solution finder

14 June 2019

Standards (WP)

Author/Compiled by
Aleix Ferrer Duch (seecon international gmbh)
Stefanie Keller (seecon international gmbh)
Executive Summary

Standards are requirements based on risk limits. They are often established by authorities to impose levels of pollution control by determining uniform criteria. There are three general types of standards: environmental quality standards, emission standards and product standards. In regards to sustainable sanitation and water management, the following standards are important: standards for water quality, standards in wastewater discharge and environmental standards to protect water sources. Water use or pollution permits contribute to water management and sanitation at the local level by setting allowable pollutant levels for individual water bodies, such as rivers, lakes, streams and wetlands.

Advantages
Economic equity, same standards of treatment for all polluters
It complements other tools, for example economic instruments
It can increase efficiency and lower costs
Disadvantages
Development of standards is a complex process, both scientifically and legally
Costs should be taken into account explicitly in setting standards, to win in efficiency
If there is no investment capacity, often control is simply neglected
Can be difficult to implement if control (government) is weak
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Introduction
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A standard is an established norm or requirement. It is usually a formal document that establishes uniform criteria, methods, processes and practices. Water standards are normally imposed to unify quality, discharge or environment criteria related to polluters, regionally, nationally or internationally. Pollution is seen as the discharge by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the environment. The results of this pollution cause hazards to human health, harm to living resources and to ecosystems, damage to services or interference with other legitimate uses of water (MILIJOSTYRELSEN 2000).

There are three general types of standards:

Environmental quality standards define the allowable average concentrations over a specific time period for a given pollutant in a particular region. They define the quality that e.g. a water body should have to support a given use or set of uses. Quality standards are the legal form of regulating pollution control by the authorities and they are to be set on the basis of a quality criterion.A quality criterion forms the basis of establishing the concentration level in a aquatic or terrestrial environment above which a particular substance may be expected to cause an impact on the functioning and structure of the ecosystem. Quality criteria and standards must be on the basis of a scientific assessment of the individual substances, i.e. the fate and impact of a substance in terms of toxicity, persistence and bioaccumulation. In many cases, the quality standards will be equivalent to the quality criterion but special protective measures may imply that the quality standard for the water concerned deviates from the quality criterion (MILIJOSTYRELSEN 2000).

 

Product standards define the quality of a product, that is, the admissible concentration of certain substances that has to be met by any product produced and/or sold on the market – including water for recreational purposes, but also for drinking water or the water used for agriculture.

In many European countries, product standards are for instance used widely to protect water quality by prohibiting the addition of phosphates to laundry detergents. Specific requirements can be set for the use of harmful or toxic substances; they can be restricted to specific conditions, rationed, or prohibited entirely. Restrictions or rationing can also be based on more general criteria (KAUFMANN-HAYOZ et al. 2001).

Standards for water quality are just one type of standards in the water and sanitation sector. Source: CONRADIN (2005)
Standards for water quality are just one type of standards in the water and sanitation sector. Source: CONRADIN (2005)

 

Emission standards determine the maximum allowable rate of pollution output for each generic type of pollutant to protect the designated uses. Emission standards are especially significant in wastewater treatment and discharges from power plants, industry, or agriculture. Emission standards are often closely related to technological procedures and are, for this reason, frequently referred to as technology standards, even though they do not actually prescribe the use of a particular technology. There are thee divisions of technology emission standards: Best available technology, best conventional pollutant control technology and best practical technology (U.S. EPA 1996).

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Main Implementation Actors and Target Groups
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Regulatory bodies, i.e., the government, most often set standards. Yet, they may also be developed by individual organisations or businesses, or by groups such as trade unions or trade associations. These individual standards may become mandatory if adopted by the authorities. The standardisation process, i.e., the process of establishing limits and allowances (permits), may be given by law or may involve the formal consensus of technical experts (MILIJOSTYRELSEN 2000). The motivation to implement a standard is to find an agreement between the ones polluting the water bodies and water users, with a socially acceptable expectation of the risk of degradation (PORTO et al. 2004).

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Planning and Implementing Standards on a Local Level
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Standards are often determined by national authorities and based on the imposition of levels of pollution control. When agencies responsible for the implementation process are not involved, decisions tend to become more bureaucratic, justifying that the public power treats all agents evenly. This may lead to the fact that local differences are not taken into account (PORTO et al. 2004). However, standards should be adjusted to local conditions.

