solution finder

2018 أبريل 27

غُرفة إعداد السماد

Applicable to

Application level

City

Household

Neighborhood

Management level

Household

Public

Shared

المُدخلات

Faeces Excreta Organics
+ Dry Cleansing Materials

المُخرَجات

Compost Effluent
المؤلف*
Eawag المعهد الفيدرالي السويسري لعلوم وتقنيات المياه
ترجمة وتعريب مؤسسة بناء
المُلخص التنفيذي

تشير عملية إعداد السماد إلى تحلل المواد القابلة للتحلّل البيولوجي بواسطة الكائنات الحية الدقيقة - غالبًا البكتيريا والفطريات - في الظروف الهوائية. تُصمم غُرفة إعداد السماد Composting Chamber لتحويل فضلات الجسم والمواد العضوية إلى سماد. ويُعتبر السماد المنتج آمنًا ومستقرًا، ويمكن التعامل معه بأمان واستخدامه كمُحسّن للتربة.

تتطلب هذه التقنية عادةً أربعة أجزاء رئيسية: (1) مُفاعل (غُرفة التخزين)، (2) وحدة التهوية لتوفير الأوكسجين والسماح للغازات (ثاني أكسيد الكربون CO2 وبخار الماء) بالخروج، (3) نظام لجمع السوائل المرتشحة، (4) مَنفَذ لٳزالة المنتجات التي نضجت.

يتم خلط فضلات الجسم والمواد العضوية وبقايا الطعام والمواد المالئة (مثل قطع أو نشارة الخشب أو الرماد أو الورق) في الغُرفة. وهناك أربعة عوامل تضمن الأداء الجيد للنظام: (أ) الأوكسجين الكافي؛ ويتوفر عن طريق التهوية الفاعلة أو الخاملة، (ب) الرطوبة المناسبة (تعتبر 45-70% نسبة رطوبه مثالية)، (ج) الحرارة الداخلية لكُومة السماد تكون ما بين 40 إلى 50 درجة مئوية (تتحقق بتوفير أبعاد مناسبة للغُرفة)، (د) نسبة الكربون للنيتروجين (نظريًا؛ 25 جزء كربون إلى جزء واحد نيتروجين) والتي يمكن ضبطها بإضافة مواد عضوية مالئة كمصدر للكربون.

يصعُب عمليًا الحفاظ على هذه الشروط المثالية. ونتيجةً لذلك غالبًا ما تكون المنتجات غير مُعقمة أو صحية بما فيه الكفاية وتحتاج لمزيد من المُعالجة.

المزايا
تخفيض كبير في مسببات للأمراض.
إمكانية استخدام السماد العضوي كمُحسِّن للتربة.
لا توجد مشاكل حقيقية مع الذباب أو الروائح إذا تم استخدامها وصيانتها بشكلٍ سليم.
إمكانية إدارة المخلفات العضوية الصلبة بشكل متزامن.
تقدم خدمة طويلة الأمد.
تكاليف التشغيل منخفضة إذا تم التفريغ ذاتيًا.
العيوب
تتطلب مستخدم متدرب جيدًا أو أشخاص معنيين بخدمات المتابعة والصيانة.
قد يتطلب السماد المزيد من المعالجة قبل الاستخدام.
تتطلب السوائل المرتشحة المعالجة و/أو التفريغ المناسب.
تتطلب خبرة في التصميم والإنشاء.
قد تتطلب بعض الأجزاء الخاصة والكهرباء.
تتطلب مصدرًا دائمًا للمواد العضوية.
تتطلب الإزالة اليدوية للسماد.
المُدخلات المُخرَجات

فضلات الجسم , البراز , مواد عضوية , مواد التنظيف الجاف

السماد العضوى ,  التدفقات السائلة الخارجة

Factsheet Block Title
المُلاءَمَة
Factsheet Block Body

بما أن هذه التقنية صغيرة في الحجم ولا تتطلب وجود المياه، فإنها تُعتبر مناسبة في المناطق ذات المساحات المحدودة والمناطق شحيحة المياه، أو عندما يكون هناك حاجة ٳلى السماد. ويمكن أيضًا إنشاؤها في المناطق الصخرية، أو عندما يكون منسوب المياه الجوفية مرتفعًا. ينبغي في المناخات الباردة أن تكون غُرفة إعداد السماد في داخل البيوت لضمان عدم ٳعاقة درجات الحرارة المنخفضة للعمليات الميكروبية. لا يمكن استخدام هذه التقنية لجمع مياه تنظيف الشرج أو المياه الرمادية؛ حيث يصبح المُفاعل رطبًا جدًا، وهذا يؤدي إلى الظروف اللاهوائية التي ستسبب مشاكل الروائح والتحلّل غير الجيد.

