27 April 2018

Lecture 2: Economy for Engineers

Author/Compiled by
Karen Refsgaard (Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute)

This lecture gives a brief introduction to the socioeconomic perspectives and the challenges for decision making with regard to wastewater handling and sanitation (see also water sanitation and economy). It highlights different economic models to value and compare environmental project/systems.

In order to solve the exercise posed in the PowerPoint presentation, you will need the following material:

Further Readings

Institutions and Sustainable Development

This paper was prepared for the Seminar “Food and Water – resources in crises!” at Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute 28. November 2008. The paper puts emphasis on the fact that institutional structures and path dependency can be and are major constraints for development and dissemination of many innovations that have obvious environmental benefits in the long run. Facilitation and arrangement of appropriate institutional regimes are therefore of great importance for “big ideas” to come through. Ecological sanitation is an example.

BRYDEN, J. REFSGAARD, K. (2009): Institutions and Sustainable Development. The Case of Water, Waste and Food. Oslo, Norway: Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute (NILF) URL [Accessed: 05.12.2012]
Training Material

Alternative Versions to