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2018 يوليو 27

حُفرة الترنا

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المُدخلات

Faeces Excreta Organics
+ Dry Cleansing Materials + Anal Cleansing Water

المُخرَجات

Pit Humus
المؤلف*
Eawag المعهد الفيدرالي السويسري لعلوم وتقنيات المياه
ترجمة وتعريب مؤسسة بناء
المُلخص التنفيذي

حُفرة ألتِرنا Fossa Alterna هي تقنية ذات دورة تناوب قصيرة، وتُعتبر بديلة لتقنيات الحُفر المزدوجة الجافة. وبالمقارنة بتقنية الحُفرة المزدوجة المُطورة المُهواة - المُصممة لجمع وتخزين فضلات الجسم ومعالجتها جزئيًا - فإن تقنية حُفرة ألترنا مُصممة لإنتاج مُنتَج شبيه بالتربة غني بالمغذيات، حيث يمكن استخدامه كمُحسن للتربة الزراعية. يتم حَفر حُفرة ألترنا على عمق يصل إلى 1.5 م كحد أقصى، وتتطلب الإضافة المستمرة لمواد التغطية (التربة، و/أو الرماد، و/أو أواراق الشجر).

ينبغى أن تُضاف مواد التغطية إلى الحُفرة بعد التبرُّز (وليس التبول). حيث توفر التربة وأوراق الشجر كائنات حية مختلفة مثل الديدان والفطريات والبكتريا التي تساعد في عملية التحلّل. وتساعد أيضًا على زيادة المسامية مما يسمح بالعمليات الهوائية. كما أن إضافة الرماد تساعد في السيطرة على الذباب وتقليل الروائح ويجعل الخليط - نوعًا ما - أكثر قلوية. تتحلل مكونات الحُفرة الأولى التي تم امتلاؤها في حين يتم ملء الحُفرة الثانية (الذي يُفتَرض أن يستغرق حوالي سنة). وتتحلل المواد في الحُفرة المُمتلئة إلى مادة جافه شبيهة بالتربة يمكن إزالتها يدويًا بسهولة. تتسبب إضافة المواد الغنية بالكربون في تسريع عملية التحلّل، ويكون المحتوى جاهزًا للاستخراج والاستخدام أسرع بكثير منه في الحُفرة المزدوجة المُطورة المُهواة.

المزايا
بسبب استخدام الحُفرتين بالتبادل، فإن فترة استخدامهما تكاد تكون غير محدودة.
يُعتبر استخراج الدُبال أسهل من استخراج حمأة البُراز.
تخفيض كبير في مسببات للأمراض.
تنتج دُبالًا غنيًا بالمغذيات مع إمكانية استخدامه كمُحسن للتربة.
انخفاض الروائح والذباب بصورة ملحوظة (بالمقارنة مع الحُفر غير المهواة).
يمكن بناؤها وإصلاحها بالمواد المتوفرة محليًا.
التكاليف الإنشائية مُنخفضة (لكنها متعددة) وذلك يعتمد على المواد المستخدمة؛ وتعتبر تكاليف التشغيل معدومة او قليلة إذا تم تفريغها ذاتيًا.
العيوب
تتطلب مصدرًا دائمًا لمواد التغطية.
تتطلب الاستخراج اليدوي للدُبال.
القمامة قد تُفسد فرص الاستخدام النهائي للمُنتج.
المُدخلات المُخرَجات

فضلات الجسم ، البراز،مواد عضوية , مياه تنظيف الشرج، مواد التطهير الجافة  

دبال الحفرة

Factsheet Block Title
المُلاءَمَة
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 تُعتبر حُفرة ألترنا مناسبة للمناطق الريفية وشبه الحضرية، ومناسبة خصيصًا للبيئات التي تعاني من ندرة المياه، وتُعتبر حلًا مفيدًا للمناطق ذات التربة الفقيرة حيث يمكنها الاستفادة من المواد الدُبالية المُثبتة Stabilized Humic Material كمُحسن للتربة. وتُعد حُفرة ألترنا غير مناسبة للمياه الرمادية حيث تكون الحُفرة ضحلة، كما يجب ضمان وجود الهواء لعملية التحلّل.