 

Factsheet Block Title
اعتبارات التصميم
Factsheet Block Body

يمكن تصميم غُرفة إعداد السماد بأشكال متنوعة؛ فقد تبنى فوق الأرض أو تحتها، وفي داخل البيوت أو كبِنية فوقية منفصلة.

يمكن اعتبار: 300 لتر/فرد/سنة كقيمة تصميمية (أو عامل تصميمي) لحساب حجم الغُرفة المطلوبة.

تُعتبر قنوات التهوية (أنابيب الهواء) تحت كومة السماد مفيدة للتهوية. وقد تحتوي التصميمات الأكثر تعقيدًا على مروحة صغيرة للتهوية، أو خلاط ميكانيكي، أو حجرات متعددة لإتاحة الفرصة لزيادة وقت التخزين والتحلّل. يُسهِّل انحدار قاع غُرفة إعداد السماد ووجود غُرفة فرعية لسحب السماد من الوصول إلى المنتج النهائي. كذلك، من المهم أيضًا وجود نظام لتصريف المياه لضمان إزالة السوائل المرتشحة.

يُثبط تواجد الأمونيا الزائده الناتجة عن البول من العمليات الميكروبية في الغُرفة. لذلك فإن استخدام المِرحاض الجاف الفاصل للبول  أو المبولة  يحسّن من جودة السماد.

 

Factsheet Block Title
الجوانب الصحية / القبول
Factsheet Block Body

إذا صُممت غُرفة إعداد السماد بشكل جيد فإنه لا يُفترض على المستخدمين أن يتعاملوا مع المحتويات وتدوالها خلال السنة الأولى.

لا تُخرج غُرفة إعداد السماد التي تعمل بشكل جيد أي روائح، وإذا توافرت المواد المالئة بشكلٍ كافٍ مع التهوية الجيدة، فلا يُفترض وجود أي مشاكل مع الذباب أو الحشرات الأخرى. عند إزالة المنتج النهائي، يفضّل ارتداء الملابس الواقية لمنع الاتصال المباشر بالمواد المُسمّدة (جزئيًا).

 

Factsheet Block Title
التشغيل والصيانة
Factsheet Block Body

بالرغم من بساطة غُرف إعداد السماد من الناحية النظرية فإنها ليست سهلة التشغيل. فيجب التحكم في الرطوبة، والحفاظ على توازن نسبة الكربون إلى النيتروجين C:N، ويجب أن يكون حجم الوحدة مناسبًا بحيث تظل درجة حرارة كومة السماد مرتفعة لتخفيض مسبّبات للأمراض. بعد كل عملية تغوط تُضاف كمية صغيرة من المواد المالئة؛ لامتصاص السوائل الزائدة، ولتحسين تهوية كومة السماد، ولتحقيق التوازن في نسبة الكربون المُتاحة. تعمل عملية تقليب محتويات الغُرفة من وقت لآخر على زيادة الإمداد بالأكسجين.

يمكن عمل اختبار الضغط اليدوي Squeeze test للتحقق من مستوى الرطوبة داخل الغُرفة، فعند ضغط كمية صغيرة من السماد يدويًا؛ ينبغى ألا تتفتت العينة، وألا تكون جافة الملمس، وأيضًا لا تكون مثل الإسفنجة الرطبة، بمعنى آخر ينبغي أن يَترُك السماد بِضع قطرات من الماء في اليد فقط. إذا أصبحت المادة في الغُرفة مضغوطة للغاية ورطبة، فذلك يستوجب إضافة مواد مالئة إضافية. عند استخدام المِرحاض الجاف الفاصل للبول؛ فينبغي إضافة بعض الماء للحصول على الرطوبة المطلوبة.

لا بد من تفريغ غُرفة إعداد السماد - حسب التصميم - كل فترة (من سنتين إلى 10 سنوات)، ويجب استخراج السماد الناضج فقط. وقد تتطلب محتويات غُرفة إعداد السماد المزيد من المعالجة لتصبح آمنة صحيًا (على سبيل المثال، إعداد السماد مع إضافة المواد العضوية).

قد تتراكم الأملاح أو المواد الصلبة الأخرى مع مرور الوقت في الخزَّان أو نظام صرف المياه، لكن من الممكن إذابة هذه المواد بالماء الساخن و/أو كشطها.

المراجع

Technology Review of Composting Toilets

This GIZ publication explains the design, use and operational requirements of composting toilets. Ample examples for composting toilets from around the world are included in the publication to show that these types of toilets have a wide range of applications under a variety of circumstances (for wealthy or poor people; for cold, hot, wet or dry climates; for urban or rural settings). The appendix contains a listing of suppliers.

