2018 أبريل 27

الأرض الرطبة المُنشأة ذات التدفق الرأسي

Application level

City

Household

Neighborhood

Management level

Household

Public

Shared

المُدخلات

Blackwater Brownwater Greywater Effluent

المُخرَجات

Effluent Biomass
المؤلف*
Eawag المعهد الفيدرالي السويسري لعلوم وتقنيات المياه
ترجمة وتعريب مؤسسة بناء

المُلخص التنفيذي

الأرض الرطبة المُنشأة ذات التدفق الرأسي Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland هي عبارة عن مُرشِّح بالنباتات، حيث يتم تصريف المياه من أسفله. يتم ضخ أو حقن مياه الصرف على جرعات من أعلى باستخدام نظام حقن جرعات ميكانيكي. تتدفق المياه بشكل عمودي خلال طبقة الترشيح إلى أسفل الحَوْض حيث يتم تجميعُها في أنبوب خاص بالتصريف. الاختلاف المهم بين الأراضي الرطبة الأفقية والرأسية ليس مجرّد إتجاه مسار التدفق ولكن الظروف الهوائية أيضًا.

بسبب ضخ المياه إلى الأرض الرطبة على جرعات مُتقطّعة (من 4 إلى 10 مرات في اليوم)، فإن المُرشِّح يَمُر بمراحل يكون فيها مُتشبعًا ومراحل أخرى يكون فيها غير مُتشبع، وبالتالي تحدث مراحل مُختلفة من الظروف الهوائية واللاهوائية. خلال مرحلة التدفق تتسرب مياه الصرف عبر الحَوْض غير المُشَبّع. وعندما يتم تصريف المياه من المُرشِّح، يتم سحب الهواء إليه، وبالتالي يكون لدى الأكسجين الوقت الكافي للانتشار عبر مسام مادة المُرشِّح. يعمل وسط الترشيح كمُرشِّح لإزالة المواد الصلبة، وكسطح ثابت بحيث يُمكن للبكتريا أن تلتصق به، وكقاعدة للغطاء النباتي، والطبقة العليا تكون مزروعة.

ويُسمح للغطاء النباتي أن يُنمِّي جذورًا عريضة وعميقة، لتتخلل وسط المُرشِّح. تقوم النباتات بنقل كمية صغيرة من الأكسجين إلى منطقة الجذور، حيث يُمكن للبكتيريا الهوائية أن تستعمر تلك المنطقة وتُحلّل المواد العضوية أيضًا؛ ومع ذلك فإنَّ الدور الرئيسي للغطاء النباتي هو الحفاظ على النفاذية في الوسط الترشيحي، وتوفير بيئة صالحة لنمو الكائنات الحية الدقيقة. يتم امتصاص وتحلل المُغذيات والمواد العضوية بواسطة تجمعات من الكائنات الحية الدقيقة. بإجبار الكائنات الحية الدقيقة على الدخول في طور جوع شديد بين المراحل التي يتم فيها حقن الجُرعات؛ فإن النمو المُفرِط للكتلة الحيوية يمكن أن ينخفض وبذلك تزيد المسامية.

المزايا
تخفيض كبير للاحتياج الحيوي للأكسجين BOD، والعوالق، ومُسببات الأمراض.
القدرة على النترجة بسبب النقل الجيد للأكسجين.
ليس لديها مشكلة البعوض الموجودة في الأرض الرطبة المُشأة ذات التدفق السطحي.
أقل انسدادًا مما هو عليه الحال في الأرض الرطبة المُنشأة ذات التدفق الأفقي المغمور.
تتطلب مساحة أقل من تلك الخاصة بالأرض الرطبة ذات التدفق السطحي، أو ذات التدفق الأفقي.
تكاليف التشغيل مُنخفضة.
العيوب
تتطلب خبرة في التصميم والإنشاء، وبشكل خاص في نظام حقن الجرعات.
تتطلب معدل صيانة متكرر، أكثر من الأرض الرطبة المُنشأة ذات التدفق الأفقي المغمور.
قد تكون هناك حاجة لمصدر مُستمر للطاقة الكهربائية.
تتطلب فترة طويلة لبدء التشغيل حتى تعمل بكامل قدرتها.
قد لا تكون جميع الأجزاء والمواد متوفرة محليًّا.
المُدخلات المُخرَجات