يتم تفريغ المواد من حُفرة ألترنا يدويًا )بالحَفر وليس بالشفط( لذلك ليس من الضروري مراعاة إمكانية دخول شاحنات الشفط إلى الحُفرة.

حُفرة ألترنا ليست مناسبة للأراضي الصخرية أو التربة المدموكة )التي يصعب حَفرها( أو للمناطق التي توجد بها فيضانات بصورة متكررة، إلا إذا تم رفع الحُفر.

 

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اعتبارات التصميم
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 تمتلئ حُفرة ألترنا خلال فترة من 12 إلى 24 شهرًا، وذلك اعتمًادا على حجمها وعدد المستخدمين. وعلى الرغم من ضحالة عُمق هذه الحُفر )من 1 إلى 1.5 متر( فإنه يمكن استخدام الحُفرة بواسطة عائلة مكونة من ستة أفراد لمدة سنة كاملة. تعمل تقنية حُفرة ألترنا بشكل سليم فقط إذا استُخدمت الحُفرتان بالتتابع وليس في وقت واحد. ولذلك لا بد من وضع غطاء مُناسب للحُفرة غيرالمُستَخدمة.

يمكن استخدام حُفرة ألترنا للبول ولكن لا يضاف إليها الماء - قد يُسمح بكميات صغيرة من مياه تنظيف الشرج. تُعزز المياه تواجد الحشرات الناقلة للأمراض ومسببات الأمراض، كما أنها تَسُد الفراغات المسامية مما يحرم البكتيريا الهوائية من الأكسجين اللازم لعملية التحلّل. ويمكن استخدام المِرحاض الجاف الفاصل للبول مع حُفرة ألترنا، ولكن يحدث ذلك فقط في حالة عدم امتصاص التربة للبول بشكلٍ كافٍ أو عندما يكون البول ذا قيمة عالية للاستخدام.

بما إن مواد التغطية تُستَخدم باستمرار لتغطية فضلات الجسم فإن ذلك يُقلل من الروائح. و لتقليل الروائح بشكل أكبر يمكن إضافة أنبوب تهوية.

في المناطق المُعرضة للفيضانات وحيث يكون منسوب المياه الجوفية عاليًا جدًا يمكن رفع حُفرة ألترنا أو بناؤها بالكامل فوق سطح الأرض لتجنب اختلاط مياه المِرحاض بالمياه الجوفية وتلويثها. ويُعتبر رفع الحُفر خيارًا مناسبًا في حالة الأرض الصخرية أو التربة المدموكة التي يَصعُب حَفرها.

في حالة توافر المساحة وعدم الرغبة في تفريغ الحُفر فإنه يمكن استخدام تقنية أربولو  كخيارٍ بديل للتخلص. وفي هذه الحالة لا يجب تبطين الحُفر إذا كانت ستُستَخدم كتقنية أربولو.

 

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الجوانب الصحية / القبول
Factsheet Block Body

تغطية البُراز بالتربة و/أو الرماد و/أو أوراق الشجر يقلل من الروائح والبعوض بشكل كبير. قد لا يفهم المستخدمون الفرق بين حُفرة ألترنا والحُفرة المزدوجة المُطورة المُهواة ولكن إذا أُتيحت الفرصة لاستخدام حُفرة ألترنا، فسيُقدر الناس المزايا الجيدة لها. يمكن استخدام النماذج الإيضاحية لعرض مدى سهولة تفريغ حُفرة ألترنا بالمقارنة بتفريغ الحُفرة المزدوجة. إبقاء المكونات في الحُفرة - المغلقة - لمدة سنة على الأقل يجعلها أكثر أمانًا وأسهل في التعامل معها. ويجب اتخاذ نفس احتياطات التعامل مع السماد العُضوي عند التعامل مع الدُبال المستخرَج من حُفرة ألترنا.

