27 April 2018

Case: Indian Slum

Author/Compiled by
Petter D. Jenssen (Norwegian University of Life Sciences)

What are the particular needs and possible solutions for sanitary challenges in slums in large Indian cities? This case study will guide you through specific problems that may arise during and after implementation of sanitary measures, such as health and social issues. Based on already implemented measures listed in the further reading literature, you are given examples on different implementation measures and successes and difficulties faced.

In an exercise, you are further going to compile and suggest solutions to improve the sanitary facilities in an exemplary slum, considering both the actual toilet design and the handling and treatment of toilet waste (to get an insight, see also the overview on wastewater treatment).

Further Readings

New Toilets for Indian Slums

The eco-toilet and co-composting pilot project in Bangalore is considered a good example for the implementation of separating toilets in slums. This diploma thesis shows the successes achieved in the toilet implementation and possibilities for improvement for the co-composting site.

BAUMEYER, A (2003): New Toilets for Indian Slums. Nutrients Mass Balance of a Co-Composting Plant in Bangalore, India. URL [Accessed: 20.09.2012]

Design Principles for Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Systems (DEWATS)

Why are decentralised wastewater treatment systems (DEWATS) needed? This powerpoint presentation follows this question, arguing, that decentralisation as an approach is necessary to overcome problems related to wastewater treatment.

BORDA (2003): Design Principles for Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Systems (DEWATS). Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA)

Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, India

Project description of a decentralised wastewater treatment and reuse system for a college in Badlapur, INDIA. The system was built for 2600 students, the treated water and excavated nutrients being reused for agriculture and irrigation purposes. Furthermore, the treatment process is done without need for energy. This project shows that there are cost effective, sustainable and reuse-oriented sanitation alternatives for non-rural settings in developing countries.

IEES (2008): Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, India. Decentralized Wastewater Treatment and Reuse System for a College in Badlapur, India. International Ecological Engineering Society (IEES) URL [Accessed: 20.09.2012]

Alternative Versions to