التدفقات السائلة الخاجة  ,المياة السوداء ,المياة البنية , المياة الرمادية

التدفقات السائلة الخارجة , الكتلة الحيوية

المُلاءَمَة

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 تُعتبر المُعالجة بالأرض الرطبة المُنشأة ذات التدفق الرأسي عملية جيدة للمُجتمعات التي لديها مُعالجة ابتدائية على سبيل المثال: خزَّان التحليل )التخمير(،  ولكنها تتطلع إلى تحقيق تدفقات سائلة خارجة عالية الجودة. بسبب نظام حقن الجرعات الميكانيكي؛ فإن هذه التقنية تكون الأكثر مُناسبة عند توفر العمالة المُدربة، وقطع الغيار، ومصدر طاقة دائم. بما أن الأرض الرطبة المُنشأة ذات التدفق الرأسي لديها القدرة على النترجة، فهي مُناسبة في عملية المُعالجة لمياه الصرف الغنية بتركيز الأمونيوم. هذه التقنية هي أكثر مُلاءَمَةً في الأجواء الدافئة، لكن يُمكن أن تُصَمّم لتتحمل البرودة الشديدة وكذلك فترات النشاط الحيوي المُنخفض.

 

اعتبارات التصميم

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 الأرض الرطبة المُنشأة ذات التدفق الرأسي يُمكن أن يتم تصميمها كتجريفٍ أرضيّ ضحلٍ (حَوْض أرضيّ محفور ذو عمق بسيط) أو كبناءِ فوق سطح الأرض. يُعتبر الانسداد مُشكلة شائعة، وبالتالي فإن التدفقات السائلةَ الداخلةَ المرادَ مُعالجتها يجب أن تُرسَّب جيدًا من خلال المُعالجة الابتدائية قبل تدفقها إلى الأرض الرطبة. ويعتمد تصميم وحجم الأراضي الرطبة على الأحمال الهيدروليكية والعضوية. إنّ المساحة السطحية المطلوبة لكل فرد مكافئ تقدر بحوالي متر إلى 3 متر مربع. كُل مُرشِّح يجب أن يكون له بطانةٌ غير مُنفذةٍ للماء، ونظامٌ لجمع التدفقات السائلة الخارجة. وبتركيب أنبوب تهوية مُتَّصل بنظام التصريف يُمكن أن يساهم ذلك في تحسين الظروف الهوائية في المُرشِّح. بشكل هيكلي، هناك طبقة من الحصى لتصريف المياه(لا يقل ارتفاعها عن 20 سنتيمتر(، تليها طبقات من الرمل والحصى. اعتمادًا على المناخ، فإن البوص Reed، أو أعشاب البرك Cattails، أو الدنيبة )إيكينوكلوا هرمية  Echinochloa Pyramidalis) تكون في الأغلب هي الخيارات النباتية الشائعة. وقد يتطلب الأمر عملية اختبار لتحديد مدى مُلاءَمَة النباتات المُتوفرة محليًّا مع مياه الصرف المحددة.

نظرًا للنقل الجيد للأكسحين، فإن الأراضي الرطبة ذات التدفق الرأسي لديها القدرة على النترجة Nitrification (أكسدة الأمونيا)، لكن إزالة(عكس( النترجة  Denitrification (اختزال النترات إلى نتروجين تكون محدودة. لإنشاء سلسلة من عمليات المُعالجة بالنترجة - وإزالة النترجة، فإنَّ هذه التقنية يُمكن أن يتم دمجها مع الأرض الرطبة ذات التدفق السطحي أو ذات التدفق الأفقي

الجوانب الصحية / القبول

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تتم إزالة مُسببات الأمراض من المياه عن طريق التحلل الطبيعي والاستهلاك بواسطة الكائنات الحية الأكبر والترشيح. بما أنه لا توجد مياه راكدة فإن خطر تكاثر البعوض يُعتبر قليلًا. هذا النظام يكون له مظهر جمالي، ويُمكن دمجه في المناطق البرية أو الحدائق. ويجب توخّي الحذر لضمان عدم التلامس المُباشر للناس مع التدفقات السائلة الداخلة؛ حيث يتسبب ذلك في خطر العدوى.

