solution finder

2018 أبريل 27

إحراق الغاز الحيوي

Applicable to

Application level

City

Household

Neighborhood

Management level

Household

Public

Shared

المُدخلات

Biogas

المُخرَجات

المؤلف*
Eawag المعهد الفيدرالي السويسري لعلوم وتقنيات المياه
ترجمة وتعريب مؤسسة بناء
المُلخص التنفيذي

يُستخدم الغاز الحيوي بنفس مبدأ أي وقود غازي آخر، وعندما يتم إنتاجه في مفاعلات الغاز الحيوي المنزلية، فإنه يكون مناسبًا جدًا للطهي. بالإضافة إلى ذلك، يُعتبر توليد الكهرباء خيارًا ذا قيمة عندما يتم إنتاج الغاز الحيوي في هواضم لاهوائية كبيرة.

تتغير متطلبات المنازل من الطاقة بشكلٍ كبير، وتتأثر بعادات الطهي والأكل (بمعنى، قد تتطلب حبيبات القمح الصلدة والذرة وقتًا أطول لطهيها، لذلك فإنها تحتاج إلى طاقة كبيرة، وذلك مقارنةً بطهي الخضروات الطازجة واللحوم). يحتوي الغاز الحيوي على نسبة من الميثان تبلغ 55 - 75% في المتوسط، والذي يضمن محتوى من الطاقة بمقدار 6-6.5 كيلو واط ساعة/م3.

 

المزايا
مصدر طاقة مجاني.
يحد من تلوث الهواء في الأماكن المغلقة، وكذلك يُقلّل من إزالة الغابات Deforestation (إذا كان الحطب والفحم يستخدمان سابقًا)
يتطلب مهارات منخفضة في التشغيل والصيانة.
العيوب
قد لا يفي بجميع متطلبات الطاقة.
لا يمكنه أن يحل محل جميع أنواع الطاقة الأخرى.
لا يمكن تخزينه بسهولة (كثافة الطاقة المُنتَجَة ضئيلة بالنسبة للحجم)، لذلك يجب استخدامه بشكلٍ مستمر ومتتابع.
المُدخلات المُخرَجات

الغاز الحيوي

التشغيل والصيانة

 

عادة ما يكون الغاز الحيوي مشبعًا ببخار الماء، الأمر الذي يؤدي إلى تكثيفه. لمنع الانسدادات والتآكل يجب تفريغ المياه المتجمعة بشكلٍ دوري عن طريق مصائد المياه المُرَكِّبة لهذا الغرض. ويجب أن يتم متابعة أنابيب الغاز، والوصلات، والأجهزة بشكلٍ منتظم من قِبَل الأشخاص المدرّبين. عند استخدام الغاز الحيوي في المُحركات، فمن الضرورى أولًا تقليل كبريتيد الهيدروجين، لأنه يشكّل أحماضًا تآكلية (مسببة للتآكل) عند خلطه بالمياه المتكثّفة. أما تقليل نسبة ثاني أكسيد الكربون المتواجدة بالغاز فتتطلب مجهودات تشغيلية إضافية وموارد مالية. وبما أن عملية إزالة ثاني أكسيد الكربون CO2 Scrubbing لا تُعد ضرورية عند استخدام الغاز الحيوي في الطهي، فإنه نادرًا ما يُنصح بذلك في البلدان النامية.

Factsheet Block Title
Introduction
Factsheet Block Body

Household energy demand varies greatly and is influenced by cooking and eating habits (i.e., hard grains and maize may require substantial cooking times, and, therefore, more energy compared to cooking fresh vegetables and meat). Biogas has an average methane content of 55-75%, which implies an energy content of 6-6.5 kWh/m3

Icon of the Biogas Combustion. Source: TILLEY et al. 2014
Icon of the Biogas Combustion. Source: TILLEY et al. 2014

 

Factsheet Block Title
Design Considerations
Factsheet Block Body

Gas demand can be defined on the basis of energy previously consumed. For example, 1 kg firewood roughly corresponds to 200 L biogas, 1 kg dried cow dung corresponds to 100 L biogas and 1 kg charcoal corresponds to 500 L biogas.

Gas consumption for cooking per person and per meal is between 150 and 300 L biogas. Approximately 30-40 L biogas is required to cook one litre of water, 120-140 L for 0.5 kg rice and 160-190 L for 0.5 kg vegetables.

