2018 أبريل 27

الملئ والتغطية / أربولو

Applicable to

Application level

City

Household

Neighborhood

Management level

Household

Public

Shared

المُدخلات

Organics
Faeces Excreta
+ Dry Cleansing Materials + Anal Cleansing Water

المُخرَجات

Biomass
المؤلف*
Eawag المعهد الفيدرالي السويسري لعلوم وتقنيات المياه
ترجمة وتعريب مؤسسة بناء

المُلخص التنفيذي

لوقف تشغيل حُفرة ما، يمكن ببساطة أن تُملأ بالتربة ويتم تغطيتها. على الرغم من عدم وجود فائدة من الحُفرة المُمتلئة المُغطاة، فإنها لا تُشكل أي مخاطر صحية مباشِرَة، ومحتوياتها ستتحلل بشكل طبيعي مع مرور الوقت. وبدلًا من ذلك، يمكن تطبيق تقنية أربورلو Arborloo، وهي حُفرة ذات عمق بسيط يتم ملؤها بفضلات الجسم والتربة/الرماد ثم يتم تغطیها بالتربة، حيث يُمكن زراعة شجرة في قمة الحُفرة الغنية بالمُغذيات حيث تنمو بقوة.

عند امتلاء الحُفرة الواحدة أو الحُفرة الواحدة المُطورة المهواة ولا يمكن إفراغها؛ فإن “الملء والتغطية” يُعتبر خيارًا -أي ملء ما تبقى من الحُفرة وتغطيتها-، وإن كان ذلك ذو فوائد محدودة للبيئة وللمستخدم. أربورلو عبارة عن حُفرة ذات عمق بسيط حيث يمكن زراعة شجرة عليها بعد امتلائها كليًا، في حين يتم نقل البِنية الفوقية (الحمَّام)، والهيكل الدائري للمِرحاض، والبلاطة الأرضية إلى حُفرة جديدة. وقبل استخدام أربورلو، يجب وضع طبقة من أوراق الأشجار في الجزء السفلي من الحُفرة الفارغة. ويجب أن يتم صب كمية مناسبة (مقدار كوب) من التربة، أو الرماد أو خليط من الاثنين في الحُفرة لتغطية فضلات الجسم بعد كل تغوط. في بعض الأحيان يمكن أن تضاف -إذا توفرت- أوراق الأشجار؛ لتحسين المسامية ومحتوى الهواء للكومة. عندما تمتلئ الحُفرة (عادة كل 6 إلى 12 شهرًا)، يتم ملء الطبقة العليا 15 سنتيمتر بالتربة وزرع شجرة عليها، ولقد ثبت نجاح زراعة أشجار الموز والبابايا والجوافة (وأشجار كثيرة أخرى).

 

المزايا
تقنية بسيطة التطبيق لجميع المستخدمين.
تكاليف منخفضة.
انخفاض خطر انتقال مُسببات الأمراض.
قد تشجع توليد الدخل (غرس الأشجار وإنتاج الفاكهة).
العيوب
لابد من حَفر حُفرة جديدة، و الحُفرة القديمة لا يُمكن إعادة استخدامها.
تغطية حُفرة أو زرع شجرة لا يقضي على خطر تلوث المياه الجوفية.
المُدخلات المُخرَجات

فضلات الجسم ، البراز، المواد العضوية،  مياه تنظيف الشرج، مواد التطهير الجافة.

 الكتلة الحيوية

Introduction

Factsheet Block Body

When a single pit or a single VIP is full and cannot be emptied, "fill and cover", i.e., filling the remainder of the pit and covering it is an option, albeit one with limited benefits to the environment and the user.

The Arborloo is a shallow pit on which a tree can be planted after it is full, while the superstructure, ring beam and slab are moved to a new pit. Before the Arborloo is used, a layer of leaves is put on the bottom of the empty pit. A cup of soil, ash or a mixture of the two should be dumped into the pit to cover excreta after each defecation. If they are available, leaves can also occasionally be added to improve the porosity and air content of the pile. When the pit is full (usually every 6 to 12 months), the top 15 cm is filled with soil and a tree is planted. Banana, papaya and guava trees (among many) have all proven to be successful.

Fill and Cover / Arborloo. Source: TILLEY et al. (2014)
Fill and Cover / Arborloo. Source: TILLEY et al. (2014)

 

اعتبارات التصميم

Factsheet Block Body

 يتم اعتبار حُفرة أربورلو كخيار إذا كان الموقع مناسب لنمو شجرة فيه، لذلك عند اختيار موقع الحُفرة، يجب على المستخدمين أن يضعوا في اعتبارهم المساحة وظروف الموقع اللازمة لزراعة شجرة جديدة )على سبيل المثال، المسافة بين الحُفرة والمنازل)

 يحتاج أربورلو إلى حُفرة بسيطة، بعمق حوالي 1 متر، ولا ينبغي أن تكون مُبطنة بأي بطانة من شأنها أن تمنع نمو الشجرة أو النبات بشكل صحيح.