 

التشغيل والصيانة

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 خلال موسم النمو الأول للنباتات من المُهِم إزالة الحشائش الضارة التي يُمكن أن تتنافس مع نباتات الأراضي الرطبة المزروعة. ويجب تنظيف أنابيب التوزيع مرة في السنة؛ لإزالة الحمأة والغشاء الحيوي Biofilm والذي يُمكن أن يؤدي إلى انسداد الفتحات. مع مرور الوقت، سيتم  انسداد المسافات البينبة بين الحصى بالمواد الصلبة المُتراكمة، وطبقة الغشاء البكتيري Bacterial film. فترات الراحة بين الجرعات قد تعيد الانسيابية الهيدروليكية للمُرشِّح؛ فإن لم يكن ذلك مساعدًا، فلا بد من إزالة المواد المُتراكمة، واستبدال الأجزاء المسدودة من مادة المُرشِّح. تتطلّب مواد المُرشِّح التي في منطقة المدخل أن يتم استبدالها كل 10 سنوات أو أكثر. ويجب أن تُركّز أعمال الصيانة على ضمان أن تكون المُعالجة الابتدائية فعَّالة في خفض تركيز المواد الصلبة في مياه الصرف قبل أن تدخل الأرض الرطبة. كما يجب أن تضمن عملية الصيانة عدم نمو الأشجار في المنطقة المحيطة، حيث يُمكن للجذور أن تُلحق الضرر بالبطانة.

المراجع

معالجة مياه الصرف الصحي لمنطقة تقرت بواسطة نباتات منتقية محلية

العابد ابراهيم (2015): معالجة مياه الصرف الصحي لمنطقة تقرت بواسطة نباتات منتقية محلية. "رسالة دكتوراة كليـة الرياضيات وعلـوم المادة قسـم الكيمياء جـــــامـــــعــة قاصدي مرباح ورقـــلـــــــــة الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية"

Language: Arabic

Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems

Decentralised wastewater management presents a comprehensive approach to the design of both conventional and innovative systems for the treatment and disposal of wastewater or the reuse of treaded effluent. Smaller treatment plants, which are the concern of most new engineers, are the primary focus of this book.

CRITES, R. TCHOBANOGLOUS, G. (1998): Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc

Constructed Wetlands: A Promising Wastewater Treatment system for Small Localities. Experiences from Latin America

This report provides an overview of how constructed wetlands serve as natural wastewater treatment systems. It focuses especially on the subsurface horizontal flow type—a technology that has high potential for small and medium-size communities because of its simplicity, performance reliability, and low operation and maintenance requirements. The ability of this wetland to reduce pathogens renders the effluent suitable for irrigation of certain crop species if additional health and environmental protection measures are taken. This report describes several experiences with constructed wetland schemes in Central and South America: a full-scale pilot plant in Nicaragua, a community-managed constructed wetland scheme in El Salvador, and other systems in Colombia, Brazil, and Peru.

GAUSS, M. WSP (2008): Constructed Wetlands: A Promising Wastewater Treatment system for Small Localities. Experiences from Latin America. Washington D.C.: The World Bank URL [Accessed: 12.12.2011]

Technology Review of Constructed Wetlands

This publication intends to help spread awareness and knowledge about the technology of subsurface flow constructed wetlands in developing countries. Constructed wetlands (CWs) can be used as part of decentralised wastewater treatment systems, due to their “robust”, “low-tech” nature with none or few moving parts (pumps) and relatively low operational requirements. CWs can be used for the treatment of domestic and municipal wastewater or greywater, and play an important role in many ecological sanitation (ecosan) concepts.

HOFFMANN, H. PLATZER, C. WINKER, M. MUENCH, E. von GIZ (2011): Technology Review of Constructed Wetlands. Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands for Greywater and Domestic Wastewater Treatment. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 01.06.2019]

Greywater Management in Low and Middle-Income Countries, Review of Different Treatment Systems for Households or Neighbourhoods

This report compiles international experience in greywater management on household and neighbourhood level in low and middle-income countries. The documented systems, which vary significantly in terms of complexity, performance and costs, range from simple systems for single-house applications (e.g. local infiltration or garden irrigation) to rather complex treatment trains for neighbourhoods (e.g. series of vertical and horizontal-flow planted soil filters).