BERGER, W. (2011): Technology Review of Composting Toilets. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) URL [Accessed: 12.05.2019]

Results in the Use and Practise of Composting Toilets in Multi Storey Houses in Bielefeld and Rostock, Germany- Presentation

This is a a presentation concerning composting toilets in four story buildings.

BERGER, W. (2009): Results in the Use and Practise of Composting Toilets in Multi Storey Houses in Bielefeld and Rostock, Germany- Presentation. Hamburg: Berger Biotechnik AG URL [Accessed: 22.11.2010]

The Composting Toilet System Book

The Composting Toilet System Book is an impressive, comprehensive, reader friendly, and practical guide to choosing, planning and maintaining composting toilet systems for those seeking an alternative to traditional sewer and septic tank systems. It explains the technologies, sources, applications, greywater issues, and regulations relevant to a composting toilet system for the home, whether manufactured or site-built.

DEL PORTO, D. STEINFELD, C. (1999): The Composting Toilet System Book. A Practicle Guide to Choosing, Planning and Maintaining Composting Toilet Systems, an Alternative to Sewer and Septic Systems. Concord: Center for Ecological Pollution Prevention (CEPP)

Basic overview of Composting Toilets (with and without urine diversion)

The publication explains the purposes of urine diversion, its benefits and challenges, possibilities of urine treatment and reuse in agriculture. It provides an overview on design and operational aspects for equipment needed, such as waterless urinals and urine diversion toilets. An appendix with a worldwide listing of suppliers for waterless urinals and urine diversion toilet pedestals and squatting pans is also available.

GTZ (2010): Basic overview of Composting Toilets (with and without urine diversion). (= Technology Review ). Eschborn: German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 22.11.2010]

Composting Toilets a Misnomer: Excessive Ammonia from Urine Inhibits Microbial Activity yet Is Insufficient in Sanitizing the End-Product

End-product from 16 public mixed latrine style composting toilets (CTs) at 12 sites between 50 and 2100 m.a.s.l. in Western North America was tested in order to evaluate the effect of composting variables on compost quality and hygiene.

HILL, G. B. ; BALDWIN, S. A. ; VINNERAAS, B. (2013): Composting Toilets a Misnomer: Excessive Ammonia from Urine Inhibits Microbial Activity yet Is Insufficient in Sanitizing the End-Product. المُدخلات: Journal of Environmental Management: Volume 119 , 29-35. URL [Accessed: 12.05.2019]

The Humanure Handbook

A comprehensive book on recycling human excrement without chemicals, high technology or pollution. Well written, practical, and thoroughly researched, this self-published book is built on nearly twenty years of experience by the author, who tells us about every aspect of dealing with excrement on the home-scale level. Only available for free as web book.

JENKINS, J. (2005): The Humanure Handbook. A Guide to Composting Human Manure. (= 3rd Edition ). Grove City: Joseph Jenkins Inc. URL [Accessed: 16.08.2010]

Guidelines on the Use of Urine and Faeces in Crop Production

These guidelines provide a thorough background on the use of urine (and faeces) for agricultural purposes. Aspects discussed are requirements for plant growth, nutrients in excreta, hygiene aspects, and recommendations for cultivation. It provides detailed guidance on the use of urine for purposes.

JOENSSON, H. RICHERT, A. VINNERAAS, B. SALOMON, E. (2004): Guidelines on the Use of Urine and Faeces in Crop Production. (= EcoSanRes Publications Series , 2004 ). Stockholm: EcoSanRes URL [Accessed: 17.04.2012]

Toilets That Make Compost

This book describes in an easy-to-understand and picture-based way how to construct three different low cost sanitation solutions, namely arborloos, fossa alterna and urine diversion toilets.

MORGAN, P. EcoSanRes (2007): Toilets That Make Compost . Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019]

Systems for Enhancing Ventilation for Improved Control of Odour and Fly Nuisance in Dry Urine Diverting Ecological Sanitation Toilets

This research report described information for improved ventilation, fly and odour control as well as impact of improved ventilation on drying within faecal chambers and pathogen die-off in dehydration toilets.

OKETCH, M. (2005): Systems for Enhancing Ventilation for Improved Control of Odour and Fly Nuisance in Dry Urine Diverting Ecological Sanitation Toilets. URL [Accessed: 22.07.2010]

Guidelines on the Safe Use of Urine and Faeces in Ecological Sanitation Systems

These guidelines provide a thorough background on the safe use of urine and faeces for agricultural purposes. Aspects like the health risk associated we the use of human excreta in agriculture and how to limit them are discussed.

