In order to plan and design water and sanitary systems it is important to have information regarding the type and characteristics of the microorganisms present in human excreta. It is also important to know the efficiency of the water and wastewater treatment systems regarding removal of microorganisms. This lecture highlights the microbial pathogens in wastewater (see also pathogens and contaminants), the fecal oral contamination pathways and removal mechanisms for microorganisms particularly in soil and groundwater (see also water pollution and water source protection).
This document describes onsite wastewater soil absorption systems (WSAS), which have the potential to achieve high treatment efficiencies over a long life service at low cost. Information is given on the function and performance of WSAS, the current state of knowledge, and identifying major gaps in predicting system performance.SIEGRIST, R.L. TYLER, E.J. JENSSEN, P.D. (2000): Design and Performance of Onsite Wastewater Soil Absorption Systems. (= National Research Needs Conference, May 2000 ). St. Louis, MO:
The transport and filtration behavior of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in columns packed with quartz sand was systematically examined under repulsive electrostatic conditions. An increase in solution ionic strength resulted in greater oocyst deposition rates despite theoretical predictions of a significant electrostatic energy barrier to deposition.TUFENKJI, N. ; MILLER, G.F. ; RYAN, J.N. ; HARVEY, R.W. ; ELIMELECH, M. (2004): Transport of Cryptosporidium Oocysts in Porous Media. Role of Straining and Physicochemical Filtration. In: Environmental Science & Technology: Volume 38 , 5932-5938. URL [Accessed: 03.01.2013]
This thesis deals with how to assess hygienic risks in urban water systems as a means to evaluate the future sustainability of the systems, also in comparison with other sustainability aspects. The work is mainly focused on Sweden however the methodology is also applicable to other regions of the world.WESTRELL, T. (2004): Microbial Risk Assessment and its Implications for Risk Management in Urban Water Systems. (= Linköping Studies in Arts and Science , 304 ). Linköping, Sweden: UniTryck URL [Accessed: 03.01.2013]
This volume of the Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality explains requirements to ensure drinking-water safety, including minimum procedures and specific guideline values, and how those requirements are intended to be used. The volume also describes the approaches used in deriving the guidelines, including guideline values. It includes fact sheets on significant microbial and chemical hazards.WHO (2008): Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, Third Edition. Third Edition incorporating the First and Second Addenda. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO) URL [Accessed: 23.04.2012]