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2018 أبريل 27

الأرض الرطبة المُنشأة ذات التدفق الأفقي السطحي

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المُدخلات

Effluent Stormwater

المُخرَجات

Effluent Biomass
المؤلف*
Eawag المعهد الفيدرالي السويسري لعلوم وتقنيات المياه
ترجمة وتعريب مؤسسة بناء
المُلخص التنفيذي

الأرض الرطبة المُنشأة ذات التدفق الأفقي السطحي Free-Water Surface Constructed Wetland تَهدِف إلى محاكاة العمليات التي تحدث بشكل طبيعي في الأرض الرطبة الطبيعية Wetland، أو المستنقع Marsh، أو الأرض السبخة Swamp. وعندما تتدفق المياه ببطء عبر الأراضي الرطبة، فإن الجُسيمات تترسب، ومسببات الأمراض يتم القضاء عليها، كما يتم استهلاك المُغذيات بواسطة الكائنات الحية والنباتات. وهذا النوع من الأراضي الرطبة المُنشأة عادة ما يُستخدم كمرحلة مُعالجة مُتقدمة بعد عمليات المُعالجة الثانوية أوالثلاثية.

على خلاف الأراضي الرطبة المُنشأة ذات التدفق الأفقي المغمور ، فإن الأراضي الرطبة المُنشأة ذات التدفق الأفقي السطحي تسمح للمياه بالتدفق فوق أرض مُعرَّضة للهواء وضُوء الشمس المُباشر. وتدفق المياه ببطء خلال الأراضي الرطبة، يتم بالتزامن مع العمليات الفيزيائية والكيميائية والحيوية لترشيح المواد الصلبة، وتحلل المواد العضوية وإزالة المُغذيات من مياه الصرف.

المِياه السوداء الخام يجب أن تُعالج أوليًّا؛ لمنع تراكم المواد الصلبة والقمامة، وبمجرد وصولها إلى البِركة، فإن جسيمات الرواسب الأثقل تترسب وتُزيل معها -أيضًا- المُغذيات العالقة بها.

تقوم النباتات والمجتمعات الميكروبية من الكائنات الحية الدقيقة التي تدعمها (على السيقان والجذور) باستهلاك المُغذيات مثل النتيروجين والفوسفور، كما أن التفاعلات الكيمائية يُمكن أن تتسبب في ترسيب عناصر أخرى من مياه الصرف. وتتم إزالة مُسببات الأمراض من المياه عن طريق التحلل الطبيعي، والاستهلاك بواسطة الكائنات الحية الأكبر، والترسيب، والتعرض للأشعة فوق البنفسيجية.

على الرغم من أن طبقة التربة تحت المياه تكون لاهوائية، فإن جذور النباتات تقوم بإطلاق الأكسجين إلى المنطقة المحيطة بشعيرات الجذور، وبالتالي تخلق بيئة مركبةً للنشاط الكيميائي والحيوي.

المزايا
لها شكل جمالي وكذلك تُوّفر مسكنًا للحيونات
تخفيض كبير للاحتياج الحيوي للأكسجين BOD، والمواد الصلبة، وإزالة متوسطة لمُسببات الأمراض.
يُمكن إنشاؤها وإصلاحها بالمواد المتوفرة محليًّا.
لا تتطلب طاقة كهربائية
لا توجد مشاكل حقيقة مع الروائح إذا تم تصميمها وتشغيلها بشكل صحيح
تكاليف التشغيل منخفضة.
العيوب
قد تُسَهّل من تكاثُر البعوض
تتطلب مساحة أرض كبيرة.
تطلب فترة طويلة لبدء التشغيل حتى تعمل بكامل قدرتها.
تتطلب خبرة في التصميم والإنشاء.
المُدخلات المُخرَجات