SCHOENNING, C. STENSTROEM, T.A. (2004): Guidelines on the Safe Use of Urine and Faeces in Ecological Sanitation Systems. (= EcoSanRes Publication Series ). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI)

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Environmentally sound technologies in wastewater treatment for the implementation of the UNEP/GPA "Guidelines on Municipal Wastewater Management"

Technical information on environmentally sound technologies in wastewater treatment.

UNEP ; MURDOCH UNIVERSITY (2004): Environmentally sound technologies in wastewater treatment for the implementation of the UNEP/GPA "Guidelines on Municipal Wastewater Management". The Hague: United Nations Environment Programme Global Programme of Action (UNEP/GPA), Coordination Office

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019] PDF

Philippines Sanitation Source Book and Decision Aid

This Sanitation Sourcebook distils some of the core concepts of sanitation in a user-friendly format so that the book can serve as a practical reference to sanitation professionals and investment decision-makers, particularly the local governments. The annexe contains a practical collection of factsheets on selected sanitation system options.

WSP (2007): Philippines Sanitation Source Book and Decision Aid. pdf presentation. Washington: Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). URL [Accessed: 01.06.2019]
قراءات أخرى

Technology Review of Composting Toilets

This GIZ publication explains the design, use and operational requirements of composting toilets. Ample examples for composting toilets from around the world are included in the publication to show that these types of toilets have a wide range of applications under a variety of circumstances (for wealthy or poor people; for cold, hot, wet or dry climates; for urban or rural settings). The appendix contains a listing of suppliers.

BERGER, W. (2011): Technology Review of Composting Toilets. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) URL [Accessed: 12.05.2019]

Basic overview of Composting Toilets (with and without urine diversion)

The publication explains the purposes of urine diversion, its benefits and challenges, possibilities of urine treatment and reuse in agriculture. It provides an overview on design and operational aspects for equipment needed, such as waterless urinals and urine diversion toilets. An appendix with a worldwide listing of suppliers for waterless urinals and urine diversion toilet pedestals and squatting pans is also available.

GTZ (2010): Basic overview of Composting Toilets (with and without urine diversion). (= Technology Review ). Eschborn: German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 22.11.2010]

Toilets

The first part of a sanitation system is the „user interface“, i.e. the toilet, pedestal, pan or urinal. It is an important part of the sanitation system because this is the part the user comes in contact with. Acceptance of a sanitation system therefore often mainly depends on the acceptance of the user interface. This paper gives an overview on developments of different technologies for user interfaces (UDDTs and urinals). The contributions present developments in different geographical regions: South America, East Africa and the Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) countries.

ECOSAN CLUB (2011): Toilets. (= Sustainable Sanitation Practice , 6 ). Vienna: Ecosan Club URL

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019] PDF

Ecological Sanitation - revised and enlarged edition

This book is one of the most fundamental and important books that defined the concept of ecological sanitation. The first version came out in 1998 - this version presents the findings of over ten years of research and development in ecological sanitation supported by SIDA (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency).

WINBLAD, U. SIMPSON-HERBERT, M. (2004): Ecological Sanitation - revised and enlarged edition. (pdf presentation). Sweden: Stockholm Environment Institute URL [Accessed: 04.08.2010]

Ecological Sanitation

This book puts forward ecological sanitation as an alternative to conventional sanitation, and was one of the very first of its kind. It documents different options of ecosan based on dehydrating and composting toilets in use around the world. The book has been reviewed and enlarged since then.

ESREY, S. A. ; GOUGH, J. ; RAPAPORT, D. ; SAWYER, R. ; MAYLING, S.H. ; VARGAS, J. ; WINBLAD, U. (1998): Ecological Sanitation. Stockholm: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) URL [Accessed: 31.05.2019]

The Humanure Handbook

A comprehensive book on recycling human excrement without chemicals, high technology or pollution. Well written, practical, and thoroughly researched, this self-published book is built on nearly twenty years of experience by the author, who tells us about every aspect of dealing with excrement on the home-scale level. Only available for free as web book.

JENKINS, J. (2005): The Humanure Handbook. A Guide to Composting Human Manure. (= 3rd Edition ). Grove City: Joseph Jenkins Inc. URL [Accessed: 16.08.2010]

Toilets That Make Compost

This book describes in an easy-to-understand and picture-based way how to construct three different low cost sanitation solutions, namely arborloos, fossa alterna and urine diversion toilets.

MORGAN, P. EcoSanRes (2007): Toilets That Make Compost . Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019]

Human Excreta Treatment Technologies - prerequisites, constraints and performance

The thesis consists of three papers, the first of which investigates incineration of faecal matter as a treatment and sanitation method using a locally fabricated incinerator made of steel sheets. The second and third papers investigate composting of faeces and food waste at two size scales, using 78-litre and 216- litre wooden reactors.

