The Gantt chart is a specialised bar chart used to provide a graphical overview and schedule of all tasks to indicate the work elements and dependencies of project. It is a chart with rectangular bars. The length of each bar is proportional to the time value necessary for each task on the work breakdown structure. The final product illustrates the schedule of a project.
A turbine driven by expanding hot gases produced by burning fuel.
Making water management and sanitation more sustainable may require innovative ideas and approaches. This section explains different methodologies to gather ideas.
Gender-Based Violence or Sexual and Gender-Based Violence
‘Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life’ (UN DEVAW 1993).
A generator is an electrical machine which transform kinetic energy into electricity.
Geographic Information System
A geographic information system (GIS) integrates hardware, software, and data for capturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information.
Geotextiles are fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain.
German Development Bank
German Development Bank
Giardia lives inside the intestines of infected humans or other animals. Individuals become infected through ingesting or coming into contact with contaminated food, soil, or water. The Giardia parasite originates from contaminated items and surfaces that have been tainted by the faeces of an infected animal.
Global Water Partnership
The Global Water Partnership was founded in 1996 by the World Bank, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency to foster Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM), and to ensure the coordinated development and management of water, land, and related resources by maximising economic and social welfare without compromising the sustainability of vital environmental systems. Its mission is to support the sustainable development and management of water resources at all levels. The GWP provides a platform for multi-stakeholder dialogue at global, regional, national and local levels to promote integrated approaches towards more sustainable water resources development, management and use.
Government of India
Government of India
Government of Kerala
Government of Kerala
Granulometry is the measurement of the size distribution in a collection of grains.
Gravel pack is graded granular material placed in a thin zone around the screens in order to increase the effective hydraulic diameter of the borehole and to help inhibit the movement of sediments into the borehole. Gravel pack material should be chosen to retain most of the unconsolidated formation material, and screen openings are then selected to retain about 90% of the gravel pack. Gravel packs are 100- 200 mm thick.
Gravitational water is held in large soil pores and rapidly drains out under the action of gravity within a day or so after rain. Plants can only make use of gravitational water for a few days after rain.
Gravity springs flow on a natural underground slope to the surface. The water flows more or less horizontally out of the ground.
The goal of the grease trap is to trap oil and grease so that it can be easily collected and removed from water. Grease traps are chambers made out of brickwork, concrete or plastic, with an odour-tight cover. Baffles or tees at the inlet and outlet prevent turbulence at the water surface and separate floating components from the effluent. A grease trap can either be located directly under the sink, or, for larger amounts of oil and grease, a bigger grease interceptor can be installed outdoors. Generally grease traps are fitted at garages, restaurants and other commercial premises where large quantities of oil or grease are discharged into wastewater.
Greater Kochi Development Authority
Greater Kochi Development Authority
The precipitation on land that does not run off or recharge the groundwater but is stored in the soil or temporarily stays on top of the soil or vegetation. Eventually, this part of precipitation evaporates or transpires through plants. Green water can be made productive for crop growth (although not all green water can be taken up by crops, because there will always be evaporation from the soil and because not all periods of the year or areas are suitable for crop growth).
Green Water Footprint
Green water footprint is a concept used for water footprint accounting. The green water footprint is an indicator of the consumption of water that refers to precipitation on land that does not run off or recharge the groundwater but is stored in the soil or temporarily stays on top of the soil or vegetation. Green water is usually used for crop growth. The green footprint includes: Water that evaporates from fields and plantations; water incorporated into the harvested crop or wood.
Gases in an atmosphere that absorb and emit radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the green-house effect, which is today discussed in respect to global warming – but which is also fundamental to guarantee temperatures on earth that make life possible in the first place.
Grey Water Footprint
Grey water footprint is a concept used for water footprint accounting. It refers to the volume of water needed to dilute pollutants to such an extent that the quality of the ambient water remains above agreed water quality standards.
Greywater is the total volume of water generated from washing food, clothes and dishware, as well as from bathing, but not from toilets. It may contain traces of Excreta (e.g., from washing diapers) and, therefore, also pathogens. Greywater accounts for approximately 65% of the wastewater produced in households with flush toilets.
A grinder pump is a submersible pump incorporating a grinding mechanism designed to reduce sewage articulate and pump the resulting slurry from a residential/commercial structure to a collection system.
Grit includes sand, gravel, cinder, or other heavy solid materials that are “heavier” (higher specific gravity) than the organic biodegradable solids in the waste water. Grit also includes eggshells, bone chips, seeds, coffee grounds, and large organic particles, such as food waste.
Where subsequent water or wastewater treatment technologies could be hindered or damaged by the presence of sand, grit chambers (or sand traps) allow for the removal of heavy inorganic fractions by settling. There are three general types of grit chambers: horizontal-flow, aerated, or vortex chambers. All of these designs allow heavy grit particles to settle out, while lighter, principally organic particles remain in suspension.
Water that is located beneath the earth’s surface. The groundwater level may be located several centimetres, or up to a hundred metres below the surface. It is generally of good quality and can be used as drinking water. Therefore, care should be taken to not contaminate groundwater with leaching sewage.
Groundwater dams store water under the ground in sufficient quantities for livestock and minor irrigation as well as domestic use. Groundwater dams can be divided into two types: sand dams and subsurface dams. This technology is used in arid and semi-arid regions, where water shortage is a problem during dry periods.
Treated effluent and/or stormwater can be directly discharged into receiving water bodies (such as rivers, lakes, etc.) or into the ground to recharge aquifers. Surface groundwater recharge is the planned, man-made increase of groundwater levels. By improving its natural replenishment capacities and percolation from surface waters into aquifers, the amount of groundwater available for abstraction is increased. This is particularly useful in areas where water and groundwater resources are heavily utilised and acute problems with dropping watersheds, soil salinization, saltwater intrusion in coastal areas or water scarcity in general exist. Subsurface groundwater recharge refers to the different recharge techniques (generally injection or recharge wells) that release treated effluent and/or collected stormwater underground and directly replenish groundwater aquifers (without soil percolation).
A gully is a landform created by running water, eroding sharply into soil, typically on a hillside.
Gully erosion results from water moving in rills, which concentrate to form larger channels. When rill erosion can no longer be repaired by merely tilling or discing, it is defined as gully erosion. The advanced stage of gully erosion leads to formation of ravines near the river systems. It is however noted that deep gullies are formed normally in lands having relatively thick soil depth.
A check dam (or also called gully plug) is a small, temporary or permanent dam constructed across a drainage ditch, swale, or channel to lower the speed of concentrated flows for a certain design range of storm events.
Hand-pump specially designed for sludge (e.g. for the emptying of pit latrines, septic tanks, aqua privies, anaerobic baffled reactors etc.). Manual sludge pumps are a relatively new inventions and have shown promise as being low-cost, effective solutions for sludge emptying where, because of access, safety or economics, other sludge emptying techniques are not possible. The pump works on the same concept as a water pump: the handle is pumped, the liquid (sludge) rises up through the bottom of the pump and is forced out of a tap (sludge spout).