Tests in Nepal and Tanzania have shown that the consumption rate of a household biogas stove is about 300-400 L/h. However, this depends on the stove design and the methane content of the biogas.

The following consumption rates in litres per hour (L/h) can be assumed for the use of biogas:

  • household burners: 200-450 L/h
  • industrial burners: 1000-3000 L/h
  • refrigerator (100 L) depending on outside temperature: 30-75 L/h
  • gas lamp, equivalent to a 60 W bulb: 120-150 L/h
  • biogas/dieselengine per bhp: 420 L/h
  • generation of 1 kWh of electricity with biogas/diesel mixture: 700 L/h
  • plastics moulding press (15 g, 100 units) with biogas/diesel mixture: 140 L/h

 

Compared to other gases, biogas needs less air for combustion. Therefore, conventional gas appliances need to be modified when they are used for biogas combustion (e.g., larger gas jets and burner holes).

The distance through which the gas must travel should be minimized since losses and leakages may occur. Drip valves should be installed for the drainage of condensed water, which accumulates at the lowest points of the gas pipe.

Factsheet Block Title
المُلاءَمَة
Factsheet Block Body

تصل نسبة الكفاءة الحرارية عند استخدام الغاز الحيوي في المواقد إلى 55%، بينما تصل إلى 24% عند استخدامه في المحركات و3% فقط عند استخدامه في المصابيح. وكفاءة مصباح الغاز الحيوي هي فقط نصف كفاءة مصباح الكيروسين. وتعد أفضل الطرق فاعليةً في استخدام الغاز الحيوي هي استخدامه في توليد الطاقتين الكهربائية والحرارية معًا، حيث تصل نسبة الكفاءة حينها إلى 88%، ولكن هذا يُتاح فقط في حالة التجهيزات الكبيرة وبشرط أن يتم استخدام الحرارة الناتجة والاستفادة منها. أما فيما يخص الاستخدام المنزلي، فإن أفضل طريقة لاستخدام الغاز الحيوي هي الطهي.

 

Factsheet Block Title
الجوانب الصحية / القبول
Factsheet Block Body

 

 بشكلٍ عام، يفضّل الناس استخدام الغاز الحيوي في الطهي، وذلك لإمكانية تشغيله وإطفائه بشكلٍ فوري (بالمقارنة مع استخدام الخشب والفحم)، كما أن الغاز الحيوي يحترق بدون دخان، وبذلك فهو لا يسبّب تلوث الهواء في الأماكن المغلقة. وقد لا يتلاءم الغاز الحيوي المتولد من البُراز مع بعض الثقافات. بفرض أنه تم بناء محطة الغاز الحيوي وتم تشغيلها وصيانتها (مثل تصريف المياه المُتكاثفة) بشكلٍ جيد، فسوف تتضاءل حينها أخطار التسرب، والانفجارات، وغيرها من التهديدات الخطرة على صحة الإنسان.

 

المراجع

الاستخدام الامثل لمياة الصرف الصحى فى المجمعات السكنية إنتاج البيوغاز وإعادة استخدام المياة المعالجة بحى الاندلس للاسكان الشعبى

عماد سعد سعيد بلال (2004): الاستخدام الامثل لمياة الصرف الصحى فى المجمعات السكنية إنتاج البيوغاز وإعادة استخدام المياة المعالجة بحى الاندلس للاسكان الشعبى . السودان: جامعة الخرطوم /السودان

Biogas cooking stoves for villages on the fringes of the tiger reserve in Ranthambhore Park

The Ranthambhore National Park in Rajasthan, India, is the home of the endangered Indian tiger, and the demand for fuelwood for cooking in surrounding villages puts great pressure on the park's trees. The Prakratik Society has installed 250 biogas digesters in villages on the park's fringes. The digesters use cattle manure to produce biogas for cooking, and thus save fuelwood.

ASHDEN (2004): Biogas cooking stoves for villages on the fringes of the tiger reserve in Ranthambhore Park. The Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy URL [Accessed: 22.09.2010]

Domestic biogas for cooking and sanitation

The Biogas Sector Partnership (BSP) in Nepal managed the installation of over 124,000 domestic biogas plants in Nepal between 1992 and 2005. The plants use cattle manure to provide biogas for cooking and lighting. In addition, about 75% of the plants incorporate toilets.

