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14 June 2019

Material Flow Analysis (MFA)

Author/Compiled by
Lydie S.A. Yiougo (International Institute for Water and Environmental Engineering, 2iE)
Dorothee Spuhler (seecon international gmbh)
Executive Summary

Material Flow Analysis (MFA) is the quantification and assessment of matter (water, food, excreta, wastewater...) and substances (nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon...) mass flows and processes, in a system (city, country, etc.) during a defined period. The principle of MFA is based on the law of matter conservation; flows are expressed in kg/year or in kg/capita/year. The method allows identifying problems and quantifying the impact of potential measures on resource recovery and environmental pollution. It can be used to compare different sanitation technology options regarding their environmental and financial impacts in order to support decision-making for choosing within different sanitation options.

Advantages
MFA allows having a critical view of sanitation/water management current status in a city
MFA helps to evaluate the environmental soundness of sanitation options
MFA can be used as a decision tool to choose sustainable sanitation technology
MFA is an ideal technical basis for planning and decision making, especially in developing and emerging countries with limited technical and financial resources
In developing countries, MFA has been proven to be a suitable tool for early detection of environmental problems and development of appropriate solutions
Disadvantages
Needs a lot of data to be implemented; there are only limited, reliable data available for developing countries
There is a need to deal with uncertainties
Factsheet Block Title
What Is the Material Flow Analysis (MFA)?
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The material flow analysis (MFA) method is described in the “Practical Handbook of Material Flow Analysis” by BRUNNER & RECHBERGER (2004). Material flow analysis contains the following main steps:

  • Identification of the key (material flow related) issues.
  • System analysis (selection of the relevant matter, processes, indicator substances (elements), and system boundaries).
  • Quantification of mass flows of matter and indicator substances.
  • Identification of weak points in the system.
  • Development and evaluation of scenarios and schematic representation, interpretation of the results.

 

Indicator substances”considered for MFA are generally chemical elements such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), carbon (C) or CO2 and NH3. These substances can be either pollutants (e.g. eutrophication) or resources (e.g. fertiliser in agriculture).

“Goods”represent a substance or a mixture of substances with a function valued by man such as food, solid waste and wastewater.

“Processes” describe the transformation, transport or storage of “goods” and “substances” such as households, wastewater treatment plants or agricultural soils.

Example of system analysis.The boxes designate processes and the arrows represent the flows. Source: FORSTER et al. (2003)    
Example of system analysis.The boxes designate processes and the arrows represent the flows. Source: FORSTER et al. (2003)    
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How to Do a MFA?
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The first and second step of MFA consists in the identification of the key material flows and the setting of system boundaries (selection of the relevant matter, processes, indicator substances). For the indicator substance nitrogen, for example, the relevant “goods” are the inputs and outputs to and from the household, which contain nitrogen: that implies food, excreta, blackwater, greywater and organic solid waste. In order to have an overview of nitrogen pathways at household level, the processes are the household (food and water consumption, digestion, and kitchen wastes) and the on-site sanitation system. Nitrogen containing “goods” are being transformed in these two processes. For example, nitrogen enters the human organism as food (household) and leaves it, after digestion, with the excreta (on-site sanitation system). The system boundaries includes all household activities and the on-site sanitation system.

Example of system boundaries at the household level: processes comprise the household and the on-site sanitation system. Source: YIOUGO (2010)       
Example of system boundaries at the household level: processes comprise the household and the on-site sanitation system. Source: YIOUGO et al. (2011)       

 

The third step consists in quantifying “goods” and substance flows in the system. Only the substance-flows (nitrogen-flows in this example) are of interest in this case. “Substance” flows are often calculated based on the mass flows of “goods” and substance concentrations in these “goods”. For example, the nitrogen flow in excreta can be assessed by multiplying the quantity of excreta produced per capita per day with the nitrogen concentration in excreta. Source data can be obtained from literature, estimations, measurements or calculations.

In the fourth and fifth step, the assessed “good” and/or substance flows are represented graphically and interpreted (see picture below). The software STAN (Software for Substance Flow Analysis), which is open source can be used for graphic representation. STAN was developed by the Vienna University of Technology and can be downloaded on the internet for free. It can be used as a base for modelling material flows for the assessment of the economic resources and environmental values of materials (CENCIC & RECHBERGER 2008). The Vienna University of Technology also offers workshops on the use of MFA and STAN; you can subscribe to their newsletter to stay informed. 