 

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Read some of our most visited tools on sustainable sanitation such as slow- or rapid sand filtration!

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التشغيل والصيانة
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عند استخدام الحُفرة لأول مرة يجب وضع طبقة من أوراق الشجر في قاع الحُفرة. ويجب إضافة المزيد من أوراق الشجر بصفة دورية لزيادة المسامية ووجود الأكسجين. يجب إضافة كمية صغيرة من التربة و/أو الرماد و/أو أوراق الشجر بعد إضافة البُراز إلى الحُفرة. في بعض الأحيان، يجب دفع المواد المتراكمة تحت فتحة المِرحاض إلى جوانب الحُفرة للاستفادة المُثلى من المساحة.

على عكس الحُفرة الواحدة أو الحُفرة الواحدة المُطورة المُهواة  التي تُغَطَّى أو تُفرَّغ، فإن المواد المُنتجة في حُفرة ألترنا تُستخدم كمُحَسِّن للتربة. لذا فإنه من المهم للغاية عدم وضع القمامة في الحُفرة.

تفريغ حُفرة ألترنا أسهل من تفريغ الحُفر الأخرى؛ حيث إن حُفر ألترنا أكثر ضحالة، كما أن إضافة التربة و/أو الرماد و/أو أوراق الشجر يعني أن مكونات الحُفرة غير مضغوطة بشكل كبير. وتُعتبر المواد المُزالة من الحُفرة ليست مُضِرَة و خطرها للتلوث قليل. ولا يجب تفريغ الحُفرة أكثر من مرة في السنة، وذلك اعتمادًا على أبعاد الحُفرة.

المراجع

Toilets That Make Compost

This book describes in an easy-to-understand and picture-based way how to construct three different low cost sanitation solutions, namely arborloos, fossa alterna and urine diversion toilets.

MORGAN, P. EcoSanRes (2007): Toilets That Make Compost . Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019]

Ecological Toilets

This book describes how to construct Arborloo toilets and how it can be upgraded to VIPs at a later stage.

MORGAN, P. EcoSanRes (2009): Ecological Toilets. (pdf presentation). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. LUETHI, C. MOREL, A. ZURBRUEGG, C. SCHERTENLEIB, R. (2008): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG) and Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) URL [Accessed: 15.02.2010] PDF

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF
قراءات أخرى

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

Toilets That Make Compost. Factsheet

This information sheet summarises the Peter Morgan publication under the same name on two pages. It describes three types of simple and affordable composting toilets: Two types of shallow pit toilets (arborloo) and the urine diverting toilet.

EcoSanRes (2008): Toilets That Make Compost. Factsheet. (pdf presentation). (= EcoSanRes Factsheet 13 ). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute

Closing the loop – Ecological Sanitation for food security

This document was compiled during an international, interdisciplinary workshop in Mexico. This manuscript increases the understanding of how to develop more sustainable sanitation systems, particularly in urban/peri-urban contexts, while contributing to food production and improved nutrition.

ESREY, S.A. ANDERSSON, I. HILLERS, A. SAWYER, R. (2001): Closing the loop – Ecological Sanitation for food security. Stockholm: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency URL [Accessed: 24.11.2010]

The Value of Leaves as and Additive of Fossa Alterna Pits

This is a short description and findings of a trial adding leaves to fossa alterna pits. Leaves help the composting process considerably, by adding more air into the mix, and by adding a composting process undertaken largely by fungi to the already existing bacteriological process undertaken by soil micro-organisms.

MORGAN, P. (2004): The Value of Leaves as and Additive of Fossa Alterna Pits. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 21.06.2013]

The Toilet That Makes Humus

This easily understandable presentation deals with making humus in shallow pits by means of the Fossa alterna. Foci are set on: - How the Fossa alterna works (in Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi) - Stages of construction - Routine management - Changing pits - Potential problems - Hand washing devices - Humus from the Fossa alterna - Enhanced growth of vegetables with “Fossa humus”

MORGAN, P. (2004): The Toilet That Makes Humus. An Account of the Fossa Alterna System and its Usefulness in Rural and Peri-Urban Communities. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 20.06.2013]

Plant Trials Using Fossa Alterna Humus

The ultimate proof of the usefulness of eco-humus and urine in agriculture is to demonstrate its effect on plant growth and yield directly. This chapter describes a series of trials in which the growth and yield of vegetables planted in humus derived from the Fossa alterna were studied.