ASHDEN (2005): Domestic biogas for cooking and sanitation. London: The Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy URL [Accessed: 13.04.2010]

Evaluation of Biogas Sanitation Systems in Nepalese Prisons. Summary Presentation of Evaluation Results

10 to 20m3 biogas digesters were installed in three different prisons and fed with human excreta and kitchen waste. Pathogen requirement were only partially fulfilled and slurry application as fertilizer needs further investigation and promotion.

EAWAG ; SANDEC (2009): Evaluation of Biogas Sanitation Systems in Nepalese Prisons. Summary Presentation of Evaluation Results. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC). [Accessed: 27.04.2010] PDF

Biogas Stove Design

This document was orginially presented for MSc Course on "Renewable Energy and the Environment” at the University of Reading. It present basic therotical principals for the technical design of biogas burners.

FULFORD, D. (1996): Biogas Stove Design. A short course. Kingdom Bioenergy Ltd.; University of Reading URL [Accessed: 28.05.2019]

Feasability Study for a National Domestic Biogas Programme in Burkina Faso

This feasibility study resumes the current situation in Burkina Faso regarding social aspects, water and energy issues, agricultural and livestock sector activities, sanitation and environmental topics. It analyses the technical feasibility of currently available biogas digester designs for standardization and massive dissemination in the context of Burkina Faso. Also an outline of a National Domestic Biogas Programme is presented.

GTZ (2007): Feasability Study for a National Domestic Biogas Programme in Burkina Faso. German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 21.04.2010]

Biogas Digest Volume II

This information service on biogas technology has been developed and produced on the order of the GTZ project Information and Advisory Service on Appropriate Technology (ISAT). It contains information on the application of biogas and product development.

KOSSMANN, W. POENITZ, U. HABERMEHL, S. HOERZ, T. KRAEMER, P. KLINGLER, B. KELLNER, C. WITTUR, T. VON KLOPOTEK, F. KRIEG, A. EULER, H. (1999): Biogas Digest Volume II. Biogas - Application and Product Development. Eschborn: GTZ URL [Accessed: 27.05.2019]

Research on Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Solid Waste at Household Level in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Decentralized anaerobic digestion is a promising technology to handle the large organic fraction of the municipal solid waste (e.g. kitchen waste) with the additional benefit of producing biogas as well as fertilizer. This paper evaluates the suitability of the ARTI Compact biogas system as a decentralised low-tech treatment option for the organic fraction of household waste in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

LOHRI (2009): Research on Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Solid Waste at Household Level in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. (= Bachelor Thesis ). Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW) URL [Accessed: 27.05.2019]

Technology Review of Biogas Sanitation

This document provides an overview and introduction on biogas sanitation (anaerobic digestion) for blackwater or for brown water, or excreta treatment for reuse in developing countries. The main technologies discussed are biogas settlers (BSs), biogas septic tanks, anaerobic baffled reactor (ABRs), anaerobic filter (AFs) and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors (UASBs).

MANG, H.-P. LI, Z. (2010): Technology Review of Biogas Sanitation. (= Technology Review ). Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]

Minnesota\'92s Potential for Electricity Production Using Manure Biogas Resources

This report is a basic assessment of the feasibility and potential for using animal wastes in anaerobic methane digesters to create electricity in Minnesota. Anaerobic methane digesters use bacteria to partially break down animal wastes, creating methane, which can be used for making electricity.

MDCSEO (2003): Minnesota\'92s Potential for Electricity Production Using Manure Biogas Resources. Minnesota, USA: Minnesota Department of Commerce State Energy Office (MDCSEO) URL [Accessed: 09.04.2010]

Smart Sanitation Solutions

Smart Sanitation Solutions presents examples of low-cost household and community-based sanitation solutions that have proven effective and affordable. A wide range of innovative technologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatment and use of sanitation products that have already helped thousands of poor families to improve their lives is illustrated.

NWP (2006): Smart Sanitation Solutions. Examples of innovative, low-cost technologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatment and use of sanitation products. (= Smart water solutions ). Amsterdam: Netherlands Water Partnership (NWP) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019]

Support Project to the Biogas Programme for the Animal Husbandry Sector in some Provinces of Vietnam

The Vietnamese and Netherlands Governments signed a Memorandum of Understanding for the implementation of a domestic biogas dissemination project in 10 provinces of Vietnam in January 2003. The project supports the agricultural sector in several provinces in Vietnam and uniquely joined Vietnams technical knowledge on fixed dome plant design and construction with Netherlands experience with large-scale dissemination of domestic biogas.

