published in 1997, this article gives an overview on current literature-based knowledge regarding faecal sludge treatment along with results and conclusions from field research.

STRAUSS, M. ; LARMIE, S.A. ; HEINSS, U. (1997): Treatment of sludges from on-site sanitation — Low-cost options. المُدخلات: Water Science and Technology: Volume 6 , 129-136. URL [Accessed: 23.06.2010]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. LUETHI, C. MOREL, A. ZURBRUEGG, C. SCHERTENLEIB, R. (2008): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG) and Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) URL [Accessed: 15.02.2010] PDF
قراءات أخرى

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

Sludge Treatment and Disposal

Sludge Treatment and Disposal is the sixth volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment. The book covers in a clear and informative way the sludge characteristics, production, treatment (thickening, dewatering, stabilisation, pathogens removal) and disposal (land application for agricultural purposes, sanitary landfills, landfarming and other methods). Environmental and public health issues are also fully described.

ANDREOLI, C.V. ; SPERLING, M. von ; FERNANDES, F. (2007): Sludge Treatment and Disposal. (= Biological Wastewater Treatment Series , 6 ). London: International Water Association (IWA) Publishing URL [Accessed: 27.05.2019]

Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems

Decentralised wastewater management presents a comprehensive approach to the design of both conventional and innovative systems for the treatment and disposal of wastewater or the reuse of treaded effluent. Smaller treatment plants, which are the concern of most new engineers, are the primary focus of this book.

CRITES, R. TCHOBANOGLOUS, G. (1998): Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc

Faecal Sludge Management.

This issue presents studies from different regions (Bangladesh, Cameroon, Burkina Faso) that mainly show the non-existence of faecal sludge management. Additionally, the last paper describes a new technological solution (LaDePa) for producing hygienically safe organic fertiliser from sludge from ventilated improved pit toilets (VIPs).

ECOSAN CLUB (2012): Faecal Sludge Management.. (= Sustainable Sanitation Practice , 13 ). Vienna: Ecosan Club URL [Accessed: 16.10.2012]

Full-Chain Sanitation Services That Last

This paper sets out a framework for the delivery of non-sewered sanitation services that last, are accessible to all and are at scale. The framework is based on IRC International Water and Sanitation’s (IRC) experience and lessons learnt from its engagement in non-sewered sanitation service at scale.

VERHAGEN, J. CARRASCO, M. (2013): Full-Chain Sanitation Services That Last. Non-Sewered Sanitation Services. The Hague: International Water and Sanitation Center (IRC) URL [Accessed: 03.06.2019]

Use of Reed Beds for Faecal Sludge Dewatering

This study project tested reed beds for their ability to treat septage.

HEINSS, U. KOOTAATEP, T. (1998): Use of Reed Beds for Faecal Sludge Dewatering. A Synopsis of Reviewed Literature and Interim Results of Pilot Investigations with Septage Treatment in Bangkok, Thailand. Duebendorf and Bangkok: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (Eawag), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (Sandec) and Asian Institute of Technology (AIT)

Solids Separation and Pond Systems for the Treatment of Faecal Sludges in the Tropics

The report sets out to provide guidelines for the preliminary design of faecal sludge treatment schemes comprising solids-liquid separation and stabilisation ponds. The document is based on the results of collaborative field research conducted by the Ghana Water Research Institute and SANDEC on full and pilot-scale faecal sludge (FS) treatment plants located in Accra, Ghana.

HEINSS, U. LARMIE, S.A. STRAUSS, M. (1998): Solids Separation and Pond Systems for the Treatment of Faecal Sludges in the Tropics . Lessons Learnt and Recommendations for Preliminary Design . (= SANDEC Report , 5 ). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 12.04.2010]

SOS - Management of Sludges from On-Site Sanitation. Characteristics of Faecal Sludges and their Solids-Liquid Separation

This document gives an overview on the characteristics of different sludges as well as monitoring results and recommendations for design of solid-liquid separation. It is based on a field report.