MORGAN, P. (2004): Plant Trials Using Fossa Alterna Humus. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 20.06.2013]

Toilets That Make Compost

This book describes in an easy-to-understand and picture-based way how to construct three different low cost sanitation solutions, namely arborloos, fossa alterna and urine diversion toilets.

MORGAN, P. EcoSanRes (2007): Toilets That Make Compost . Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019]

Ecological Toilets

This book describes how to construct Arborloo toilets and how it can be upgraded to VIPs at a later stage.

MORGAN, P. EcoSanRes (2009): Ecological Toilets. (pdf presentation). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019]

Ecodesign: The Bottom Line

There is no single design solution to sanitation. But there are universal principles for systematically and safely detoxifying human excreta, without contaminating, wasting or even using water. Ecological sanitation design — which is focused on sustainability through reuse and recycling — offers workable solutions that are gaining footholds around the world, as Nature explores on the following pages through the work of Peter Morgan in Zimbabwe, Ralf Otterpohl and his team in Germany, Shunmuga Paramasivan in India, and Ed Harrington and his colleagues in California.

NATURE (Editor) ; MORGAN, P. ; OTTERPOHL, R. ; PARAMASIVAN, S. ; HARRINGTON, E. (2012): Ecodesign: The Bottom Line. المُدخلات: Nature: International Weekly Journal of Science: Volume 486 , 186-189. URL [Accessed: 19.06.2012]

How to Manage Public Toilets and Showers

The purpose of this decision-making aid is to provide practical advice and recommendations for managing toilet blocks situated in public places. It is primarily aimed at local decision-makers in developing countries and at their partners (project planners and managers).

TOUBKISS, J. (2010): How to Manage Public Toilets and Showers. (= Six Methodological Guides for a Water and Sanitation Services' Development Strategy , 5 ). Cotonou and Paris: Partenariat pour le Développement Municipal (PDM) and Programme Solidarité Eau (pS-Eau) URL [Accessed: 19.10.2011]

Ecological Sanitation - revised and enlarged edition

This book is one of the most fundamental and important books that defined the concept of ecological sanitation. The first version came out in 1998 - this version presents the findings of over ten years of research and development in ecological sanitation supported by SIDA (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency).

WINBLAD, U. SIMPSON-HERBERT, M. (2004): Ecological Sanitation - revised and enlarged edition. (pdf presentation). Sweden: Stockholm Environment Institute URL [Accessed: 04.08.2010]
حالات دراسية

Experiments with Ecological Sanitation and Pit Emptying in Maputaland, South Africa

This document describes the experimental design of ecological sanitation and pit-emptying trials in Maputaland, South Africa. It describes the situation found at field visits in 2000 and 2003.

MORGAN, P. (2003): Experiments with Ecological Sanitation and Pit Emptying in Maputaland, South Africa. A Description of Visits Made in 2000 and 2003. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 20.06.2013]

Ecological Sanitation in Southern Africa

This document describes the ecological sanitation situation in South Africa, focussing on the range of technological options, promotional methods and recycling methods and the problem areas.

MORGAN, P. (2005): Ecological Sanitation in Southern Africa. Many Approaches to a Varied Need. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 21.06.2013]

Available Sanitation Technologies for Rural and Peri-Urban Africa

The presentation allows for a good overview on existing types of pit latrines in Africa, but also on other types of sanitation technologies such as the conventional flush toilet, the pour flush toilet, and the urine diversion dehydration toilet (UDDT).