ولا ينبغي زراعة الشجرة مباشرة في فضلات الجسم بصورتها الأولية، ولكن ينبغي أن تُزرع في التربة أعلى الحُفرة، سامحة لجذورها باختراق محتويات الحُفرة اثناء النمو. ومن الأفضل الانتظار لموسم الأمطار قبل زرعها إذا كانت المياه شحيحة.

 

الجوانب الصحية / القبول

Factsheet Block Body

 هناك حد متدني من خطر انتقال العدوى إذا تم تغطية الحُفرة بشكل صحيح وتمييزها بوضوح. قد يكون من الأفضل تغطية الحُفرة وزرع شجرة بدلًا من تفريغها، خصوصا إذا لم يكن هناك تقنية مناسبة متاحة لإزالة ومُعالجة حمأة مياه المجاري.

لا يكون هناك اتصال للمستخدمين مع المواد البُرازية، وبالتالي مخاطر انتقال مُسببات الأمراض منخفضة جدًّا.

إنشاء مشاريع أربورلو بمشاركة أفراد المجتمع تُعتبر وسائل مفيدة لعرض سهولة النظام وطبيعته غير المُنفِّرة، ولتوضيح القيمة الغذائية من فضلات الجسم البشرية.

 

التشغيل والصيانة

Factsheet Block Body

ينبغي أن يضاف كوب )كمية مناسبة( من التربة و/أو الرماد إلى الحُفرة بعد كل تغوط ويجب أن تُضاف أوراق الأشجار دوريًا. يجب -أيضًا- أن تتم تسوية محتويات الحُفرة بشكل دوري لمنع تكوين الشكل المخروطي لكومة فضلات الجسم في الوسط.

هناك القليل من الصيانة المتعلقة بالحُفرة المُغلقة، بالإضافة إلى رعاية الشجرة أو النبات. الأشجار المزروعة في الحُفر المهجورة ينبغي أن تُسقى بانتظام. ويجب بناء سياج صغير من العُصي والشوالات حول الشتلة لحمايتها من الحيوانات.

 

المراجع

Rapid Assessment of CRS Experience With Arborloos in East Africa

This rapid assessment reviewed sanitation activities by Catholic Relief Services in East Africa, in particular the promotion of the Arborloo – an innovative latrine designed to help achieve sustainable and scalable sanitation improvements in rural Ethiopia, South Sudan, Kenya and Uganda. The assessment explored the factors affecting Arborloo acceptance and sustainability, the scope and approaches for scaling up the latrine in these countries and in Tanzania, as well as opportunities to foster links between community and school sanitation.

HERBERT, P. (2010): Rapid Assessment of CRS Experience With Arborloos in East Africa. Baltimore: Catholic Relief Service URL [Accessed: 09.01.2019]

The Usefulness of Urine

The chapter "the usefulness of urine" is about different methods of collecting urine, storage, uses of urine in agriculture and gives various examples of using urine to enhance vegetable production in containers and on fields

MORGAN, P. (2004): The Usefulness of Urine. Part III, chapter 14. المُدخلات: Morgan, P. ; (2014): An Ecological Approach to Sanitation in Africa. A Compilation of Experiences. Harare: pp. 174-189. URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]

Toilets That Make Compost

This book describes in an easy-to-understand and picture-based way how to construct three different low cost sanitation solutions, namely arborloos, fossa alterna and urine diversion toilets.

MORGAN, P. EcoSanRes (2007): Toilets That Make Compost . Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019]

Ecological Toilets

This book describes how to construct Arborloo toilets and how it can be upgraded to VIPs at a later stage.

MORGAN, P. EcoSanRes (2009): Ecological Toilets. (pdf presentation). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019]

Smart Sanitation Solutions

Smart Sanitation Solutions presents examples of low-cost household and community-based sanitation solutions that have proven effective and affordable. A wide range of innovative technologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatment and use of sanitation products that have already helped thousands of poor families to improve their lives is illustrated.

NWP (2006): Smart Sanitation Solutions. Examples of innovative, low-cost technologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatment and use of sanitation products. (= Smart water solutions ). Amsterdam: Netherlands Water Partnership (NWP) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF
قراءات أخرى

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

The Arborloo Book

This booklet describes how to construct an arborloo toilet, which is both low cost and easy to make.

MORGAN, P. (2004): The Arborloo Book. (pdf presentation). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute

Ecological Toilets

This book describes how to construct Arborloo toilets and how it can be upgraded to VIPs at a later stage.