PBPO (2006): Support Project to the Biogas Programme for the Animal Husbandry Sector in some Provinces of Vietnam. (= BP I Final Report ). Hanoi: Provincial Biogas Project Office Hanoi URL [Accessed: 13.04.2010]

Biogas electricity production hits 17,272GWh a year in Europe

Biogas is a green energy using new technology. Undoubtedly, the produced kW cost is not yet a competitor against nuclear or fossil fuel energies, but the systems installed are more and more efficient, and their financial profitability is increasing. Marc Schaller reports.

SCHALLER, M. (2007): Biogas electricity production hits 17,272GWh a year in Europe. المُدخلات: Engineer Live: , 46-49 . URL [Accessed: 03.05.2010]

Links between Sanitation, Climate Change and Renewable Energies

This factsheet of Sustainable Sanitation Alliance describes the impact of greenhouse gases on climate change and focuses on the advantages of renewable energies. Therefore many different technologies like production of biogas or short-rotation-plantations are mentioned.

SUSANA (2009): Links between Sanitation, Climate Change and Renewable Energies. Eschborn. (= SuSanA fact sheet 09/2009 ). Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. LUETHI, C. MOREL, A. ZURBRUEGG, C. SCHERTENLEIB, R. (2008): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG) and Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) URL [Accessed: 15.02.2010] PDF

Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste in Developing Countries

This book published by Eawag/Sandec compiles existing and recently generated knowledge on anaerobic digestion of urban biowaste at small and medium scale with special consideration given to the conditions prevailing in developing countries. Written for actors working in the waste and renewable energy sector, the book is divided into two parts: Part 1 focuses on practical information related to the anaerobic digestion supply chain (substrate-, process-, and product chain), and Part 2 presents selected case studies from around the world.

VOEGELI, Y. LOHRI, C.R. GALLARDO, A. DIENER, S. ZURBRUEGG, C. EAWAG (2014): Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste in Developing Countries. Practical Information and Case Studies. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.05.2019]

Document 8, Data Management Document, Appendix S 06 - Energy Research

This document provided by Waste Refinery Australia Project Association Inc. contains information on biogas, different types of cogeneration (CHP) and district heating. Additionally there are also facts and information on hydronics and gas flare.

WRAPAI (2009): Document 8, Data Management Document, Appendix S 06 - Energy Research. Australia: Waste Refinery Australia Project Association Incorporated (WRAPAI)
قراءات أخرى

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

Technology Review of Composting Toilets

This GIZ publication explains the design, use and operational requirements of composting toilets. Ample examples for composting toilets from around the world are included in the publication to show that these types of toilets have a wide range of applications under a variety of circumstances (for wealthy or poor people; for cold, hot, wet or dry climates; for urban or rural settings). The appendix contains a listing of suppliers.

BERGER, W. (2011): Technology Review of Composting Toilets. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) URL [Accessed: 12.05.2019]

Report on the Feasibility Study for a Biogas Support Programme in the Republic of Rwanda

This report presents the findings of a study conducted by Ministry of Agriculture (MININFRA) and SNV to assess the feasibility to set-up and implement a national programme on domestic biogas in Rwanda.

DEKELVER, G. RUZIGANA, S. LAM, J. (2005): Report on the Feasibility Study for a Biogas Support Programme in the Republic of Rwanda. Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV) URL [Accessed: 09.04.2010]

Decentralised Composting for Cities of Low- and Middle-Income Countries – A User’s Manual

This book describes approaches and methods of composting on neighbourhood level in small-and middle-scale plants. It considers issues of waste collection, composting technologies, management systems, occupational health concerns, product quality, marketing and end-user demands.

DRESCHER, S. ZURBRUEGG, C. ENAYETULLAH, I. SINGHA, M.A.D. (2006): Decentralised Composting for Cities of Low- and Middle-Income Countries – A User’s Manual. Dhaka: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) and Waste Concern URL [Accessed: 16.08.2010]

Feasability Study for a National Domestic Biogas Programme in Burkina Faso

This feasibility study resumes the current situation in Burkina Faso regarding social aspects, water and energy issues, agricultural and livestock sector activities, sanitation and environmental topics. It analyses the technical feasibility of currently available biogas digester designs for standardization and massive dissemination in the context of Burkina Faso. Also an outline of a National Domestic Biogas Programme is presented.