Material Flow Analysis with graphic representation of the mass flows. Source: YIOUGO et al. (2011)          
Material Flow Analysis with graphic representation of the mass flows. Source: YIOUGO et al. (2011)          

 

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Combating Lack of Data with Expert Judgements
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Because of the amount of data needed, the implementation of MFA is difficult in the contexts of developing countries. MONTANGERO (2006) suggested therefore using the method of “eliciting expert judgement” to deal with this problem. Eliciting expert judgement consists in the translation of expert knowledge (subjective judgements) into probabilities for real values (data). Eliciting expert judgement comprises seven steps, the first step consists in the identification of the parameters for which expert assessment is needed; the second step consists in the recruitment of experts; followed by motivating experts; the development of a general model that reflects the experts’ thinking; the training of the experts in probability assessment; the required probability assessments and a documentation of the reasoning behind the assessments; and finally the aggregation of experts’ probability distributions (i.e. if experts’ views on the same parameter differ, it is important to try to understand why they reach different conclusions). Additional knowledge subsequently gained through measurements for example can be combined with expert knowledge.

Applicability

MFA can be used for environmental impact assessments, development of environmental policy for hazardous substances, nutrient management in watersheds, waste management and for sanitation planning.

MFA allows gaining a critical view on resource management including excreta, faecal sludge, wastewater and kitchen waste management and nutrient and water requirements in a city or a country. It is applicable for evaluating the environmental soundness of sanitation options by calculating and comparing the quantity of nitrogen or phosphorus flows within the city for each sanitation technology options. In this way, decision makers can choose the best options which do not pollute groundwater surface water and allow nutrient recycling.

Library References

Linking Urban Agriculture and Environmental Sanitation

The poster presents material flow analysis as a method to assess the material and nutrient flows in a given system and thus to link urban agriculture and environmental sanitation: The case of Kumasi, Ghana.

FORSTER, D. SCHERTENLEIB, R. BELEVI, H. (2003): Linking Urban Agriculture and Environmental Sanitation. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science (EAWAG) URL [Accessed: 10.04.2019]

Establishing Phosphorus Fluxes Through Material Flow Accounting and Systems Thinking in an Urban Shed in Harare, Zimbabwe

Phosphorus (P) resources globally are considered limited. P originates from a mined non-renewable rock, therefore its presence in the urban-shed demonstrates the impact of urbanisation and the anthropogenic influences on natural cycles of material flow. Any recycling of P is therefore becoming increasingly important. In passing through the linear urban system P is mobilised from particulate to soluble forms. With the present level of nutrient losses from urban water management into the aquatic environment (leading to adverse health and ecological impacts) commitment to urban or peri-urban ecological agriculture (without synthetic fertilisers) offers an attractive solution to the management of urban organic “wastes”.

GUMBO, B. (1999): Establishing Phosphorus Fluxes Through Material Flow Accounting and Systems Thinking in an Urban Shed in Harare, Zimbabwe. Harare: SSRZ Seminar II URL [Accessed: 10.04.2019]

Identification of pollution source of cadmium in soil: Application of material flow analysis and a case study in Taiwan

LU, L. T. ; CHANG, I. C. ; HSIAO, T. Y. ; YU, Y. H. ; MA, H. W. (2007): Identification of pollution source of cadmium in soil: Application of material flow analysis and a case study in Taiwan. In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research: Volume 14 , 49-59.

Material Flow Analysis for Environment Sanitation Planning in Developing Countries: an approach to assess material flows with limited data availability

MONTANGERO, A. (2006): Material Flow Analysis for Environment Sanitation Planning in Developing Countries: an approach to assess material flows with limited data availability. (= PhD thesis ). Innsbruck: Faculty of Civil Engineering, Leopold-Franzens-University Innsbruck

The method of material flow analysis, a tool for selecting sustainable sanitation technology options: The case of Pouytenga (Burkina Faso)

YIOUGO, L.S.A., KOANDA, H., WETHE, J., LUTHI, C., YAPO, O. and DAPOLA, E.D. (2011): The method of material flow analysis, a tool for selecting sustainable sanitation technology options: The case of Pouytenga (Burkina Faso). Water Resources Management VI, Conference Paper, pp. 671-680 URL [Accessed: 10.04.2019]
Further Readings

Building the Concept of Material Flow Analysis into the Household- Centred Environmental Sanitation Planning Approach

The paper discusses very first ideas how the method of material flow analysis could be integrated in the Household-Centred Environmental Sanitation Planning Approach.