MOREL, A. DIENER, S. (2006): Greywater Management in Low and Middle-Income Countries, Review of Different Treatment Systems for Households or Neighbourhoods. (= SANDEC Report No. 14/06 ). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 27.05.2019]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. LUETHI, C. MOREL, A. ZURBRUEGG, C. SCHERTENLEIB, R. (2008): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG) and Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) URL [Accessed: 15.02.2010] PDF

Constructed Wetlands Manual

This manual has been prepared as a general guide to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of constructed wetlands for the treatment of domestic wastewater as well as introduction to the design of constructed wetland for sludge drying.

UN-HABITAT (2008): Constructed Wetlands Manual. Kathmandu: UN-HABITAT, Water for Asian Cities Program URL [Accessed: 15.02.2012]

Manual – Constructed Wetlands Treatment of Municipal Wastewater

This manual discusses the capabilities of constructed wetlands, a functional design approach, and the management requirements to achieve the designed purpose. The manual also attempts to put the proper perspective on the appropriate use, design and performance of constructed wetlands. Furthermore, the document contains two case studies.

U.S. EPA (1999): Manual – Constructed Wetlands Treatment of Municipal Wastewater. Washington D.C.: United States: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) URL [Accessed: 09.06.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects

Volume I of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater focuses on policy, regulation and institutional arrangements. Accordingly, its intended readership is made up of policy-makers and those with regulatory responsibilities. It provides guidance on policy formulation, harmonisation and mainstreaming, on regulatory mechanisms and on establishing institutional links between the various interested sectors and parties. It also presents a synthesis of the key issues from Volumes II, III, and IV and the index for all four volumes as well as a glossary of terms used in all four volumes is presented in Annex 1.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 10.04.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture

Volume II of the Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater provides information on the assessment and management of risks associated with microbial hazards and toxic chemicals. It explains requirements to promote the safe use of wastewater in agriculture, including minimum procedures and specific health-based targets, and how those requirements are intended to be used. It also describes the approaches used in deriving the guidelines, including health-based targets, and includes a substantive revision of approaches to ensuring microbial safety.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019] PDF

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture

Volume III of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater deals with wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture and describes the present state of knowledge regarding the impact of wastewater-fed aquaculture on the health of producers, product consumers and local communities. It assesses the associated health risks and provides an integrated preventive management framework.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019] PDF
قراءات أخرى

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

Technology Review of Constructed Wetlands

This publication intends to help spread awareness and knowledge about the technology of subsurface flow constructed wetlands in developing countries. Constructed wetlands (CWs) can be used as part of decentralised wastewater treatment systems, due to their “robust”, “low-tech” nature with none or few moving parts (pumps) and relatively low operational requirements. CWs can be used for the treatment of domestic and municipal wastewater or greywater, and play an important role in many ecological sanitation (ecosan) concepts.

HOFFMANN, H. PLATZER, C. WINKER, M. MUENCH, E. von GIZ (2011): Technology Review of Constructed Wetlands. Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands for Greywater and Domestic Wastewater Treatment. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 01.06.2019]

Constructed Wetlands – Treating Wastewater with Cenoses of Plants and Microorganisms

The underlying philosophy of phytoremediation research at UFZ (Centre for Environmental Research) is to exploit and to optimise the processes in the rhizosphere. Low-cost, simple systems will be developed to control the environmental problems of different countries in several continents irrespective of their industrial capabilities and conditions – without losing sight of the key principle of cleaning up polluted environmental media in a natural, ecologically balanced way.

KUSCHK, P. WIESSNER, A. MUELLER, R. KAESTNER, M. (2005): Constructed Wetlands – Treating Wastewater with Cenoses of Plants and Microorganisms. Leipzig-Halle: UFZ Centre for Environmental Research URL [Accessed: 10.06.2019]

Greywater Management in Low and Middle-Income Countries, Review of Different Treatment Systems for Households or Neighbourhoods

This report compiles international experience in greywater management on household and neighbourhood level in low and middle-income countries. The documented systems, which vary significantly in terms of complexity, performance and costs, range from simple systems for single-house applications (e.g. local infiltration or garden irrigation) to rather complex treatment trains for neighbourhoods (e.g. series of vertical and horizontal-flow planted soil filters).