MORGAN, P. (2007): Available Sanitation Technologies for Rural and Peri-Urban Africa. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 20.06.2013]

Lessons from a Low Cost Ecological Approach to Sanitation in Malawi

Low cost Ecological Sanitation programs in Malawi have led to the building of over 11,000 compost-producing toilets since 2003. While the toilets are affordable and simple to construct, the fact that they convert human waste into valuable odour-free compost, enables cost recovery for households and is a prime driver in popularizing EcoSan designs. This field note summarizes the lessons learned thus far in Malawi’s efforts to popularize ecological sanitation.

MORGAN, P. (2007): Lessons from a Low Cost Ecological Approach to Sanitation in Malawi. Washington: Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) URL [Accessed: 20.06.2013]

Introducing Low Cost Productive Sanitation in a Peri-Urban Settlement

The following presentation deals with low cost ecological toilets (Fossa alterna) which were introduced at Hopley Farm, a settlement close to Harare, Zimbabwe. The presentation addresses the following topics: - How the alternating shallow pit system works - Local agricultural practice - Linking sanitation to agriculture - Testing for effect of urine - Linking sanitation to forestry

MORGAN, P. (2010): Introducing Low Cost Productive Sanitation in a Peri-Urban Settlement. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 20.06.2013]

Ecological Sanitation in Malawi

This illustrative presentation on ecological sanitation in Malawi, focuses on the concept of ecological sanitation, types of eco-toilets and basic methods of recycling nutrient from human excreta.

MORGAN, P. (2010): Ecological Sanitation in Malawi. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 31.05.2019]

The ROSA Project

The ROSA project stands for Resource-Oriented Sanitation concepts for peri-urban areas in Africa. This Sustainable Sanitation Practice (SSP) issue contains the following contributions: 1. Introduction to the ROSA Project, 2. From Pilot Units to Large-Scale Implementation - Ethiopia, 3. Implementation of UDDTs at Schools - Kenya, 4. Urban Agriculture for Sanitation Promotion, 5. Operation an Maintenance in Practice, 6. Experiences from Strategic Sanitation Planning, 7. Main Findings and Main Achievements.

MUELLEGGER, E. ; LANGEGRABER, G. ; LECHNER, M. (2010): The ROSA Project. (= Sustainable Sanitation Practice , 4 ). Vienna: Ecosan Club URL [Accessed: 01.07.2013]
مواد تدريبية

An Ecological Approach to Sanitation in Uganda using Arborloo and Fossa Alterna

This paper gives an overview on arborloo and fossa alterna technologies referring to existing projects in Africa.

SMET, J. ACHIRO, B. MOMMEN, B. TURYAREEBA, P. LeaPPS (2008): An Ecological Approach to Sanitation in Uganda using Arborloo and Fossa Alterna. LeaPPS Case. Uganda: Learning for Practice and Policy on Household and School Sanitation and Hygiene (LeaPPS)
مواد لنشر الوعي

    This module introduces the importance of market-based RRR solutions. At the end of this module you have identified key challenges in your local sanitation and waste management system and a RRR-related business idea.

    Cover image Module  1

    This module sheds light on the importance of studying the business environment and its components like waste supply, market demand, competition and the institutional framework. At the end of this module you have gained insights to evaluating the potential of your business idea.

    Cover image Module  2

    This module shows how a business idea can be turned into a business model while putting a specific focus on understanding the customer and designing products that meet their needs. At the end of this module you will have developed a business model and positioned your offer in the market.

    Cover image Module  3

    This module focusses on planning the operations of a RRR related business. During this part RRR technologies will be introduced for different waste streams and tools for planning the production process. At the end of this module you will have blueprinted your production process and the required technology and production inputs.

    Cover image Module  4

    This module covers key aspects of financial planning and analysis. At the end of this module you will have forecasted your profits, cash flows, required investment and evaluated the financial viability of your business model.

    Cover image Module  5

    This module enables you to set objectives and plan activities for the launch of your RRR business and identify potential financing sources. At the end of this module you will have developed an action plan for launch and identified appropriate financing sources.