التدفقات السائلة الخارجة , مياة الامطار

التدفقات السائلة الخارجة , الكتلة الحيوية

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المُلاءَمَة
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الأراضي الرطبة المُنشأة ذات التدفق الأفقي السطحي يُمكن أن تُحقّق إزالة عالية للعوالق، وإزالة مُتوسطة لمسببات الأمراض، والمُغذيات، والملوثات الأخرى؛ مِثل المعادن الثقيلة. هذه التقنية قادرة على استيعاب تدفقات المياه، وأحمال المُغذيات المُتغيّرة. وتحدّ النباتات من ذوبان الأُكسجين في الماء وذلك بسبب الظل، والتخفيف من حركة الرياح فوق السطح؛ لذلك يُعتبر هذا النوع من الأراضي الرطبة مناسبًا فقط لمياه الصرف ذات الحِمل البسيط من الملوثات. وهذا أيضًا يجعلها مُناسبة فقط عندما تتم المُعالجة الابتدائية لمياه الصرف لخفض نسبة الاحتياج الحيوي للأكسجين BOD. وبسبب تعرض الإنسان المُحتمل لمُسببات الأمراض، فإن هذه التقنية نادرًا ما يَتِم استخدامها للمُعالجة الثانوية للمياه، بل يتم عادةً استخدامها لمُعالجة وتحسين جودة المياه الناتجة عن المُعالجة الثانوية، أو لتخزين ومُعالجة مياه الأمطار.

تُعتبر الأراضي الرطبة المُنشأة ذات التدفق الأفقي السطحي خيارًا جيدًا عندما تكون الأرض رخيصة ومُتاحة، ويُمكن أن تكون مناسبة لأجزاء صغيرة من المناطق الحضرية، وللمُجتمعات الريفية وشبه الحضرية، وذلك اعتمادًا على حجم المياه والمساحة المطلوبة لإنشاء الأراضي الرطبة.

هذه التقنية هي أكثر مُلاءَمَةً في الأجواء الدافئة، لكن يُمكن أن تُصَمّم لتتحمل البرودة الشديدة وكذلك فترات النشاط الحيوي المُنخفض.

 

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اعتبارات التصميم
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القناة -أو الحَوْض- تكون مُبطَّنة بطبقة عازلة غير مُنفذة (مثل الطين أو التكسية الأرضية) ومُغطّاة بالصخور، والحصى، والتربة، ومزروعة بنباتات البيئة المحلية المائية (مثل: أعشاب البرك والقصب الشائع والتيفا). ويتم غمر الأراضي الرطبة بمياه الصرف لعمق يتراوح ما بين 10 إلى 45 سنتيمتر فوق مستوى سطح الأرض. ويتم تقسيم الأراضي الرطبة إلى مسارين مُستقلين على الأقل لتدفق المياه. وعدد التقسيمات المتتالية يعتمد على هدف ودرجة المُعالجة المطلوبة. كما تعتمد -أيضًا- كفاءة الأراضي الرطبة المُنشأة ذات التدفق الأفقي السطحي على كيفية توزيع المياه بصورة جيدة عند المدخل. يُمكن تغذية مياه الصرف في الأراضي الرطبة باستخدام الهدّارات أو من خلال ثقوب في أنبوبة التوزيع عند المدخل، وذلك للسماح للمياه بالدخول على فترات متباعدة بشكل متساوٍ.

 

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الجوانب الصحية / القبول
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يُعتبر السطح المكشوف للمياه بيئة مُحتملة لتكاثُر البعوض، ولكن التصميم والصيانة الجيدة يُمكن أن يمنع ذلك.

بشكل عام، الأراضي الرطبة المُنشأة ذات التدفق الأفقي السطحي يكون لها مظهر جمالي، خصوصًا عندما يتم دمجها في المناطق الطبيعية الموجودة.

ينبغي توخّي الحذر لمنع الناس من الاتصال بشكل مُباشر مع التدفقات السائلة الخارجة من البِرَك بسبب احتمالية انتقال الأمراض، وكذلك خطر الغرق في المياه العميقة.