MOREL, A. DIENER, S. (2006): Greywater Management in Low and Middle-Income Countries, Review of Different Treatment Systems for Households or Neighbourhoods. (= SANDEC Report No. 14/06 ). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 27.05.2019]

DEWATS

Exhaustive report on technological, operational and economic aspects of decentralised waste water treatment systems. Spreadsheet examples support the reader in designing and planning waste water treatment systems components.

SASSE, L. BORDA (1998): DEWATS. Decentralised Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries. Bremen: Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA) URL [Accessed: 03.06.2019]

FS Management – Review of Practices, Problems and Initiatives

A study on management and institutional aspects regarding the challenges and possible improvements in managing faecal sludge.

STRAUSS, M. MONTANGERO, A. (2002): FS Management – Review of Practices, Problems and Initiatives. London and Duebendorf: DFID Project R8056, Capacity Building for Effective Decentralised Wastewater Management, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 28.05.2019]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019] PDF

Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India. A Guide to Decision-Making

These guidance notes are designed to provide state governments and urban local bodies with additional information on available technologies on sanitation. The notes also aid in making an informed choice and explain the suitability of approaches.

WSP (2008): Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India. A Guide to Decision-Making. pdf presentation. New Delhi: Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) URL [Accessed: 03.06.2019]

Decentralised Wastewater Management Using Constructed Wetlands

This paper describes the importance of small-scale decentralised wastewater treatment using reed bed treatment systems (constructed wetlands) in Nepal. It shows how public/community participation can support small-scale construction work while ensuring checks on quality and price of construction, including examples.

ENPHO (n.y): Decentralised Wastewater Management Using Constructed Wetlands. Kathmandu: Environment and Public Health Organization (ENPHO) URL [Accessed: 10.06.2019]

Ecodesign: The Bottom Line

There is no single design solution to sanitation. But there are universal principles for systematically and safely detoxifying human excreta, without contaminating, wasting or even using water. Ecological sanitation design — which is focused on sustainability through reuse and recycling — offers workable solutions that are gaining footholds around the world, as Nature explores on the following pages through the work of Peter Morgan in Zimbabwe, Ralf Otterpohl and his team in Germany, Shunmuga Paramasivan in India, and Ed Harrington and his colleagues in California.

NATURE (Editor) ; MORGAN, P. ; OTTERPOHL, R. ; PARAMASIVAN, S. ; HARRINGTON, E. (2012): Ecodesign: The Bottom Line. المُدخلات: Nature: International Weekly Journal of Science: Volume 486 , 186-189. URL [Accessed: 19.06.2012]
حالات دراسية

Selected contributions from the 1st WATERBIOTECH conference, 9-11 October 2012, Cairo, Egypt

This issue publishes selected contributions from the 1st WATERBIOTECH conference. WATERBIOTECH („Biotechnology for Africa‘s sustainable water supply“) is a coordination and support action funded within the Africa call of the EU 7th Framework Programme.

ECOSAN CLUB (2013): Selected contributions from the 1st WATERBIOTECH conference, 9-11 October 2012, Cairo, Egypt. (= Sustainable Sanitation Pratice , 14 ). Vienna: Ecosan Club URL [Accessed: 29.01.2013]

Wastewater treatment using constructed wetlands Tirana, Albania - draft

Within the BMZ (German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development) financed project on “Advice on the Decentralisation of the Water and Sewerage Sector in Albania” the GIZ and MPWT (Albanian Ministry of Public Works and Transport) initiated the pilot constructed wetland to raise awareness for low cost, appropriate and decentralised sanitation technologies in line with EU standards. It is aimed to be used as a model treatment plant by the main actors of the sector for training, demonstration, research and replication in peri-urban and rural areas of Albania.

GJINALI, E. NIKLAS, J. (2009): Wastewater treatment using constructed wetlands Tirana, Albania - draft. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 10.06.2019]

Constructed Wetland for a Peri-urban Housing Area Bayawan City, Philippines

Case study on constructed wetlands for a peri-urban housing area. Septic tanks are used to pre-treat the sewage. The pre-treated wastewater is transported through a small-bore sewer system.

LIPKOW, U. MUENCH, E. von (2010): Constructed Wetland for a Peri-urban Housing Area Bayawan City, Philippines. (= SuSanA – Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 10.06.2019]

Effluent reuse from constructed wetland system Haran Al-Awamied, Syria

In the village of Haran Al-Awamied a gravity sewer system already existed and waste water was collected for irrigation without any treatment. GTZ and MHC (Syrian Ministry of Housing and Construction) initiated a project for a new ecological treatment plant (settling tank and a vertical flow CW).