HEINSS, U. LARMIE, S.A. STRAUSS, M. (1999): SOS - Management of Sludges from On-Site Sanitation. Characteristics of Faecal Sludges and their Solids-Liquid Separation. Duebendorf and Accra: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG)

SOS - Management of Sludges from On-Site Sanitation. Co-treatment of Faecal Sludge and Wastewater in Tropical Climates

This article provides operational and design guidance for the co-treatment of faecal sludge in waste stabilisation ponds and in activated sludge sewage treatment plants. Problems which may arise when highly concentrated faecal sludge is not properly included in the design of the co-treatment system are also discussed.

HEINSS, U. STRAUSS, M. (1999): SOS - Management of Sludges from On-Site Sanitation. Co-treatment of Faecal Sludge and Wastewater in Tropical Climates. Duebendorf and Accra: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG) URL [Accessed: 21.04.2010]

Fecal Sludge Management in Developing Countries - A Planning Manual

This manual is a first approach to provide guidance on strategic planning of faecal sludge management. The study took place in the City of Nam Dinh, in Vietnam. The main principles for strategic sanitation planning have been adopted from the guide “Strategic Planning for Municipal Planning” from GHK Research and Training Ltd.

KLINGEL, F. MONTANGERO, A. KONE, M. STRAUSS, M. (2002): Fecal Sludge Management in Developing Countries - A Planning Manual. (= First Edition ). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science (EAWAG) URL [Accessed: 08.06.2019]

Treatment of Septage in Constructed Wetlands in Tropical Climate – Lessons Learnt after Seven Years of Operation

This study presents lessons that have been learned from the operation of pilot-scale constructed wetlands (CWs) for septage treatment since 1997. The experiments have been conducted by using three CW units planted with narrow-leave cattails (Typha augustifolia) and operating in a vertical-flow mode.

KOTTATEP, T. SURINKUL, N. POLPRASERT, C. KAMAL, A. S. M. KONE, D. MONTANGERO, A. HEINSS, U. STRAUSS, (2005): Treatment of Septage in Constructed Wetlands in Tropical Climate – Lessons Learnt after Seven Years of Operation. Duebendorf and Pathumthani: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (Eawag), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (Sandec) and Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) URL [Accessed: 06.06.2019]

Faecal Sludge Treatment

This document reviews current practices of faecal sludge management and treatment.

MONTANGERO, A. STRAUSS, M. (2004): Faecal Sludge Treatment. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 10.06.2019]

How to Select Appropriate Technical Solutions for Sanitation

The purpose of this guide is to assist local contracting authorities and their partners in identifying those sanitation technologies best suited to the different contexts that exist within their town. The first part of the guide contains a planning process and a set of criteria to be completed; these assist you in characterizing each area of intervention so that you are then in a position to identify the most appropriate technical solutions. The second part of the guide consists of technical factsheets which give a practical overview of the technical and economic characteristics, the operating principle and the pros and cons of the 29 sanitation technology options most commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa.

MONVOIS, J. GABERT, J. FRENOUX, C. GUILLAUME, M. (2010): How to Select Appropriate Technical Solutions for Sanitation. (= Six Methodological Guides for a Water and Sanitation Services' Development Strategy , 4 ). Cotonou and Paris: Partenariat pour le Développement Municipal (PDM) and Programme Solidarité Eau (pS-Eau) URL [Accessed: 19.10.2011]

Faecal Sludge Management

This is the first book to compile the current state of knowledge on faecal sludge management. It addresses the organization of the entire faecal sludge management service chain, from the collection and transport of sludge, to the current state of knowledge of treatment options, and the final end use or disposal of treated sludge. It presents an integrated approach that brings together technology, management, and planning, based on Sandec’s 20 years of experience in the field. It also discusses important factors to consider when evaluating and upscaling new treatment technology options. The book is designed for undergraduate and graduate students, engineers, and practitioners in the field who have some basic knowledge of environmental and/or wastewater engineering.

STRANDE, L. ; RONTELTAP, M. ; BRDJANOVIC, D. (2014): Faecal Sludge Management. Systems Approach for Implementation and Operation. London: IWA Publishing URL [Accessed: 16.07.2014]

Co-composting of Faecal Sludge and Municipal Organic Waste

The document gives an overview on the combined composting of (faecal) sludges and organic solid waste based on a pilot project in Kumasi, Ghana. Results of the investigation should help the city’s waste management department to develop its biosolids management strategy and enable the project team to develop guidelines for planners and engineers on the option of co-composting.