NIWAGABA, C. (2007): Human Excreta Treatment Technologies - prerequisites, constraints and performance. (= Licentiate thesis ). Uppsala: Swedish Agricultural University (SLU), Department of Biometry and Engineering

Smart Sanitation Solutions

Smart Sanitation Solutions presents examples of low-cost household and community-based sanitation solutions that have proven effective and affordable. A wide range of innovative technologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatment and use of sanitation products that have already helped thousands of poor families to improve their lives is illustrated.

NWP (2006): Smart Sanitation Solutions. Examples of innovative, low-cost technologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatment and use of sanitation products. (= Smart water solutions ). Amsterdam: Netherlands Water Partnership (NWP) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019] PDF

Philippines Sanitation Source Book and Decision Aid

This Sanitation Sourcebook distils some of the core concepts of sanitation in a user-friendly format so that the book can serve as a practical reference to sanitation professionals and investment decision-makers, particularly the local governments. The annexe contains a practical collection of factsheets on selected sanitation system options.

WSP (2007): Philippines Sanitation Source Book and Decision Aid. pdf presentation. Washington: Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). URL [Accessed: 01.06.2019]

Construction of Ecological Sanitation Latrine

This document sets out the principles for adopting an ecological sanitation approach, as well as providing guidance on the construction ecological sanitation latrines and their operation. It is intended to support sanitation field practitioners and WaterAid in Nepal ’s partners in the delivery of appropriate services and technologies to fit the needs of different users. .It is also equally hoped that this document will be of value to other organisations and sector stakeholders involved in sanitation promotion and ecological sanitation.

WATER AID (2011): Construction of Ecological Sanitation Latrine. Kathmandu: Water Aid URL [Accessed: 19.10.2011]

How to Manage Public Toilets and Showers

The purpose of this decision-making aid is to provide practical advice and recommendations for managing toilet blocks situated in public places. It is primarily aimed at local decision-makers in developing countries and at their partners (project planners and managers).

TOUBKISS, J. (2010): How to Manage Public Toilets and Showers. (= Six Methodological Guides for a Water and Sanitation Services' Development Strategy , 5 ). Cotonou and Paris: Partenariat pour le Développement Municipal (PDM) and Programme Solidarité Eau (pS-Eau) URL [Accessed: 19.10.2011]

The Toilet That Makes Humus

This easily understandable presentation deals with making humus in shallow pits by means of the Fossa alterna. Foci are set on: - How the Fossa alterna works (in Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi) - Stages of construction - Routine management - Changing pits - Potential problems - Hand washing devices - Humus from the Fossa alterna - Enhanced growth of vegetables with “Fossa humus”

MORGAN, P. (2004): The Toilet That Makes Humus. An Account of the Fossa Alterna System and its Usefulness in Rural and Peri-Urban Communities. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 20.06.2013]

Plant Trials Using Fossa Alterna Humus

The ultimate proof of the usefulness of eco-humus and urine in agriculture is to demonstrate its effect on plant growth and yield directly. This chapter describes a series of trials in which the growth and yield of vegetables planted in humus derived from the Fossa alterna were studied.

MORGAN, P. (2004): Plant Trials Using Fossa Alterna Humus. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 20.06.2013]
حالات دراسية

From pit latrine to nutrient conservation – Design and construction of an optimised public dehydration toilet in Ghana

As part of the project "Ecological development at Valley View University in Accra, Ghana", a public dehydration toilet building for about 250 male students was constructed on a campus as a first step, to find out about acceptance, function and treatment conditions.

BERGER, W. (2009): From pit latrine to nutrient conservation – Design and construction of an optimised public dehydration toilet in Ghana. Hamburg: Berger Biotechnik AG URL [Accessed: 22.11.2010]

From pit latrine to nutrient conservation – Design and construction of an optimised public dehydration toilet in Ghana- Presentation

This presentation describes the installation of a public dehydration toilet building for about 250 male students at Valley View University in Accra, Ghana.

BERGER, W. (2009): From pit latrine to nutrient conservation – Design and construction of an optimised public dehydration toilet in Ghana- Presentation. Hamburg: Berger Biotechnik AG URL [Accessed: 22.11.2010]

Results in the Use and Practise of Composting Toilets in Multi Storey Houses in Bielefeld and Rostock, Germany- Presentation

This is a a presentation concerning composting toilets in four story buildings.