GTZ (2007): Feasability Study for a National Domestic Biogas Programme in Burkina Faso. German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 21.04.2010]

Performance evaluation of a biogas stove for cooking in Nigeria

Journal article on a biogas digester, which was designed, constructed and its performance evaluated using a 3m3 continuous flow Indian type biogas plant at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria. Various technical drafts and mathematical and chemical formulas are shown.

ITODO, I. N. ; AGYO, G. E. ; YUSUF, P. (2007): Performance evaluation of a biogas stove for cooking in Nigeria. المُدخلات: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa: Volume 18 , 14-18. URL [Accessed: 09.04.2010]

Biogas Digest Volume II

This information service on biogas technology has been developed and produced on the order of the GTZ project Information and Advisory Service on Appropriate Technology (ISAT). It contains information on the application of biogas and product development.

KOSSMANN, W. POENITZ, U. HABERMEHL, S. HOERZ, T. KRAEMER, P. KLINGLER, B. KELLNER, C. WITTUR, T. VON KLOPOTEK, F. KRIEG, A. EULER, H. (1999): Biogas Digest Volume II. Biogas - Application and Product Development. Eschborn: GTZ URL [Accessed: 27.05.2019]

Research on Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Solid Waste at Household Level in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Decentralized anaerobic digestion is a promising technology to handle the large organic fraction of the municipal solid waste (e.g. kitchen waste) with the additional benefit of producing biogas as well as fertilizer. This paper evaluates the suitability of the ARTI Compact biogas system as a decentralised low-tech treatment option for the organic fraction of household waste in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

LOHRI (2009): Research on Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Solid Waste at Household Level in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. (= Bachelor Thesis ). Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW) URL [Accessed: 27.05.2019]

Technology Review of Biogas Sanitation

This document provides an overview and introduction on biogas sanitation (anaerobic digestion) for blackwater or for brown water, or excreta treatment for reuse in developing countries. The main technologies discussed are biogas settlers (BSs), biogas septic tanks, anaerobic baffled reactor (ABRs), anaerobic filter (AFs) and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors (UASBs).

MANG, H.-P. LI, Z. (2010): Technology Review of Biogas Sanitation. (= Technology Review ). Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]

Minnesota's Potential for Electricity Production Using Manure Biogas Resources

This report is a basic assessment of the feasibility and potential for using animal wastes in anaerobic methane digesters to create electricity in Minnesota. It covers an estimation of the electricity potential, the farm-size thresholds that warrant further investigation for a potential digester system, a quantification of the impact of incentives as well as a financial analysis.

MDC (2003): Minnesota's Potential for Electricity Production Using Manure Biogas Resources. Final Report. Minnesota: Minnesota Department of Commerce (MDC) and State Energy Office (SEO). [Accessed: 23.04.2010] PDF

Feasibility of a national programme on domestic biogas in Bangladesh. Final report

This report presents the finding of a study conducted by the Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV) to assess the feasibility to set up and implement a national programme on domestic biogas in Bangladesh.

NES, W.J. BOERS, W. van UL-ISLAM, K. (2005): Feasibility of a national programme on domestic biogas in Bangladesh. Final report. Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV) URL [Accessed: 23.04.2010]

Smart Sanitation Solutions

Smart Sanitation Solutions presents examples of low-cost household and community-based sanitation solutions that have proven effective and affordable. A wide range of innovative technologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatment and use of sanitation products that have already helped thousands of poor families to improve their lives is illustrated.

NWP (2006): Smart Sanitation Solutions. Examples of innovative, low-cost technologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatment and use of sanitation products. (= Smart water solutions ). Amsterdam: Netherlands Water Partnership (NWP) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019]

Biogas

Factsheet on biogas and how it can be produced at farm level.

PACE Project (n.y): Biogas. (= Action Sheet , 66 ). The Pan African Conservation Education Project (PACE Project) URL [Accessed: 20.04.2010]

Support Project to the Biogas Programme for the Animal Husbandry Sector in some Provinces of Vietnam

The Vietnamese and Netherlands Governments signed a Memorandum of Understanding for the implementation of a domestic biogas dissemination project in 10 provinces of Vietnam in January 2003. The project supports the agricultural sector in several provinces in Vietnam and uniquely joined Vietnams technical knowledge on fixed dome plant design and construction with Netherlands experience with large-scale dissemination of domestic biogas.