STRAUSS, M. DRESCHER, S. ZURBRUEGG, C. MONTANGERO, A. OLUFUNKE, C. DRECHSEL, P. (2003): Co-composting of Faecal Sludge and Municipal Organic Waste. Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) and International Water Management Institute (IWMI) URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019]

Treatment of sludges from on-site sanitation — Low-cost options

Published in 1997, this article gives an overview on current literature-based knowledge regarding faecal sludge treatment along with results and conclusions from field research.

STRAUSS, M. ; LARMIE, S.A. ; HEINSS, U. (1997): Treatment of sludges from on-site sanitation — Low-cost options. المُدخلات: Water Science and Technology: Volume 6 , 129-136. URL [Accessed: 23.06.2010]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

What Happens When the Pit is Full?

This seminar report helps people responsible for the sustainable operation of on-site sanitation systems. It shows new developments in the field and contains a lot of detailed information about Faecal Sludge Management (FSM).

WINSA (2011): What Happens When the Pit is Full?. Developments in On-Site Faecal Sludge Management (FSM). Durban: Water Information Network South Afrika (WINSA) URL [Accessed: 06.10.2011]
حالات دراسية

Technology Transfer – Forage Plants Used in Faecal Sludge Dewatering Beds in Sub-Saharan Africa

In collaboration with the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Bangkok, Eawag has previously demonstrated that constructed wetlands, especially in Thailand, offer a viable solution for the treatment of faecal sludge. However, since the characteristics of sludge vary widely from one region to another, appropriate indigenous plants had to be identified so as to ensure successful operation of these facilities.

KONE, D. ; KENGE, I. (2008): Technology Transfer – Forage Plants Used in Faecal Sludge Dewatering Beds in Sub-Saharan Africa. المُدخلات: Sandec News: Volume 9

Low-cost Options for Treating Faecal Sludges (FS) in Developing Countries - Challenges and Performance

This article analyses and discusses the performances of low-cost technology for treating faecal sludges in developing countries. It shows that where septic tanks are the predominant type of on-site sanitation installations, septage is the only or predominant type of faecal sludge generated. It also shows that constructed wetlands, settling tanks/ponds, or unplanted drying beds might prove suitable as a pre-treatment.

KONE, D. STRAUSS, M. (2004): Low-cost Options for Treating Faecal Sludges (FS) in Developing Countries - Challenges and Performance. Duebendorf: Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC), Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science (EAWAG) URL [Accessed: 23.06.2010]

Improvement of Sanitation at Kanawat Health Center Uganda

This study reports the improvement of the sanitation systems of a rural public health centre in Kanawat, Uganda. Excreta from UDDTs and composting pit latrines are treated together in sludge drying beds. Greywater is treated in a sludge drying bed and a constructed wetland and finally reused for irrigation.

MUELLEGGER, E. SCHLICK, J. WERNER, C. (2009): Improvement of Sanitation at Kanawat Health Center Uganda. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 22.05.2012]

Co-composting faecal sludge & organic solid waste, Kumasi, Ghana

This project aimed to gain scientific knowledge on the technical, socio-economical and operational aspects of co-composting (organic solid waste and faecal material). Dried faecal sludge (drying bed) is co-composted with the organic fraction of solid waste. The final product is used as compost for urban and periurban agriculture.

OLUFUNKE, C. DOULAYE, K. (2009): Co-composting faecal sludge & organic solid waste, Kumasi, Ghana. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 22.05.2012]

Chapter 3. Pilot Project "Navsarjan Vocational Training Institute Dalit Shakti Kendra"

The main aim of the project was to avoid manual scavenging of excreta and to improve the sanitation situation at the Navsarjan Vocational Training Institute. The technical solution proposed was source separation (grey-/blackwater) and reuse. Greywater is separately treated and reused in the garden while the urine and faeces (blackwater) are directly introduced into a biogas plant. Digested sludge is dried on basic drying beds and used as compost for the garden. UDDT were also installed. The concept was implemented and evaluated for its social and cultural acceptability, sustainable and hygienic safety.