 

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التشغيل والصيانة
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يجب أن تضمن الصيانة الدورية ألا يكون هناك موانع لحركة المياه، أو اختصار المياه لمسارها (دوائر القصر Short-circuiting)، وألا ترتد المياه وترتفع في الأرض الرطبة؛ بسبب سقوط فروع الأشجار، أو القمامة، أو أي شيء يسد مخرجها. وقد يحتاج الغطاء النباتي إلى الحصاد الدوري حيث يتم تقليمه أو تقليعه.

المراجع

Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems

Decentralised wastewater management presents a comprehensive approach to the design of both conventional and innovative systems for the treatment and disposal of wastewater or the reuse of treaded effluent. Smaller treatment plants, which are the concern of most new engineers, are the primary focus of this book.

CRITES, R. TCHOBANOGLOUS, G. (1998): Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc

Constructed Wetlands: A Promising Wastewater Treatment system for Small Localities. Experiences from Latin America

This report provides an overview of how constructed wetlands serve as natural wastewater treatment systems. It focuses especially on the subsurface horizontal flow type—a technology that has high potential for small and medium-size communities because of its simplicity, performance reliability, and low operation and maintenance requirements. The ability of this wetland to reduce pathogens renders the effluent suitable for irrigation of certain crop species if additional health and environmental protection measures are taken. This report describes several experiences with constructed wetland schemes in Central and South America: a full-scale pilot plant in Nicaragua, a community-managed constructed wetland scheme in El Salvador, and other systems in Colombia, Brazil, and Peru.

GAUSS, M. WSP (2008): Constructed Wetlands: A Promising Wastewater Treatment system for Small Localities. Experiences from Latin America. Washington D.C.: The World Bank URL [Accessed: 12.12.2011]

Technology Review of Constructed Wetlands

This publication intends to help spread awareness and knowledge about the technology of subsurface flow constructed wetlands in developing countries. Constructed wetlands (CWs) can be used as part of decentralised wastewater treatment systems, due to their “robust”, “low-tech” nature with none or few moving parts (pumps) and relatively low operational requirements. CWs can be used for the treatment of domestic and municipal wastewater or greywater, and play an important role in many ecological sanitation (ecosan) concepts.

HOFFMANN, H. PLATZER, C. WINKER, M. MUENCH, E. von GIZ (2011): Technology Review of Constructed Wetlands. Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands for Greywater and Domestic Wastewater Treatment. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 01.06.2019]

Wastewater Treatment II

POLPRASERT, C. VEENSTRA, S. VAN DER STEEN, P. (2001): Wastewater Treatment II. Natural Systems for Wastewater Management. Delft: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Institute for Water Education (UNESCO-IHE)

Subsurface Flow and Free Water Surface Flow Constructed Wetland with Magnetic Field for Leachate Treatment

This study conducted using two-stage lab-scale Subsurface Flow (SSF) and Free Water Surface (FWS) constructed wetland under influence of magnetic field to treating the leachate. Furthermore it includes a general description about the constructed wetland systems free water surface flow and subsurface flow.

SA’AT (2006): Subsurface Flow and Free Water Surface Flow Constructed Wetland with Magnetic Field for Leachate Treatment. Johor Bahru: University Teknologi Malaysia URL [Accessed: 08.06.2019]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. LUETHI, C. MOREL, A. ZURBRUEGG, C. SCHERTENLEIB, R. (2008): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG) and Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) URL [Accessed: 15.02.2010] PDF

Manual – Constructed Wetlands Treatment of Municipal Wastewater

This manual discusses the capabilities of constructed wetlands, a functional design approach, and the management requirements to achieve the designed purpose. The manual also attempts to put the proper perspective on the appropriate use, design and performance of constructed wetlands. Furthermore, the document contains two case studies.