PBPO (2006): Support Project to the Biogas Programme for the Animal Husbandry Sector in some Provinces of Vietnam. (= BP I Final Report ). Hanoi: Provincial Biogas Project Office Hanoi URL [Accessed: 13.04.2010]

BIOGAS and DEWATS, a perfect match?

The resources gained from DEWATS-linked biogas digesters (gas for cooking), when combined with adequate social interventions, have resulted in increased acceptance of the DEWATS installations by communities and institutions. Two case studies in Bangalore, India illustrate this approach of the Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA).

SINHA, S. KAZAGLIS, A. (n.y): BIOGAS and DEWATS, a perfect match?. Bremen: Bremen Overseas Research and Development Agency (BORDA) URL [Accessed: 13.04.2010]

Links between Sanitation, Climate Change and Renewable Energies

This factsheet of Sustainable Sanitation Alliance describes the impact of greenhouse gases on climate change and focuses on the advantages of renewable energies. Therefore many different technologies like production of biogas or short-rotation-plantations are mentioned.

SUSANA (2009): Links between Sanitation, Climate Change and Renewable Energies. Eschborn. (= SuSanA fact sheet 09/2009 ). Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. LUETHI, C. MOREL, A. ZURBRUEGG, C. SCHERTENLEIB, R. (2008): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG) and Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) URL [Accessed: 15.02.2010] PDF

Document 8, Data Management Document, Appendix S 06 - Energy Research

This document provided by Waste Refinery Australia Project Association Inc. contains information on biogas, different types of cogeneration (CHP) and district heating. Additionally there are also facts and information on hydronics and gas flare.

WRAPAI (2009): Document 8, Data Management Document, Appendix S 06 - Energy Research. Australia: Waste Refinery Australia Project Association Incorporated (WRAPAI)
حالات دراسية

Biogas cooking stoves for villages on the fringes of the tiger reserve in Ranthambhore Park

The Ranthambhore National Park in Rajasthan, India, is the home of the endangered Indian tiger, and the demand for fuelwood for cooking in surrounding villages puts great pressure on the park's trees. The Prakratik Society has installed 250 biogas digesters in villages on the park's fringes. The digesters use cattle manure to produce biogas for cooking, and thus save fuelwood.

ASHDEN (2004): Biogas cooking stoves for villages on the fringes of the tiger reserve in Ranthambhore Park. The Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy URL [Accessed: 22.09.2010]

Biogas plants providing sanitation and cooking fuel in Rwanda

The Kigali Institute of Science, Technology and Management (KIST) has developed and installed large-scale biogas plants in prisons in Rwanda to treat toilet wastes and generate biogas for cooking. After the treatment, the bio-effluent is used as fertiliser for production of crops and fuel wood.

ASHDEN (2005): Biogas plants providing sanitation and cooking fuel in Rwanda. London: The Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy URL [Accessed: 13.04.2010]

Domestic biogas for cooking and sanitation

The Biogas Sector Partnership (BSP) in Nepal managed the installation of over 124,000 domestic biogas plants in Nepal between 1992 and 2005. The plants use cattle manure to provide biogas for cooking and lighting. In addition, about 75% of the plants incorporate toilets.

ASHDEN (2005): Domestic biogas for cooking and sanitation. London: The Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy URL [Accessed: 13.04.2010]

Clean cooking and income generation from biogas plants in Karnataka

SKG Sangha (SKG S) is a non-profit organisation that supplies biogas plants to households in rural areas of South India. The ‘Deenbandu’ design plants are built on-site by local masons and labourers trained by SKGS, with very high quality standards. Plants produce biogas by digesting cow dung, replacing all the fuel wood used for cooking.

ASHDEN (2007): Clean cooking and income generation from biogas plants in Karnataka. London: The Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy URL [Accessed: 14.03.2010]

Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste in Developing Countries

This book published by Eawag/Sandec compiles existing and recently generated knowledge on anaerobic digestion of urban biowaste at small and medium scale with special consideration given to the conditions prevailing in developing countries. Written for actors working in the waste and renewable energy sector, the book is divided into two parts: Part 1 focuses on practical information related to the anaerobic digestion supply chain (substrate-, process-, and product chain), and Part 2 presents selected case studies from around the world.