WAFLER, M. (2006): Chapter 3. Pilot Project "Navsarjan Vocational Training Institute Dalit Shakti Kendra". المُدخلات: WAFLER, M. ; HEEB, J. ; (2006): Report on Case Studies of ecosan Pilot Projects in India. Eschborn: . URL [Accessed: 26.04.2010]

Decentralized Wastewater Mgmt at Adarsh College, Badalapur, Maharashtra, India

This case study reports the development of an ecologically sound sanitation concept at Adarsh Bidyaprasarak Sanstha's College of Arts & Commerce. It comprises separate urine collection and a DEWATS system for the treatment of black- and greywater consisting of biogas settler, an anaerobic baffled reactor, and anaerobic filter, a horizontal flow wetland and a polishing pond.

ZIMMERMANN, N. WAFLER, M. (2009): Decentralized Wastewater Mgmt at Adarsh College, Badalapur, Maharashtra, India. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 22.05.2012]
مواد تدريبية

Faecal Sludge Management. Lecture Notes

This module pays special attention to the haulage, treatment and reuse or disposal of faecal sludge. It covers both technical and non-technical (socio-cultural, economic, political etc.) aspects and provides practical information on design, financing and planning of faecal sludge treatment plants.

EAWAG/SANDEC (2008): Faecal Sludge Management. Lecture Notes. (= Sandec Training Tool 1.0, Module 5 ). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 23.05.2012]

Faecal Sludge Treatment

This document reviews current practices of faecal sludge management and treatment.

MONTANGERO, A. STRAUSS, M. (2004): Faecal Sludge Treatment. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 10.06.2019]

DEWATS

Exhaustive report on technological, operational and economic aspects of decentralised waste water treatment systems. Spreadsheet examples support the reader in designing and planning waste water treatment systems components.

SASSE, L. BORDA (1998): DEWATS. Decentralised Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries. Bremen: Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA) URL [Accessed: 03.06.2019]

FS Management – Review of Practices, Problems and Initiatives

A study on management and institutional aspects regarding the challenges and possible improvements in managing faecal sludge.

STRAUSS, M. MONTANGERO, A. (2002): FS Management – Review of Practices, Problems and Initiatives. London and Duebendorf: DFID Project R8056, Capacity Building for Effective Decentralised Wastewater Management, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 28.05.2019]

Informed Choice Catalogue

This informed choice catalogue for community based wastewater treatment technologies helps to identify suitable sanitation options and facilitates the assessment of different sanitation system components with regard to stakeholder preferences. A powerful tool for technical bottom-up planning giving overall information about technical options at a "glance".

SANIMAS (2005): Informed Choice Catalogue. pdf presentation. BORDA and USAID URL [Accessed: 29.05.2019]

Environmentally sound technologies in wastewater treatment for the implementation of the UNEP/GPA "Guidelines on Municipal Wastewater Management"

Technical information on environmentally sound technologies in wastewater treatment.

UNEP ; MURDOCH UNIVERSITY (2004): Environmentally sound technologies in wastewater treatment for the implementation of the UNEP/GPA "Guidelines on Municipal Wastewater Management". The Hague: United Nations Environment Programme Global Programme of Action (UNEP/GPA), Coordination Office
مواد لنشر الوعي

Urban Excreta Management - Situation, Challenges, and Promising Solutions

The objective of this paper is to render planners, decision makers, and consultants aware that faecal sludge management (FSM) should form an integral part of the urban development planning process. For this, three illustrative cases are presented, based on which an array of measures or tools, as well as institutional/regulatory, financial/economic, and technical aspects are discussed.

STRAUSS, M. ; BARREIRO, W.C. ; STEINER, M. ; MENSAH, A. ; JEULAND, M. ; BOLOMEY, S. ; MONTANGERO, A. ; KONE, D. (2003): Urban Excreta Management - Situation, Challenges, and Promising Solutions. المُدخلات: IWA Asia-Pacific Regional Conference Bangkok, Thailand: URL [Accessed: 23.06.2010]

Alternative Versions to