    Cover image Module  6

    Week 1: Identify challenges in your local sanitation & waste management

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    قراءات أخرى

    SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles

    This AGUASAN publication illustrates how the water and nutrient cycles can be used as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system and aligning it with SDG 6.

    BROGAN, J., ERLMANN, T., MUELLER, K. and SOROKOVSKYI, V. (2017): SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles. Using the water and nutrient cycles as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system - including workshop material. Bern (Switzerland): AGUASAN and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

    Why shit matters [Video File]

    TEDX TALKS (2019): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d4yD0kz34jg [Accessed: 28.03.2019]

    "3 billion people worldwide live in cities without sewers or wastewater treatment plant infrastructure. This forces them to dump their waste into open waters, contaminating the drinking water for others downstream. Imagine if we could harness nutrients in wastewater instead of harming human and environmental health. Christoph Lüthi sees a renewable, locally produced and growing resource where others see only human waste. Watch his talk to learn why shit matters! "

    Week 2: Identify RRR products and business opportunities

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    قراءات أخرى

    A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

    AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

    GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

    OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Week 1: Analyse waste supply

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    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 2: Analyse market demand

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    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 3: Analyse your competition

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    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 4: Analyse the institutional environment

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    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 1: Meet the Business Model Canvas

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    A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

    AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

    GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

    OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Week 1: Plan your production process

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    Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

    This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

    TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

    Week 2: Understand the treatment process

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    Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings

    LOHRI, C. R., DIENER, S., ZABALETA, I. MERTENAT, A. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2017): Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings. In: Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 81–130. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

    Week 3A: Design technology systems for nutrient recovery

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    Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery

    COFIE, O., NIKIEMA, J., IMPRAIM, R., ADAMTEY, N., PAUL, J. and KONÉ, D. (2016): Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 3. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Decentralized composting in India

    DRESCHER, S. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2004): Decentralized composting in India. In: Harper et al. Sustainable Composting: Case Studies in Guidelines for Developing Countries. Loughborough (UK): Water Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), Loughborough University, Part2: Case Studies, Chapter 3, pp.15-27. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

    Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives

    KARANJA, N., KWACH, H. and NJENGA, M. (2005): Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives. Nairobi (Kenya): UN-Habitat. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 3B: Design technology systems for energy recovery

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    Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market

    FERGUSON, H. (2012): Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market. London (UK): Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) International. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 3C: Design technology systems for water recovery

    قراءات أخرى

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Chapter 3 - Technology Selection

    VEENSTRA, S., ALAERTS, G. and BIJLSMA, M. (1997): Chapter 3 - Technology Selection. In: Helmer, R. and Hespanhol, I. (Eds). Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles. London (UK): World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects

    Volume I of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater focuses on policy, regulation and institutional arrangements. Accordingly, its intended readership is made up of policy-makers and those with regulatory responsibilities. It provides guidance on policy formulation, harmonisation and mainstreaming, on regulatory mechanisms and on establishing institutional links between the various interested sectors and parties. It also presents a synthesis of the key issues from Volumes II, III, and IV and the index for all four volumes as well as a glossary of terms used in all four volumes is presented in Annex 1.

    WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 10.04.2019]

    Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture

    Volume II of the Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater provides information on the assessment and management of risks associated with microbial hazards and toxic chemicals. It explains requirements to promote the safe use of wastewater in agriculture, including minimum procedures and specific health-based targets, and how those requirements are intended to be used. It also describes the approaches used in deriving the guidelines, including health-based targets, and includes a substantive revision of approaches to ensuring microbial safety.

    WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019] PDF

    Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture

    Volume III of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater deals with wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture and describes the present state of knowledge regarding the impact of wastewater-fed aquaculture on the health of producers, product consumers and local communities. It assesses the associated health risks and provides an integrated preventive management framework.

    WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]

    Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

    Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

    WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019] PDF

    Week 3: Analyse financial viability

    قراءات أخرى

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 1: Set objectives and plan activities for launch

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    Week 2: Finance the launch

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