When setting a standard, the following aspects must be considered (MILIJOSTYRELSEN 2000):

  • The maximum concentration of the substance permissible in the discharge
  • The average concentration permissible in the discharge during one or more specified periods
  • The maximum quantity of the substance permissible in the discharge during one or more specified periods
  • Internal control measures

 

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Things to Consider Before Applying Standards
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The numerical values assigned to the standards have to be established based on water standards criteria, so as to have a scientific foundation and ensure appropriate levels of safety for the designated uses.

It is essential that standards are established in a flexible and decentralised form, precisely to be able to serve local specificity (PORTO et al. 2004).

By focusing only on environmental improvement, standards are likely to be set at too ambitious levels. Then, too large costs may arise to achieve improvements in environmental quality that are less than they cost. Water quality standards for polluters should be set as a basis for their discharge. It is important to check if there are national guidelines which facilitate a general understanding of the concept of quality standards, and how to apply them.

This type of regulation is widely used not only with water but also in air policies. Experience shows, however, that such environmental quality standards are repeatedly infringed. While the standards may indicate that a level of concentration of pollutants has been exceeded, no immediate action is demanded unless a responsible party can clearly be identified – which may sometimes be challenging. If a responsible party can be identified (such as in a case of water pollution that is caused by the release of pollutant substances by an industrial company), it must face the sanctions as defined by law (KAUFMANN-HAYOZ et al. 2001).

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Standards as a Base for Permits
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Quality standards are binding and very much related with the administration of discharge permits (MILIJOSTYRELSEN 2000). Standards are the base to create permits, and it is by monitoring the permits implementation that one also evaluates progresses achieved (WHO 2008).

Permit is the act of giving a formal, usually written, authorisation to use (pollute) a certain amount of a resource, e.g. water. Based on the developed standards, these authorisations can be fiscally developed.

These permits (authorisations) can also be economic instruments: tradable permits are used convened with economic instruments, and are increasingly used for implementing environmental and natural resources management policies in the broader framework for sustainable development strategies. They provide the flexibility required to achieve the best individual allocation of rights through decentralised transfers guided by the intensity of demand (OECD 2002). See also tradable permits.

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Typical Examples
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Water quality includes the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water. Water quality standards are most frequently used with reference to a set of standards against which compliance can be assessed. The most common standards relate to drinking water, safety of human contact, and for health of ecosystems. An understanding of the various factors influencing water quality is thus very important as human health is largely dependent on the quality of water available (INDIA WATERPORTAL 2010)

A typical example from the USA, with positive but also negative effects, is the Clean Water Act. This is a very ambitious programme, based almost exclusively on the command and control methodology. It created a centralised programme in the state governments, with extremely ambitious and restrictive goals. It foresaw the elimination of all sources of pollution and two quality objectives towards fishing and primary contact recreation. Partly achieved very good results, but today 35% of the rivers monitored still do not fulfil the water quality objectives, because of the low efficiency in the control of pollution and difficulties in controlling non point sources. Moreover, the US government invested many billions of dollars (PORTO et al. 2004).

Applicability

Standards contribute to easier management, better use and increased longevity of water management and sanitation systems. They look at what would need to be done, but they do not say how to do it.

It is important to choose the right standards and adapt them to each local situation. Local standards should be included within the framework of the national standards (see also political and legal framework). Taking the (higher) standards of another entity can be a basis to do advocacy.

All costs should be taken into account explicitly in setting standards, if not, standards loose in efficiency (NCEE 2010). Standards should not be too restrictive standards — this could raise costs (for control, but also for the businesses involved) and could be a burden to society. Standards should be applied within a mixed system combining different measures since there is no “one-size-fits-all”-instrument (GWP 2009).

Media PPT
Library References

A Typology of Tools for Building Sustainability Strategies

Since the 1980s, the Swiss federal government has actively pursued a policy to reduce the emission of pollutants from heating systems. The program bases upon three measures, which are regulatory in nature: emission thresholds, systems inspections with permits and heating controls.

KAUFMANN-HAYOZ, R. BAETTIG, C. BRUPPACHER, S. DEFILA, R. DI GIULIO, A. FLURY-KLEUBER, P. FRIEDERICH, U. GARBELY, M. JAEGGI, C. JEGEN, M. MOSLER, H.J. MUELLER, A. NORTH, N. ULLI-BEER, S. WICHTERMANN, J. (2001): A Typology of Tools for Building Sustainability Strategies. In: KAUFMANN-HAYOZ, R. ; GUTSCHER, H. (2001): Changing Things – Moving People. Strategies for Promoting Sustainable Development at the Local Level. Basel: 33-108. URL [Accessed: 29.04.2019]

Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, Third Edition

This volume of the Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality explains requirements to ensure drinking-water safety, including minimum procedures and specific guideline values, and how those requirements are intended to be used. The volume also describes the approaches used in deriving the guidelines, including guideline values. It includes fact sheets on significant microbial and chemical hazards.