MOHAMED, A. KLINGEL, F. BRACKEN, P. WERNER, C. (2009): Effluent reuse from constructed wetland system Haran Al-Awamied, Syria. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 26.01.2011]

Ecological housing estate, Flintenbreite, Luebeck, Germany - draft

In the Flintenbreite in Luebeck, Germany, blackwater is collected in vacuum toilets. Together with organic wastes from the kitchen it is converted to biogas. Greywater is treated in a reed-bed filter. The project demonstrated the consistent utilisation of ecological building materials, the use of self-sustaining, integrated energy and wastewater concepts, and the implementation of innovative energy saving technologies, with a minimisation of interference in nature, and a responsible, integrative and active cohabitation of the inhabitants.

OTTER-WASSER (2009): Ecological housing estate, Flintenbreite, Luebeck, Germany - draft. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 27.05.2019]

Sunga Constructed Wetland for Wastewater Management. A Case Study in Community Based Water Resource Management

The Kathmandu Valley faces critical problems regarding the availability of drinking water, the quality of water and wastewater management. To improve the wastewater management, constructed wetlands, mostly planted with reed, were constructed. The project area is in Madhyapur Thimi municipality, one of Nepal’s oldest settlements.

RAJBHANDARI, K. (n.y): Sunga Constructed Wetland for Wastewater Management. A Case Study in Community Based Water Resource Management. Shanta Bhawan: WaterAid Nepal URL [Accessed: 15.08.2011]

Ecological Settlement in Allermoehe Hamburg, Germany

This case study is about a full-scale residential settlement project in an urban area in Hamburg, Germany. The settlement was built between 1982 and 1994 and consists of 36 single-family houses with approx. 140 inhabitants. The project aims at having an ecological closed-loop process via on-site wastewater treatment and therefore independence from a sewage system. Rainwater harvesting, composting toilets and constructed wetlands were the technologies applied in the project. Thereby a high resource and energy efficiency can be achieved.

RAUSCHNING, G. BERGER, W. EBELING, B. SCHOEPE, A. (2009): Ecological Settlement in Allermoehe Hamburg, Germany. Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 24.09.2013]

Opportunities in Fecal Sludge Management for Cities in Developing Countries: Experiences from the Philippines

In July 2012, a team from RTI International deployed to the Philippines to evaluate four FSM programs with the goal of reporting on best practices and lessons learned. The four cases—Dumaguete City, San Fernando City, Maynilad Water for the west zone of metro Manila, and Manila Water from the east zone of metro Manila—were chosen to highlight their different approaches to implementing FSM.

ROBBINS, D. STRANDE, L. DOCZI, J. (2012): Opportunities in Fecal Sludge Management for Cities in Developing Countries: Experiences from the Philippines. North Carolina: RTI International URL [Accessed: 10.06.2019]

Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment and Wildlife Habitat

This document provides brief descriptions of 17 wetland treatment systems from that are providing significant water quality benefits while demonstrating additional benefits such as wildlife habitat. The projects described include systems involving both constructed and natural wetlands, habitat creation and restoration, and the improvement of municipal effluent, urban stormwater and river water quality. Each project description was developed by individuals directly involved with or very familiar with the project in a format that could also be used as a stand-alone brochure or handout for project visitors.

U.S. EPA (1993): Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment and Wildlife Habitat. Washington DC: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) URL [Accessed: 10.06.2019]

Constructed Wetlands: A Promising Wastewater Treatment system for Small Localities. Experiences from Latin America

This report provides an overview of how constructed wetlands serve as natural wastewater treatment systems. It focuses especially on the subsurface horizontal flow type—a technology that has high potential for small and medium-size communities because of its simplicity, performance reliability, and low operation and maintenance requirements. The ability of this wetland to reduce pathogens renders the effluent suitable for irrigation of certain crop species if additional health and environmental protection measures are taken. This report describes several experiences with constructed wetland schemes in Central and South America: a full-scale pilot plant in Nicaragua, a community-managed constructed wetland scheme in El Salvador, and other systems in Colombia, Brazil, and Peru.