VOEGELI, Y. LOHRI, C.R. GALLARDO, A. DIENER, S. ZURBRUEGG, C. EAWAG (2014): Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste in Developing Countries. Practical Information and Case Studies. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.05.2019]

Pour-flush toilets with biogas plant at DSK Training Institute. Gujarat, India - Draft

The project described aimed at avoiding manual scavenging of faecal products and at improving the sanitation situation at the Navsarjan Vocational Training Institute. Now greywater is separately treated and reused in the garden while the urine and faeces (blackwater) are directly introduced into a biogas plant. Digested sludge is dried on basic drying beds and used as compost for the garden. UDDTs were also installed. The concept was implemented and evaluated for its social and cultural acceptability, sustainable and hygienic safety.

WAFLER, M. HEEB, J. STAUB, A. OLT, C. (2009): Pour-flush toilets with biogas plant at DSK Training Institute. Gujarat, India - Draft. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 25.04.2010]

Decentralised Wastewater Management at Adarsh College Badlapur, Maharashtra, India

This case study reports the development of an ecologically sound sanitation concept at the Adarsh Bidyaprasarak Sanstha's College of Arts & Commerce. In comprises separate urine collection and a DEWATS system for the treatment of black- and greywater consisting of biogas settler, an anaerobic baffled reactor, and anaerobic filter, a horizontal flow wetland and a polishing pond.

ZIMMERMANN, N. WAFLER, M. THAKUR, P. (2009): Decentralised Wastewater Management at Adarsh College Badlapur, Maharashtra, India. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 22.09.2010]
مواد تدريبية

Biogas Stove Design

This document was orginially presented for MSc Course on "Renewable Energy and the Environment” at the University of Reading. It present basic therotical principals for the technical design of biogas burners.

FULFORD, D. (1996): Biogas Stove Design. A short course. Kingdom Bioenergy Ltd.; University of Reading URL [Accessed: 28.05.2019]
مواد لنشر الوعي

SKG Sangha Film

Short film about SKG Sangha, a non-profit organisation that supplies biogas plants to households in rural areas of South India. The ‘Deenbandu’ design plants are built on-site by local masons and labourers trained by SKG Sangha, with very high quality standards. Plants produce biogas by digesting cow dung, replacing all the fuelwood used for cooking.

ASHDEN (2007): SKG Sangha Film. London: The Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy URL [Accessed: 15.03.2011]

Shaanxi Mothers, China Domestic biogas for cooking and lighting (Film)

Short film about the Shaanxi Mothers' Environmental Protection Volunteer Association (Shaanxi Mothers). It has installed 1.294 biogas plants in rural farming households in the Shaanxi Province of China since 1999. The plants produce biogas from pig and human waste.

ASHDEN (2006): Shaanxi Mothers, China Domestic biogas for cooking and lighting (Film). London: The Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy URL [Accessed: 15.03.2011]

    This module introduces the importance of market-based RRR solutions. At the end of this module you have identified key challenges in your local sanitation and waste management system and a RRR-related business idea.

    Cover image Module  1

    This module sheds light on the importance of studying the business environment and its components like waste supply, market demand, competition and the institutional framework. At the end of this module you have gained insights to evaluating the potential of your business idea.

    Cover image Module  2

    This module shows how a business idea can be turned into a business model while putting a specific focus on understanding the customer and designing products that meet their needs. At the end of this module you will have developed a business model and positioned your offer in the market.

    Cover image Module  3

    This module focusses on planning the operations of a RRR related business. During this part RRR technologies will be introduced for different waste streams and tools for planning the production process. At the end of this module you will have blueprinted your production process and the required technology and production inputs.

    Cover image Module  4

    This module covers key aspects of financial planning and analysis. At the end of this module you will have forecasted your profits, cash flows, required investment and evaluated the financial viability of your business model.

    Cover image Module  5

    This module enables you to set objectives and plan activities for the launch of your RRR business and identify potential financing sources. At the end of this module you will have developed an action plan for launch and identified appropriate financing sources.

    Cover image Module  6

    Week 1: Identify challenges in your local sanitation & waste management

    Download Materials
    قراءات أخرى

    SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles

    This AGUASAN publication illustrates how the water and nutrient cycles can be used as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system and aligning it with SDG 6.