U.S. EPA (1999): Manual – Constructed Wetlands Treatment of Municipal Wastewater. Washington D.C.: United States: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) URL [Accessed: 09.06.2019]
قراءات أخرى

Technology Review of Constructed Wetlands

This publication intends to help spread awareness and knowledge about the technology of subsurface flow constructed wetlands in developing countries. Constructed wetlands (CWs) can be used as part of decentralised wastewater treatment systems, due to their “robust”, “low-tech” nature with none or few moving parts (pumps) and relatively low operational requirements. CWs can be used for the treatment of domestic and municipal wastewater or greywater, and play an important role in many ecological sanitation (ecosan) concepts.

HOFFMANN, H. PLATZER, C. WINKER, M. MUENCH, E. von GIZ (2011): Technology Review of Constructed Wetlands. Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands for Greywater and Domestic Wastewater Treatment. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 01.06.2019]

Constructed Wetlands – Treating Wastewater with Cenoses of Plants and Microorganisms

The underlying philosophy of phytoremediation research at UFZ (Centre for Environmental Research) is to exploit and to optimise the processes in the rhizosphere. Low-cost, simple systems will be developed to control the environmental problems of different countries in several continents irrespective of their industrial capabilities and conditions – without losing sight of the key principle of cleaning up polluted environmental media in a natural, ecologically balanced way.

KUSCHK, P. WIESSNER, A. MUELLER, R. KAESTNER, M. (2005): Constructed Wetlands – Treating Wastewater with Cenoses of Plants and Microorganisms. Leipzig-Halle: UFZ Centre for Environmental Research URL [Accessed: 10.06.2019]

Greywater Management in Low and Middle-Income Countries, Review of Different Treatment Systems for Households or Neighbourhoods

This report compiles international experience in greywater management on household and neighbourhood level in low and middle-income countries. The documented systems, which vary significantly in terms of complexity, performance and costs, range from simple systems for single-house applications (e.g. local infiltration or garden irrigation) to rather complex treatment trains for neighbourhoods (e.g. series of vertical and horizontal-flow planted soil filters).

MOREL, A. DIENER, S. (2006): Greywater Management in Low and Middle-Income Countries, Review of Different Treatment Systems for Households or Neighbourhoods. (= SANDEC Report No. 14/06 ). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 27.05.2019]

Constructed Wetlands Manual

This manual has been prepared as a general guide to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of constructed wetlands for the treatment of domestic wastewater as well as introduction to the design of constructed wetland for sludge drying.

UN-HABITAT (2008): Constructed Wetlands Manual. Kathmandu: UN-HABITAT, Water for Asian Cities Program URL [Accessed: 15.02.2012]

Subsurface Flow and Free Water Surface Flow Constructed Wetland with Magnetic Field for Leachate Treatment

This study conducted using two-stage lab-scale Subsurface Flow (SSF) and Free Water Surface (FWS) constructed wetland under influence of magnetic field to treating the leachate. Furthermore it includes a general description about the constructed wetland systems free water surface flow and subsurface flow.

SA’AT (2006): Subsurface Flow and Free Water Surface Flow Constructed Wetland with Magnetic Field for Leachate Treatment. Johor Bahru: University Teknologi Malaysia URL [Accessed: 08.06.2019]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Design Manual – Constructed Wetlands and Aquatic Plant Systems for Municipal Water Treatment

This document is a very complete design manual about constructed wetlands and aquatic plant systems for municipal water treatment. It describes different designs, application, performance and it includes several case studies.

U. S. EPA (1998): Design Manual – Constructed Wetlands and Aquatic Plant Systems for Municipal Water Treatment. Washington D.C.: United States : Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) URL [Accessed: 24.08.2011]

Manual – Constructed Wetlands Treatment of Municipal Wastewater

This manual discusses the capabilities of constructed wetlands, a functional design approach, and the management requirements to achieve the designed purpose. The manual also attempts to put the proper perspective on the appropriate use, design and performance of constructed wetlands. Furthermore, the document contains two case studies.