MONTANGERO, A. ANH, N. V. LUETHI, C. SCHERTENLEIB, R. BELEVI, H. (2006): Building the Concept of Material Flow Analysis into the Household- Centred Environmental Sanitation Planning Approach. Conference of Renewed Efforts to Plan for Sustainable Development. European Academy for the Urban Environment and Technical University Berlin, Germany URL [Accessed: 18.10.2010]
Case Studies

Modelling sanitation scenarios in developing countries: a case study in Kumassi, Ghana

This document explains how a model-based on material flow analysis (MFA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) was constructed to evaluate the environmental performance of the scenarios. The variables were nitrogen, phosphorus and organic carbon. The evaluation focused on eutrophication and potential reuse of nutrients in agriculture.

DAHLMAN. K (2009): Modelling sanitation scenarios in developing countries: a case study in Kumassi, Ghana. Sweden: Uppsala University URL [Accessed: 10.04.2019]

Evaluating the impacts of sanitation options on urban water quality by using the Material Flow Analysis method: case of Fada N’Gourma, Burkina Faso

This paper describes how the material flow analysis can be used as a tool to evaluate the environmental friendliness of sanitation options in a middle size city in Burkina Faso.

KOANDA, H. GALIERE, P. YIOUGO, L. WETHE, J. (2010): Evaluating the impacts of sanitation options on urban water quality by using the Material Flow Analysis method: case of Fada N’Gourma, Burkina Faso. Stockholm, Sweden: Stockholm Water Week URL [Accessed: 30.10.2010]

Optimising Environmental Sanitation in Yopougon, Coete Ivoire

This document highlights how the material flow analysis method can be use to analyse N and P flows in a district of Abidjan in Côte d’Ivoire in order to develop sustainable sanitation options for wastewater management.

KOFFI, P.K. ; DONGO, K. ; NGUYEN-VIET, H. ; CISSE, G. (2010): Optimising Environmental Sanitation in Yopougon, Coete Ivoire. In: Sandec news : Volume 11 , 28. URL [Accessed: 18.10.2010]

Assessment of Water Quality Problems and Mitigation Potentials by using Material Flow Analysis - A case study In the Tha Chin River Basin, Thailand

The paper presents the methodological approach of material flow analysis, as it is used in the specific context of assessing nutrient pollution problems in a tropical, lowland river system, on the basis of scarce and uncertain data.

SCHAFFNER, M. KOOTTATEP, T. SCHERTENLEIB, R. (2005): Assessment of Water Quality Problems and Mitigation Potentials by using Material Flow Analysis - A case study In the Tha Chin River Basin, Thailand. Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand: Role of Water Sciences in Transboundary River Basin Management URL [Accessed: 18.10.2010]

Material Flux Analysis for Planning of Domestic Solid Waste and Wastewater Management: A Case Study in Pak Kret Municipality, Nonthaburi, Thailand

This publication describes problems as well as potential solutions in the field of environmental sanitation based on the analysis of nitrogen flows in the city of Pak Kret, Thailand.

THITIPHON, S. THAMMARAT, K. MONTANGERO, A. (2005): Material Flux Analysis for Planning of Domestic Solid Waste and Wastewater Management: A Case Study in Pak Kret Municipality, Nonthaburi, Thailand. Thailand: URL [Accessed: 18.10.2010]
Training Material

Linking Urban Agriculture and Environmental Sanitation

The poster presents material flow analysis as a method to assess the material and nutrient flows in a given system and thus to link urban agriculture and environmental sanitation: The case of Kumasi, Ghana.

FORSTER, D. SCHERTENLEIB, R. BELEVI, H. (2003): Linking Urban Agriculture and Environmental Sanitation. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science (EAWAG) URL [Accessed: 10.04.2019]

This module introduces the importance of market-based RRR solutions. At the end of this module you have identified key challenges in your local sanitation and waste management system and a RRR-related business idea.

Cover image Module  1

This module sheds light on the importance of studying the business environment and its components like waste supply, market demand, competition and the institutional framework. At the end of this module you have gained insights to evaluating the potential of your business idea.

Cover image Module  2

This module shows how a business idea can be turned into a business model while putting a specific focus on understanding the customer and designing products that meet their needs. At the end of this module you will have developed a business model and positioned your offer in the market.