GAUSS, M. WSP (2008): Constructed Wetlands: A Promising Wastewater Treatment system for Small Localities. Experiences from Latin America. Washington D.C.: The World Bank URL [Accessed: 12.12.2011]

Decentralized Urban Greywater Treatment at Klosterenga Oslo

Today it is possible to foresee completely decentralized wastewater treatment systems in urban areas where the blackwater fractions (urine and faecal matter) is reclaimed for fertilizer and potentially energy production. The water from kitchen sinks and showers (greywater) is treated locally in compact low maintenance systems that constitute attractive landscape elements. These systems can coexist with decentralized water supply.

JENSSEN, P. (2005): Decentralized Urban Greywater Treatment at Klosterenga Oslo. المُدخلات: Ecological Engineering-Bridging between Ecology and Civil Engineering: , 84-86. URL [Accessed: 21.02.2012]

Treatment Wetlands

Issue 12 of Sustainable Sanitation Practice (SSP) on „Treatment wetlands“ includes 6 contributions: (1.) the Austrian experience with single-stage sand and gravel based vertical flow systems with intermittent loading (the Austrian type is for treating mechanically pre-treated wastewater), (2.) the French experiences with two-stage vertical flow systems treating raw wastewater. (3.) EcoSan Club‘s experiences with TWs in Uganda, (4.) results from multi-stage TW treating raw wastewater in Morocco. (5.) results from horizontal flow experimental systems from Egypt, and (6.) experiences from Denmark and UK on reed beds treating excess sludge from activated sludge plants.

MUELLEGGER, E. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; LECHNER, M. (2012): Treatment Wetlands. (= Sustainable Sanitation Practice , 12 ). Vienna: EcoSan Club URL [Accessed: 18.07.2012]
مواد تدريبية

Waste Stabilization Ponds and Constructed Wetlands Manual.

Design manual for designers, builders and operators on the design and operation of artificially constructed wetlands and waste stabilization ponds. The supporting information includes a standard systems approach which can be adopted universally; the theoretical background on the biological, chemical and physical processes of each method, the current state of the technology and technical knowledge on how to design, operate and maintain them; and theoretical knowledge on how best the models may be used to describe the systems.

UNEP (n.y): Waste Stabilization Ponds and Constructed Wetlands Manual. . United Nations Environmental Programme International Environmental Technology Center (UNEP-IETC) and the Danish International Development Agency (Danida) URL [Accessed: 19.04.2010]

Constructed Wetlands Manual

This manual has been prepared as a general guide to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of constructed wetlands for the treatment of domestic wastewater as well as introduction to the design of constructed wetland for sludge drying.

UN-HABITAT (2008): Constructed Wetlands Manual. Kathmandu: UN-HABITAT, Water for Asian Cities Program URL [Accessed: 15.02.2012]

Manual – Constructed Wetlands Treatment of Municipal Wastewater

This manual discusses the capabilities of constructed wetlands, a functional design approach, and the management requirements to achieve the designed purpose. The manual also attempts to put the proper perspective on the appropriate use, design and performance of constructed wetlands. Furthermore, the document contains two case studies.

U.S. EPA (1999): Manual – Constructed Wetlands Treatment of Municipal Wastewater. Washington D.C.: United States: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) URL [Accessed: 09.06.2019]

Small-scale Constructed Wetlands for Greywater and Total Domestic Wastewater Treatment

This training material quantifies and characterises grey- and total domestic wastewater production and exemplifies designing of small-scale horizontal and vertical flow constructed wetland system.

WAFLER, M. (2008): Small-scale Constructed Wetlands for Greywater and Total Domestic Wastewater Treatment. Vienna: seecon international gmbh
مواد لنشر الوعي

Healthy Wetlands, Healthy People: A Review of Wetlands and Human Health Interactions

Despite the production of more food and extraction of more water globally, wetlands continue to decline and public health and living standards for many do not improve. Why is this – and what needs to change to improve the situation? If we manage wetlands better, can we improve the health and well-being of people? Indeed, why is this important? This report seeks to address these questions.

HORWITZ, P. FINLAYSON, M. WEINSTEIN, P. (2012): Healthy Wetlands, Healthy People: A Review of Wetlands and Human Health Interactions. Ramsar Technical Report No. 6. Gland and Geneva: Secretariat of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands and The World Health Organization (WHO) URL [Accessed: 10.06.2019]

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