BERGER, W. (2009): Results in the Use and Practise of Composting Toilets in Multi Storey Houses in Bielefeld and Rostock, Germany- Presentation. Hamburg: Berger Biotechnik AG URL [Accessed: 22.11.2010]

Improved traditional composting toilets with urine diversion, Leh, Jammu and Kashmir State, India - draft

In Leh, a small town in Jammu and Kashmir, people try to replace traditional sanitation systems by waterborne toilet systems. This project tries to revitalise the traditional ecological sanitation practice that is threatened to fall into oblivion. Different improvements of the traditional Ladhaki toilets are suggested. Due to an extremely dry climate, it is possible to process human excreta indoors without prior diversion of urine, by using a combination of soil composting and dehydration.

DAWA, S. KREUTZER, G. PANESAR, A. (2009): Improved traditional composting toilets with urine diversion, Leh, Jammu and Kashmir State, India - draft. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 31.05.2019]

Blackwater and greywater reuse system, Chorrillos, Lima, Peru

The following technologies were installed in the education centre “San Christoferus”: Constructed wetland for greywater treatment; compost filter for blackwater treatment; and double-vault urine diversion dehydration toilets. The aim of the project was to reduce water consumption and limit the wastewater flowing to the public sewer system, of which the largest part is discharged without treatment.

HOFFMANN, H. RUEN, S. SCHOEPE, A. (2009): Blackwater and greywater reuse system, Chorrillos, Lima, Peru. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 02.06.2019]

Introducing Low Cost Productive Sanitation in a Peri-Urban Settlement

The following presentation deals with low cost ecological toilets (Fossa alterna) which were introduced at Hopley Farm, a settlement close to Harare, Zimbabwe. The presentation addresses the following topics: - How the alternating shallow pit system works - Local agricultural practice - Linking sanitation to agriculture - Testing for effect of urine - Linking sanitation to forestry

MORGAN, P. (2010): Introducing Low Cost Productive Sanitation in a Peri-Urban Settlement. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 20.06.2013]

Ecological Sanitation in Malawi

This illustrative presentation on ecological sanitation in Malawi, focuses on the concept of ecological sanitation, types of eco-toilets and basic methods of recycling nutrient from human excreta.

MORGAN, P. (2010): Ecological Sanitation in Malawi. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 31.05.2019]

Experiments with Ecological Sanitation and Pit Emptying in Maputaland, South Africa

This document describes the experimental design of ecological sanitation and pit-emptying trials in Maputaland, South Africa. It describes the situation found at field visits in 2000 and 2003.

MORGAN, P. (2003): Experiments with Ecological Sanitation and Pit Emptying in Maputaland, South Africa. A Description of Visits Made in 2000 and 2003. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 20.06.2013]

The Arborloo Book for Ethiopia

This booklet describes how to make a toilet which is both low cost and easy to make. Builders and artisans are not required, once the householder has learned the basic methods of construction.

MORGAN, P. (2007): The Arborloo Book for Ethiopia. How to Make a Simple Pit Toilet and Grow Trees and Vegetables. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 20.06.2013]

Lessons from a Low Cost Ecological Approach to Sanitation in Malawi

Low cost Ecological Sanitation programs in Malawi have led to the building of over 11,000 compost-producing toilets since 2003. While the toilets are affordable and simple to construct, the fact that they convert human waste into valuable odour-free compost, enables cost recovery for households and is a prime driver in popularizing EcoSan designs. This field note summarizes the lessons learned thus far in Malawi’s efforts to popularize ecological sanitation.

MORGAN, P. (2007): Lessons from a Low Cost Ecological Approach to Sanitation in Malawi. Washington: Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) URL [Accessed: 20.06.2013]

Ecological Sanitation in Southern Africa

This document describes the ecological sanitation situation in South Africa, focussing on the range of technological options, promotional methods and recycling methods and the problem areas.

MORGAN, P. (2005): Ecological Sanitation in Southern Africa. Many Approaches to a Varied Need. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 21.06.2013]

Solutions for Mountain Regions

This Sustainable Sanitation Practice (SSP) issue contains the following contributions: 1. Source Separating Solutions for Mountain Regions, 2. "Gloggnitzer Huette" Sanitation System, 3. Solid Waste Management in Mountain Refuges.

MUELLEGGER, E. ; LANGEGRABER, G. ; LECHNER, M. (2011): Solutions for Mountain Regions. (= Sustainable Sanitation Practice , 8 ). Vienna: Ecosan Club URL [Accessed: 01.07.2013]

The ROSA Project

The ROSA project stands for Resource-Oriented Sanitation concepts for peri-urban areas in Africa. This Sustainable Sanitation Practice (SSP) issue contains the following contributions: 1. Introduction to the ROSA Project, 2. From Pilot Units to Large-Scale Implementation - Ethiopia, 3. Implementation of UDDTs at Schools - Kenya, 4. Urban Agriculture for Sanitation Promotion, 5. Operation an Maintenance in Practice, 6. Experiences from Strategic Sanitation Planning, 7. Main Findings and Main Achievements.