Cover image Module  3

This module focusses on planning the operations of a RRR related business. During this part RRR technologies will be introduced for different waste streams and tools for planning the production process. At the end of this module you will have blueprinted your production process and the required technology and production inputs.

Cover image Module  4

This module covers key aspects of financial planning and analysis. At the end of this module you will have forecasted your profits, cash flows, required investment and evaluated the financial viability of your business model.

Cover image Module  5

This module enables you to set objectives and plan activities for the launch of your RRR business and identify potential financing sources. At the end of this module you will have developed an action plan for launch and identified appropriate financing sources.

Cover image Module  6

Week 1: Identify challenges in your local sanitation & waste management

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Further Readings

SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles

This AGUASAN publication illustrates how the water and nutrient cycles can be used as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system and aligning it with SDG 6.

BROGAN, J., ERLMANN, T., MUELLER, K. and SOROKOVSKYI, V. (2017): SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles. Using the water and nutrient cycles as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system - including workshop material. Bern (Switzerland): AGUASAN and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

Why shit matters [Video File]

TEDX TALKS (2019): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d4yD0kz34jg [Accessed: 28.03.2019]

"3 billion people worldwide live in cities without sewers or wastewater treatment plant infrastructure. This forces them to dump their waste into open waters, contaminating the drinking water for others downstream. Imagine if we could harness nutrients in wastewater instead of harming human and environmental health. Christoph Lüthi sees a renewable, locally produced and growing resource where others see only human waste. Watch his talk to learn why shit matters! "

Week 2: Identify RRR products and business opportunities

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Further Readings

A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Week 1: Analyse waste supply

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 2: Analyse market demand

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3: Analyse your competition

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 4: Analyse the institutional environment

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 1: Meet the Business Model Canvas

Download Materials
Further Readings

A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Week 1: Plan your production process

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Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Week 2: Understand the treatment process

Further Readings

Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings

LOHRI, C. R., DIENER, S., ZABALETA, I. MERTENAT, A. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2017): Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings. In: Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 81–130. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

Week 3A: Design technology systems for nutrient recovery

Further Readings

Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery

COFIE, O., NIKIEMA, J., IMPRAIM, R., ADAMTEY, N., PAUL, J. and KONÉ, D. (2016): Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 3. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Decentralized composting in India

DRESCHER, S. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2004): Decentralized composting in India. In: Harper et al. Sustainable Composting: Case Studies in Guidelines for Developing Countries. Loughborough (UK): Water Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), Loughborough University, Part2: Case Studies, Chapter 3, pp.15-27. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives

KARANJA, N., KWACH, H. and NJENGA, M. (2005): Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives. Nairobi (Kenya): UN-Habitat. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3B: Design technology systems for energy recovery

Further Readings

Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market

FERGUSON, H. (2012): Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market. London (UK): Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) International. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3C: Design technology systems for water recovery

Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Chapter 3 - Technology Selection

VEENSTRA, S., ALAERTS, G. and BIJLSMA, M. (1997): Chapter 3 - Technology Selection. In: Helmer, R. and Hespanhol, I. (Eds). Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles. London (UK): World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects

Volume I of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater focuses on policy, regulation and institutional arrangements. Accordingly, its intended readership is made up of policy-makers and those with regulatory responsibilities. It provides guidance on policy formulation, harmonisation and mainstreaming, on regulatory mechanisms and on establishing institutional links between the various interested sectors and parties. It also presents a synthesis of the key issues from Volumes II, III, and IV and the index for all four volumes as well as a glossary of terms used in all four volumes is presented in Annex 1.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 10.04.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture

Volume II of the Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater provides information on the assessment and management of risks associated with microbial hazards and toxic chemicals. It explains requirements to promote the safe use of wastewater in agriculture, including minimum procedures and specific health-based targets, and how those requirements are intended to be used. It also describes the approaches used in deriving the guidelines, including health-based targets, and includes a substantive revision of approaches to ensuring microbial safety.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019] PDF

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture

Volume III of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater deals with wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture and describes the present state of knowledge regarding the impact of wastewater-fed aquaculture on the health of producers, product consumers and local communities. It assesses the associated health risks and provides an integrated preventive management framework.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019] PDF

Week 3: Analyse financial viability

Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 1: Set objectives and plan activities for launch

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Further Readings

Week 2: Finance the launch

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Further Readings

Alternative Versions to