    BROGAN, J., ERLMANN, T., MUELLER, K. and SOROKOVSKYI, V. (2017): SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles. Using the water and nutrient cycles as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system - including workshop material. Bern (Switzerland): AGUASAN and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

    Why shit matters [Video File]

    TEDX TALKS (2019): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d4yD0kz34jg [Accessed: 28.03.2019]

    "3 billion people worldwide live in cities without sewers or wastewater treatment plant infrastructure. This forces them to dump their waste into open waters, contaminating the drinking water for others downstream. Imagine if we could harness nutrients in wastewater instead of harming human and environmental health. Christoph Lüthi sees a renewable, locally produced and growing resource where others see only human waste. Watch his talk to learn why shit matters! "

    Week 2: Identify RRR products and business opportunities

    Download Materials
    قراءات أخرى

    A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

    AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

    GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

    OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Week 1: Analyse waste supply

    Download Materials
    قراءات أخرى

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 2: Analyse market demand

    Download Materials
    قراءات أخرى

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 3: Analyse your competition

    Download Materials
    قراءات أخرى

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 4: Analyse the institutional environment

    Download Materials
    قراءات أخرى

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 1: Meet the Business Model Canvas

    Download Materials
    قراءات أخرى

    A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

    AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

    GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

    OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Week 1: Plan your production process

    Download Materials
    قراءات أخرى

    Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

    This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

    TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

    Week 2: Understand the treatment process

    قراءات أخرى

    Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings

    LOHRI, C. R., DIENER, S., ZABALETA, I. MERTENAT, A. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2017): Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings. In: Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 81–130. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

    Week 3A: Design technology systems for nutrient recovery

    قراءات أخرى

    Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery

    COFIE, O., NIKIEMA, J., IMPRAIM, R., ADAMTEY, N., PAUL, J. and KONÉ, D. (2016): Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 3. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Decentralized composting in India

    DRESCHER, S. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2004): Decentralized composting in India. In: Harper et al. Sustainable Composting: Case Studies in Guidelines for Developing Countries. Loughborough (UK): Water Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), Loughborough University, Part2: Case Studies, Chapter 3, pp.15-27. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

    Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives

    KARANJA, N., KWACH, H. and NJENGA, M. (2005): Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives. Nairobi (Kenya): UN-Habitat. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 3B: Design technology systems for energy recovery

    قراءات أخرى

    Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market

    FERGUSON, H. (2012): Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market. London (UK): Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) International. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 3C: Design technology systems for water recovery

    قراءات أخرى

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Chapter 3 - Technology Selection

    VEENSTRA, S., ALAERTS, G. and BIJLSMA, M. (1997): Chapter 3 - Technology Selection. In: Helmer, R. and Hespanhol, I. (Eds). Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles. London (UK): World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects

    Volume I of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater focuses on policy, regulation and institutional arrangements. Accordingly, its intended readership is made up of policy-makers and those with regulatory responsibilities. It provides guidance on policy formulation, harmonisation and mainstreaming, on regulatory mechanisms and on establishing institutional links between the various interested sectors and parties. It also presents a synthesis of the key issues from Volumes II, III, and IV and the index for all four volumes as well as a glossary of terms used in all four volumes is presented in Annex 1.

    WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 10.04.2019]

    Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture

    Volume II of the Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater provides information on the assessment and management of risks associated with microbial hazards and toxic chemicals. It explains requirements to promote the safe use of wastewater in agriculture, including minimum procedures and specific health-based targets, and how those requirements are intended to be used. It also describes the approaches used in deriving the guidelines, including health-based targets, and includes a substantive revision of approaches to ensuring microbial safety.

    WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019] PDF

    Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture

    Volume III of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater deals with wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture and describes the present state of knowledge regarding the impact of wastewater-fed aquaculture on the health of producers, product consumers and local communities. It assesses the associated health risks and provides an integrated preventive management framework.

    WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]

    Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

    Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

    WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019] PDF

    Week 3: Analyse financial viability

    قراءات أخرى

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 1: Set objectives and plan activities for launch

    Download Materials
    قراءات أخرى

    Week 2: Finance the launch

    Download Materials
    قراءات أخرى

    This is the compact version of the factsheet.

    Read Extended Version

    Alternative Versions to