MUELLEGGER, E. ; LANGEGRABER, G. ; LECHNER, M. (2010): The ROSA Project. (= Sustainable Sanitation Practice , 4 ). Vienna: Ecosan Club URL [Accessed: 01.07.2013]

Delivering Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Services in an Uncertain Environment: Thermophilic Composting of Human Wastes in Uncertain Urban Environments

This paper describes the project of constructing a thermophilic composting site in Haiti after the earthquake in 2010. The composting facilities have treated over 500,000 gallons of human waste in the past three years, converting it to pathogen free compost, over 10,000 gallons of which has been sold for use in agriculture and reforestation projects. The experience of thermophilic composting in Haiti is unique in scale and duration and can have global implications for waste treatment in both emergency and development contexts.

KRAMER, S. PRENETA, N. KILBRIDE, A. (2013): Delivering Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Services in an Uncertain Environment: Thermophilic Composting of Human Wastes in Uncertain Urban Environments. A Case Study from Haiti. (= WECD International Conference , 36 ). Oakland: Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods (SOIL) URL [Accessed: 01.06.2019]

Delivering Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Services in an Uncertain Environment: Piloting Ecological Sanitation (EcoSan) in the Emergency Context of Port-au-Prince, Haiti, after the 2010 Earthquake

The earthquake that struck Haiti in January 2010 and the cholera epidemic that followed from October 2010, resulted in one of the largest humanitarian relief efforts in history. Many of the internally displaced persons camps were located in urban neighbourhoods with high groundwater, making onsite sanitation extremely difficult. In response to these unique conditions a small local organization, SOIL, partnered with Oxfam Great Britain to pilot urine diversion EcoSan toilets in camps throughout Port-au-Prince. This briefing paper covers this pilot project from March 2010 through March 2012. During that 2-year period, SOIL’s toilets served over 20,000 people and treated more than 400,000 gallons of human waste, converting it to rich compost.

KILBRIDE, A. KRAMER, S. PRENETA, N. (2013): Delivering Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Services in an Uncertain Environment: Piloting Ecological Sanitation (EcoSan) in the Emergency Context of Port-au-Prince, Haiti, after the 2010 Earthquake. (= WECD International Conference , 36 ). Oakland: Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods (SOIL) URL [Accessed: 01.06.2019]
مواد تدريبية

Constructing Compost Toilets

Technical brief on the construction of composting toilets.

USAID (n.y): Constructing Compost Toilets. (= Water for the World, Technical note ). Washington: United States Agency for International Development (USAID) URL [Accessed: 11.08.2010]

Designing Compost Toilets

Technical brief on the design of composting toilets.

USAID (n.y): Designing Compost Toilets. (= Water for the World, Technical note ). Washington: United States Agency for International Development (USAID) URL [Accessed: 11.08.2010]

Construction of Bench Style Double Vault Urine Diversion Toilet and Alternatives

The use of Urine Diversion (UD) in dry toilets allows faeces dehydration. Urine can be reused as urea, while faeces are dried in a double vault system of alternate use. The moisture comes out using ventilation pipes. After 2 years the end product can be emptied and reused without having any health risk. Water from washing can be treated in a constructed wetland and reused for instance for irrigation.

HOFFMANN, H. (2012): Construction of Bench Style Double Vault Urine Diversion Toilet and Alternatives. Lima: Rotaria del Peru SAC URL [Accessed: 26.03.2012]
مواد لنشر الوعي

    This module introduces the importance of market-based RRR solutions. At the end of this module you have identified key challenges in your local sanitation and waste management system and a RRR-related business idea.

    Cover image Module  1

    This module sheds light on the importance of studying the business environment and its components like waste supply, market demand, competition and the institutional framework. At the end of this module you have gained insights to evaluating the potential of your business idea.

    Cover image Module  2

    This module shows how a business idea can be turned into a business model while putting a specific focus on understanding the customer and designing products that meet their needs. At the end of this module you will have developed a business model and positioned your offer in the market.

    Cover image Module  3

    This module focusses on planning the operations of a RRR related business. During this part RRR technologies will be introduced for different waste streams and tools for planning the production process. At the end of this module you will have blueprinted your production process and the required technology and production inputs.

    Cover image Module  4

    This module covers key aspects of financial planning and analysis. At the end of this module you will have forecasted your profits, cash flows, required investment and evaluated the financial viability of your business model.

