This lecture will discuss the importance of taking an integrated, participatory approach when designing and implementing sanitation systems (see also planning and process tools). Using examples from rural Pakistan, we will examine ways in which socio-cultural aspects can be considered to ensure the sustainability of sanitation systems.
Hygiene and Sanitation Software. An Overview of Approaches
In sanitation and hygiene programme and service delivery, several methods are used to engage target groups in development programmes to enable behavioural change and/or create a demand for services. These methods or approaches are generally referred to as ‘software’, to distinguish them from the provision of ‚hardware‘. This publication takes an in-depth look at the various hygiene and sanitation software approaches that have been deployed over the last 40 years in all types of settings – urban, informal-urban and rural, and aims to address such issues as what a particular approach is designed to achieve, what it actually comprises, when and where it should be used, how it should be implemented and how much it costs, etc.PEAL, A. EVANS, B. VAN DER WOORDEN, C. (2010): Hygiene and Sanitation Software. An Overview of Approaches. Geneva: Water Supply & Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) URL [Accessed: 16.06.2019]
An Assessment of the Scientific Merits of Action Research
In this article, action research is introduces as a method to correct deficiencies related to generating knowledge in positivist science in order to solve problems.SUSMAN, G.I. ; EVERED, R.D. (1978): An Assessment of the Scientific Merits of Action Research. In: Administrative Science Quarterly: Volume 23 , 582-603. URL [Accessed: 02.01.2013]