U.S. EPA (1999): Manual – Constructed Wetlands Treatment of Municipal Wastewater. Washington D.C.: United States: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) URL [Accessed: 09.06.2019]

Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India. A Guide to Decision-Making

These guidance notes are designed to provide state governments and urban local bodies with additional information on available technologies on sanitation. The notes also aid in making an informed choice and explain the suitability of approaches.

WSP (2008): Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India. A Guide to Decision-Making. pdf presentation. New Delhi: Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) URL [Accessed: 03.06.2019]

Decentralised Wastewater Management Using Constructed Wetlands

This paper describes the importance of small-scale decentralised wastewater treatment using reed bed treatment systems (constructed wetlands) in Nepal. It shows how public/community participation can support small-scale construction work while ensuring checks on quality and price of construction, including examples.

ENPHO (n.y): Decentralised Wastewater Management Using Constructed Wetlands. Kathmandu: Environment and Public Health Organization (ENPHO) URL [Accessed: 10.06.2019]

Ecodesign: The Bottom Line

There is no single design solution to sanitation. But there are universal principles for systematically and safely detoxifying human excreta, without contaminating, wasting or even using water. Ecological sanitation design — which is focused on sustainability through reuse and recycling — offers workable solutions that are gaining footholds around the world, as Nature explores on the following pages through the work of Peter Morgan in Zimbabwe, Ralf Otterpohl and his team in Germany, Shunmuga Paramasivan in India, and Ed Harrington and his colleagues in California.

NATURE (Editor) ; MORGAN, P. ; OTTERPOHL, R. ; PARAMASIVAN, S. ; HARRINGTON, E. (2012): Ecodesign: The Bottom Line. المُدخلات: Nature: International Weekly Journal of Science: Volume 486 , 186-189. URL [Accessed: 19.06.2012]
حالات دراسية

Treatment performance of a free water surface constructed wetland system receiving sugar factory effluents in the Lake Victoria region

The aim of the project was to investigate strategies for improving the wastewater treatment of the factory with constructed wetlands. As part of that project, eight pilot scale free-water surface wetlands were constructed to facilitate experiments with such systems. Those pilot scale wetlands will be used in the proposed study.

BOJCEVSKA, H. (n.y): Treatment performance of a free water surface constructed wetland system receiving sugar factory effluents in the Lake Victoria region. Linkoeping: University of Linkoeping URL [Accessed: 24.08.2011]

Selected contributions from the 1st WATERBIOTECH conference, 9-11 October 2012, Cairo, Egypt

This issue publishes selected contributions from the 1st WATERBIOTECH conference. WATERBIOTECH („Biotechnology for Africa‘s sustainable water supply“) is a coordination and support action funded within the Africa call of the EU 7th Framework Programme.

ECOSAN CLUB (2013): Selected contributions from the 1st WATERBIOTECH conference, 9-11 October 2012, Cairo, Egypt. (= Sustainable Sanitation Pratice , 14 ). Vienna: Ecosan Club URL [Accessed: 29.01.2013]

Constructed Wetlands: A Promising Wastewater Treatment system for Small Localities. Experiences from Latin America

This report provides an overview of how constructed wetlands serve as natural wastewater treatment systems. It focuses especially on the subsurface horizontal flow type—a technology that has high potential for small and medium-size communities because of its simplicity, performance reliability, and low operation and maintenance requirements. The ability of this wetland to reduce pathogens renders the effluent suitable for irrigation of certain crop species if additional health and environmental protection measures are taken. This report describes several experiences with constructed wetland schemes in Central and South America: a full-scale pilot plant in Nicaragua, a community-managed constructed wetland scheme in El Salvador, and other systems in Colombia, Brazil, and Peru.