    Cover image Module  5

    This module enables you to set objectives and plan activities for the launch of your RRR business and identify potential financing sources. At the end of this module you will have developed an action plan for launch and identified appropriate financing sources.

    Cover image Module  6

    Week 1: Identify challenges in your local sanitation & waste management

    Download Materials
    قراءات أخرى

    SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles

    This AGUASAN publication illustrates how the water and nutrient cycles can be used as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system and aligning it with SDG 6.

    BROGAN, J., ERLMANN, T., MUELLER, K. and SOROKOVSKYI, V. (2017): SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles. Using the water and nutrient cycles as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system - including workshop material. Bern (Switzerland): AGUASAN and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

    Why shit matters [Video File]

    TEDX TALKS (2019): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d4yD0kz34jg [Accessed: 28.03.2019]

    "3 billion people worldwide live in cities without sewers or wastewater treatment plant infrastructure. This forces them to dump their waste into open waters, contaminating the drinking water for others downstream. Imagine if we could harness nutrients in wastewater instead of harming human and environmental health. Christoph Lüthi sees a renewable, locally produced and growing resource where others see only human waste. Watch his talk to learn why shit matters! "

    Week 2: Identify RRR products and business opportunities

    Download Materials
    قراءات أخرى

    A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

    AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

    GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

    OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Week 1: Analyse waste supply

    Download Materials
    قراءات أخرى

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 2: Analyse market demand

    Download Materials
    قراءات أخرى

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 3: Analyse your competition

    Download Materials
    قراءات أخرى

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 4: Analyse the institutional environment

    Download Materials
    قراءات أخرى

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 1: Meet the Business Model Canvas

    Download Materials
    قراءات أخرى

    A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

    AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

    GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

    OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Week 1: Plan your production process

    Download Materials
    قراءات أخرى

    Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

    This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

    TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

    Week 2: Understand the treatment process

    قراءات أخرى

    Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings

    LOHRI, C. R., DIENER, S., ZABALETA, I. MERTENAT, A. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2017): Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings. In: Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 81–130. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

    Week 3A: Design technology systems for nutrient recovery

    قراءات أخرى

    Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery

    COFIE, O., NIKIEMA, J., IMPRAIM, R., ADAMTEY, N., PAUL, J. and KONÉ, D. (2016): Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 3. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Decentralized composting in India

    DRESCHER, S. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2004): Decentralized composting in India. In: Harper et al. Sustainable Composting: Case Studies in Guidelines for Developing Countries. Loughborough (UK): Water Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), Loughborough University, Part2: Case Studies, Chapter 3, pp.15-27. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

    Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives

    KARANJA, N., KWACH, H. and NJENGA, M. (2005): Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives. Nairobi (Kenya): UN-Habitat. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 3B: Design technology systems for energy recovery

    قراءات أخرى

    Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market

    FERGUSON, H. (2012): Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market. London (UK): Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) International. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 3C: Design technology systems for water recovery

    قراءات أخرى

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Chapter 3 - Technology Selection

    VEENSTRA, S., ALAERTS, G. and BIJLSMA, M. (1997): Chapter 3 - Technology Selection. In: Helmer, R. and Hespanhol, I. (Eds). Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles. London (UK): World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects

    Volume I of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater focuses on policy, regulation and institutional arrangements. Accordingly, its intended readership is made up of policy-makers and those with regulatory responsibilities. It provides guidance on policy formulation, harmonisation and mainstreaming, on regulatory mechanisms and on establishing institutional links between the various interested sectors and parties. It also presents a synthesis of the key issues from Volumes II, III, and IV and the index for all four volumes as well as a glossary of terms used in all four volumes is presented in Annex 1.

    WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 10.04.2019]

    Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture

    Volume II of the Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater provides information on the assessment and management of risks associated with microbial hazards and toxic chemicals. It explains requirements to promote the safe use of wastewater in agriculture, including minimum procedures and specific health-based targets, and how those requirements are intended to be used. It also describes the approaches used in deriving the guidelines, including health-based targets, and includes a substantive revision of approaches to ensuring microbial safety.

    WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019] PDF

    Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture

    Volume III of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater deals with wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture and describes the present state of knowledge regarding the impact of wastewater-fed aquaculture on the health of producers, product consumers and local communities. It assesses the associated health risks and provides an integrated preventive management framework.

    WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]

    Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

    Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

    WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019] PDF

    Week 3: Analyse financial viability

    قراءات أخرى

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 1: Set objectives and plan activities for launch

    Download Materials
    قراءات أخرى

    Week 2: Finance the launch

    Download Materials
    قراءات أخرى

    This is the compact version of the factsheet.

    Read Extended Version

    Alternative Versions to