WHO (2008): Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, Third Edition. Third Edition incorporating the First and Second Addenda. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO) URL [Accessed: 23.04.2012]
Further Readings

Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, Fourth Edition

This volume of the Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality explains requirements to ensure drinking-water safety, including minimum procedures and specific guideline values, and how those requirements are intended to be used. The volume also describes the approaches used in deriving the guidelines, including guideline values. It includes fact sheets on significant microbial and chemical hazards.

WHO (EDITOR) (2011): Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, Fourth Edition. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO) URL [Accessed: 11.07.2018]

Handbook for Developing Watershed Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs). Draft

This document provides technical information to TMDL practitioners who are familiar with the relevant technical approaches and legal requirements pertaining to developing TMDLs and refers to statutory and regulatory provisions that contain legally binding requirements.

EPA (2008): Handbook for Developing Watershed Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs). Draft. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) URL [Accessed: 02.05.2019]

Reducing Stormwater Costs through Low Impact Development (LID) Strategies and PracticesReducing Stormwater Costs through Low Impact Development (LID) Strategies and Practices

Many cities today try to reduce runoff of water and pollutants from the site at which they are generated. This document explains how this can be done.

US EPA (2007): Reducing Stormwater Costs through Low Impact Development (LID) Strategies and PracticesReducing Stormwater Costs through Low Impact Development (LID) Strategies and Practices. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) URL [Accessed: 02.05.2019]

A Law of Nature. The Command-and-Control Approach. Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS)

This is a short paper describing what a command-and-control approach is, and how is it imposed as part of the Philippine’s environment policy.

PIDS (2002): A Law of Nature. The Command-and-Control Approach. Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS). In: Economic Issue of the Day: Volume 3
Case Studies

Water Quality Standards: Examples of Alternatives to Changing Long-term Designated Uses to Achieve Water Quality Goals

Case study where states, tribes, and regions share information about regulatory tools for facilitating progress towards meeting the U.S. Clean Water Act goals, particularly in harmed water bodies.

US EPA (2005): Water Quality Standards: Examples of Alternatives to Changing Long-term Designated Uses to Achieve Water Quality Goals. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) URL [Accessed: 02.05.2019]

Water Quality Standards. Tribe of Indians Americans

This is an extended case study. The purpose of these water quality standards is to facilitate sovereign self-determination and the restoration and preservation of traditional hunting, fishing, gathering and cultural uses in, on and around tribal surface waters.

SRMT (2007): Water Quality Standards. Tribe of Indians Americans. New York: Saint Regis Mohawk Tribe (SRMT), Environment Division URL [Accessed: 03.05.2019]

Getting Paid for Stewardship: An Agricultural Community Water Quality Trading Guide

This is a guide to help the agricultural advisors understand that water quality is not only useful to improve their production and to take care of the environment, but also to trade. Producers could earn even more for, aiming towards the best practical technology.

CTIC (2006): Getting Paid for Stewardship: An Agricultural Community Water Quality Trading Guide. Conservation Technology Information Center (CTIC) URL [Accessed: 02.05.2019]

Case Studies in Tribal Water Quality Standards Programs. Confederated Salish & Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation

This is summary of a case study. The tribes wish to maintain the integrity of their streams and the high quality of Flathead Lake, the largest natural freshwater lake in the western United States. Common pollutants threaten the quality of these waters. The tribes have established a water quality standards program to preserve the high quality waters and restore those that have been degraded.

US EPA (2006): Case Studies in Tribal Water Quality Standards Programs. Confederated Salish & Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) URL [Accessed: 02.05.2019]

Water Quality Affects Property Prices: a Case Study of Selected Maine Lakes

This study shows by using cultural education programs, property owners can be convinced that they also gain economically when they take actions to protect lake water quality.

MICHAEL, H.J. BOYLE, J.K. BOUCHARD, R. (1996): Water Quality Affects Property Prices: a Case Study of Selected Maine Lakes. Maine Agricultural and Forest Experiment Station. University of Maine URL [Accessed: 02.05.2019]
Awareness Raising Material

This module introduces the importance of market-based RRR solutions. At the end of this module you have identified key challenges in your local sanitation and waste management system and a RRR-related business idea.

Cover image Module  1

This module sheds light on the importance of studying the business environment and its components like waste supply, market demand, competition and the institutional framework. At the end of this module you have gained insights to evaluating the potential of your business idea.