GAUSS, M. WSP (2008): Constructed Wetlands: A Promising Wastewater Treatment system for Small Localities. Experiences from Latin America. Washington D.C.: The World Bank URL [Accessed: 12.12.2011]

The role of constructed wetlands in secondary effluent treatment and water reuse in subtropical and arid Australia

This paper addresses the role of constructed wetlands in nutrient and pathogen removal in Queensland’s, wetlands, and presents three case studies with respect to effluent reuse.

GREENWAY, M. (n.y): The role of constructed wetlands in secondary effluent treatment and water reuse in subtropical and arid Australia. Nathan: Griffith University URL [Accessed: 24.08.2011]

Opportunities in Fecal Sludge Management for Cities in Developing Countries: Experiences from the Philippines

In July 2012, a team from RTI International deployed to the Philippines to evaluate four FSM programs with the goal of reporting on best practices and lessons learned. The four cases—Dumaguete City, San Fernando City, Maynilad Water for the west zone of metro Manila, and Manila Water from the east zone of metro Manila—were chosen to highlight their different approaches to implementing FSM.

ROBBINS, D. STRANDE, L. DOCZI, J. (2012): Opportunities in Fecal Sludge Management for Cities in Developing Countries: Experiences from the Philippines. North Carolina: RTI International URL [Accessed: 10.06.2019]

Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment and Wildlife Habitat

This document provides brief descriptions of 17 wetland treatment systems from that are providing significant water quality benefits while demonstrating additional benefits such as wildlife habitat. The projects described include systems involving both constructed and natural wetlands, habitat creation and restoration, and the improvement of municipal effluent, urban stormwater and river water quality. Each project description was developed by individuals directly involved with or very familiar with the project in a format that could also be used as a stand-alone brochure or handout for project visitors.

U.S. EPA (1993): Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment and Wildlife Habitat. Washington DC: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) URL [Accessed: 10.06.2019]
مواد لنشر الوعي

Healthy Wetlands, Healthy People: A Review of Wetlands and Human Health Interactions

Despite the production of more food and extraction of more water globally, wetlands continue to decline and public health and living standards for many do not improve. Why is this – and what needs to change to improve the situation? If we manage wetlands better, can we improve the health and well-being of people? Indeed, why is this important? This report seeks to address these questions.

HORWITZ, P. FINLAYSON, M. WEINSTEIN, P. (2012): Healthy Wetlands, Healthy People: A Review of Wetlands and Human Health Interactions. Ramsar Technical Report No. 6. Gland and Geneva: Secretariat of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands and The World Health Organization (WHO) URL [Accessed: 10.06.2019]

    This module introduces the importance of market-based RRR solutions. At the end of this module you have identified key challenges in your local sanitation and waste management system and a RRR-related business idea.

    Cover image Module  1

    This module sheds light on the importance of studying the business environment and its components like waste supply, market demand, competition and the institutional framework. At the end of this module you have gained insights to evaluating the potential of your business idea.

    Cover image Module  2

    This module shows how a business idea can be turned into a business model while putting a specific focus on understanding the customer and designing products that meet their needs. At the end of this module you will have developed a business model and positioned your offer in the market.

    Cover image Module  3

    This module focusses on planning the operations of a RRR related business. During this part RRR technologies will be introduced for different waste streams and tools for planning the production process. At the end of this module you will have blueprinted your production process and the required technology and production inputs.

    Cover image Module  4

    This module covers key aspects of financial planning and analysis. At the end of this module you will have forecasted your profits, cash flows, required investment and evaluated the financial viability of your business model.

    Cover image Module  5

    This module enables you to set objectives and plan activities for the launch of your RRR business and identify potential financing sources. At the end of this module you will have developed an action plan for launch and identified appropriate financing sources.

    Cover image Module  6

    Week 1: Identify challenges in your local sanitation & waste management

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    قراءات أخرى

    SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles

    This AGUASAN publication illustrates how the water and nutrient cycles can be used as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system and aligning it with SDG 6.