Cover image Module  2

This module shows how a business idea can be turned into a business model while putting a specific focus on understanding the customer and designing products that meet their needs. At the end of this module you will have developed a business model and positioned your offer in the market.

Cover image Module  3

This module focusses on planning the operations of a RRR related business. During this part RRR technologies will be introduced for different waste streams and tools for planning the production process. At the end of this module you will have blueprinted your production process and the required technology and production inputs.

Cover image Module  4

This module covers key aspects of financial planning and analysis. At the end of this module you will have forecasted your profits, cash flows, required investment and evaluated the financial viability of your business model.

Cover image Module  5

This module enables you to set objectives and plan activities for the launch of your RRR business and identify potential financing sources. At the end of this module you will have developed an action plan for launch and identified appropriate financing sources.

Cover image Module  6

Week 1: Identify challenges in your local sanitation & waste management

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Further Readings

SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles

This AGUASAN publication illustrates how the water and nutrient cycles can be used as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system and aligning it with SDG 6.

BROGAN, J., ERLMANN, T., MUELLER, K. and SOROKOVSKYI, V. (2017): SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles. Using the water and nutrient cycles as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system - including workshop material. Bern (Switzerland): AGUASAN and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

Why shit matters [Video File]

TEDX TALKS (2019): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d4yD0kz34jg [Accessed: 28.03.2019]

"3 billion people worldwide live in cities without sewers or wastewater treatment plant infrastructure. This forces them to dump their waste into open waters, contaminating the drinking water for others downstream. Imagine if we could harness nutrients in wastewater instead of harming human and environmental health. Christoph Lüthi sees a renewable, locally produced and growing resource where others see only human waste. Watch his talk to learn why shit matters! "

Week 2: Identify RRR products and business opportunities

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Further Readings

A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Week 1: Analyse waste supply

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 2: Analyse market demand

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3: Analyse your competition

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 4: Analyse the institutional environment

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 1: Meet the Business Model Canvas

Download Materials
Further Readings

A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Week 1: Plan your production process

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Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Week 2: Understand the treatment process

Further Readings

Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings

LOHRI, C. R., DIENER, S., ZABALETA, I. MERTENAT, A. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2017): Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings. In: Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 81–130. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

Week 3A: Design technology systems for nutrient recovery

Further Readings

Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery

COFIE, O., NIKIEMA, J., IMPRAIM, R., ADAMTEY, N., PAUL, J. and KONÉ, D. (2016): Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 3. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Decentralized composting in India

DRESCHER, S. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2004): Decentralized composting in India. In: Harper et al. Sustainable Composting: Case Studies in Guidelines for Developing Countries. Loughborough (UK): Water Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), Loughborough University, Part2: Case Studies, Chapter 3, pp.15-27. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives

KARANJA, N., KWACH, H. and NJENGA, M. (2005): Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives. Nairobi (Kenya): UN-Habitat. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3B: Design technology systems for energy recovery

Further Readings

Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market

FERGUSON, H. (2012): Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market. London (UK): Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) International. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3C: Design technology systems for water recovery

Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Chapter 3 - Technology Selection

VEENSTRA, S., ALAERTS, G. and BIJLSMA, M. (1997): Chapter 3 - Technology Selection. In: Helmer, R. and Hespanhol, I. (Eds). Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles. London (UK): World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects

Volume I of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater focuses on policy, regulation and institutional arrangements. Accordingly, its intended readership is made up of policy-makers and those with regulatory responsibilities. It provides guidance on policy formulation, harmonisation and mainstreaming, on regulatory mechanisms and on establishing institutional links between the various interested sectors and parties. It also presents a synthesis of the key issues from Volumes II, III, and IV and the index for all four volumes as well as a glossary of terms used in all four volumes is presented in Annex 1.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 10.04.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture

Volume II of the Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater provides information on the assessment and management of risks associated with microbial hazards and toxic chemicals. It explains requirements to promote the safe use of wastewater in agriculture, including minimum procedures and specific health-based targets, and how those requirements are intended to be used. It also describes the approaches used in deriving the guidelines, including health-based targets, and includes a substantive revision of approaches to ensuring microbial safety.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019] PDF

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture

Volume III of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater deals with wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture and describes the present state of knowledge regarding the impact of wastewater-fed aquaculture on the health of producers, product consumers and local communities. It assesses the associated health risks and provides an integrated preventive management framework.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019] PDF

Week 3: Analyse financial viability

Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 1: Set objectives and plan activities for launch

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Further Readings

Week 2: Finance the launch

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Further Readings

Alternative Versions to