    BROGAN, J., ERLMANN, T., MUELLER, K. and SOROKOVSKYI, V. (2017): SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles. Using the water and nutrient cycles as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system - including workshop material. Bern (Switzerland): AGUASAN and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

    Why shit matters [Video File]

    TEDX TALKS (2019): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d4yD0kz34jg [Accessed: 28.03.2019]

    "3 billion people worldwide live in cities without sewers or wastewater treatment plant infrastructure. This forces them to dump their waste into open waters, contaminating the drinking water for others downstream. Imagine if we could harness nutrients in wastewater instead of harming human and environmental health. Christoph Lüthi sees a renewable, locally produced and growing resource where others see only human waste. Watch his talk to learn why shit matters! "

    Week 2: Identify RRR products and business opportunities

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    A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

    AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

    GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

    OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Week 1: Analyse waste supply

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    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 2: Analyse market demand

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    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 3: Analyse your competition

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    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 4: Analyse the institutional environment

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    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 1: Meet the Business Model Canvas

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    A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

    AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

    GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

    OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Week 1: Plan your production process

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    Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

    This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

    TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

    Week 2: Understand the treatment process

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    Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings

    LOHRI, C. R., DIENER, S., ZABALETA, I. MERTENAT, A. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2017): Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings. In: Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 81–130. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

    Week 3A: Design technology systems for nutrient recovery

    قراءات أخرى

    Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery

    COFIE, O., NIKIEMA, J., IMPRAIM, R., ADAMTEY, N., PAUL, J. and KONÉ, D. (2016): Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 3. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Decentralized composting in India

    DRESCHER, S. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2004): Decentralized composting in India. In: Harper et al. Sustainable Composting: Case Studies in Guidelines for Developing Countries. Loughborough (UK): Water Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), Loughborough University, Part2: Case Studies, Chapter 3, pp.15-27. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

    Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives

    KARANJA, N., KWACH, H. and NJENGA, M. (2005): Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives. Nairobi (Kenya): UN-Habitat. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 3B: Design technology systems for energy recovery

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    Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market

    FERGUSON, H. (2012): Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market. London (UK): Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) International. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 3C: Design technology systems for water recovery

    قراءات أخرى

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Chapter 3 - Technology Selection

    VEENSTRA, S., ALAERTS, G. and BIJLSMA, M. (1997): Chapter 3 - Technology Selection. In: Helmer, R. and Hespanhol, I. (Eds). Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles. London (UK): World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects

    Volume I of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater focuses on policy, regulation and institutional arrangements. Accordingly, its intended readership is made up of policy-makers and those with regulatory responsibilities. It provides guidance on policy formulation, harmonisation and mainstreaming, on regulatory mechanisms and on establishing institutional links between the various interested sectors and parties. It also presents a synthesis of the key issues from Volumes II, III, and IV and the index for all four volumes as well as a glossary of terms used in all four volumes is presented in Annex 1.

    WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 10.04.2019]

    Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture

    Volume II of the Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater provides information on the assessment and management of risks associated with microbial hazards and toxic chemicals. It explains requirements to promote the safe use of wastewater in agriculture, including minimum procedures and specific health-based targets, and how those requirements are intended to be used. It also describes the approaches used in deriving the guidelines, including health-based targets, and includes a substantive revision of approaches to ensuring microbial safety.

    WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019] PDF

    Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture

    Volume III of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater deals with wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture and describes the present state of knowledge regarding the impact of wastewater-fed aquaculture on the health of producers, product consumers and local communities. It assesses the associated health risks and provides an integrated preventive management framework.

    WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]

    Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

    Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

    WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019] PDF

    Week 3: Analyse financial viability

    قراءات أخرى

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 1: Set objectives and plan activities for launch

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    Week 2: Finance the launch

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    This is the compact version of the factsheet.

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