MORGAN, P. EcoSanRes (2009): Ecological Toilets. (pdf presentation). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019]

The Arborloo and growing trees

This extract describes how to create a low-cost and well functioning arborloo and contains lots of information on how to plant trees in the closed pit.

MORGAN, P. (2004): The Arborloo and growing trees. (pdf presentation). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute

Toilets That Make Compost

This book describes in an easy-to-understand and picture-based way how to construct three different low cost sanitation solutions, namely arborloos, fossa alterna and urine diversion toilets.

MORGAN, P. EcoSanRes (2007): Toilets That Make Compost . Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019]

Toilets That Make Compost. Factsheet

This information sheet summarises the Peter Morgan publication under the same name on two pages. It describes three types of simple and affordable composting toilets: Two types of shallow pit toilets (arborloo) and the urine diverting toilet.

EcoSanRes (2008): Toilets That Make Compost. Factsheet. (pdf presentation). (= EcoSanRes Factsheet 13 ). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute

An Ecological Approach to Sanitation in Africa: A Compilation of Experiences

This factsheet provides information and experiences of simple pit toilet and twin pit toilet. It also contains knowledge about upgrading technologies, hygiene and usage of faeces as fertilizer.

EcoSanRes (2008): An Ecological Approach to Sanitation in Africa: A Compilation of Experiences. (= EcoSanRes Factsheet 12 ). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI)

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Low-Cost Sustainable Sanitation Solutions for Mindanao and the Philippines. A Practical Construction Field Guide

After a brief introductory chapter on the Philippine sanitation situation and basic principles of sustainable sanitation, the manual focuses on the introduction of different low-cost sanitation solutions comprising the arborloo toilet, the 1-chamber and 2-chamber UDDT, hanging UDDTs, and the ecopee urinal. Each technology is briefly described by giving general information on how it works, operation and maintenance requirements, reuse or safe disposal options, and in which setting this technology might be appropriate. In addition, a picture-based guide on how to construct each technology is provided as well as the necessary technical drawings and rough cost estimates based on current prices. Since a sanitation system does not end with the toilet itself, the last chapter also provides information on the overall management of the system including collection, transport, treatment, and final reuse of urine, feces and composting products in agriculture.

GENSCH, R. MISO, A. ITCHON, G. SAYRE, E. (2010): Low-Cost Sustainable Sanitation Solutions for Mindanao and the Philippines. A Practical Construction Field Guide. Cagayan de Oro City: Xavier University URL [Accessed: 31.05.2019]

How to Manage Public Toilets and Showers

The purpose of this decision-making aid is to provide practical advice and recommendations for managing toilet blocks situated in public places. It is primarily aimed at local decision-makers in developing countries and at their partners (project planners and managers).

TOUBKISS, J. (2010): How to Manage Public Toilets and Showers. (= Six Methodological Guides for a Water and Sanitation Services' Development Strategy , 5 ). Cotonou and Paris: Partenariat pour le Développement Municipal (PDM) and Programme Solidarité Eau (pS-Eau) URL [Accessed: 19.10.2011]

Ecodesign: The Bottom Line

There is no single design solution to sanitation. But there are universal principles for systematically and safely detoxifying human excreta, without contaminating, wasting or even using water. Ecological sanitation design — which is focused on sustainability through reuse and recycling — offers workable solutions that are gaining footholds around the world, as Nature explores on the following pages through the work of Peter Morgan in Zimbabwe, Ralf Otterpohl and his team in Germany, Shunmuga Paramasivan in India, and Ed Harrington and his colleagues in California.

NATURE (Editor) ; MORGAN, P. ; OTTERPOHL, R. ; PARAMASIVAN, S. ; HARRINGTON, E. (2012): Ecodesign: The Bottom Line. المُدخلات: Nature: International Weekly Journal of Science: Volume 486 , 186-189. URL [Accessed: 19.06.2012]

Trees as recyclers of nutrients present in human excreta

his report clearly indicates that trees of various types can benefit greatly from the nutrients derived from human excreta and the methods of transferring the nutrients can vary somewhat. These vary from direct uptake from an unlined pit, a lined pit, by various methods of urine application and also from the seepage from soakaways linked to septic tanks of various types.

MORGAN, P. (2011): Trees as recyclers of nutrients present in human excreta. (= Main tree report ). Zimbabwe: Aquamor Pvt Ltd. URL [Accessed: 19.06.2013]

The Usefulness of Urine

The chapter "the usefulness of urine" is about different methods of collecting urine, storage, uses of urine in agriculture and gives various examples of using urine to enhance vegetable production in containers and on fields

MORGAN, P. (2004): The Usefulness of Urine. Part III, chapter 14. المُدخلات: Morgan, P. ; (2014): An Ecological Approach to Sanitation in Africa. A Compilation of Experiences. Harare: pp. 174-189. URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]
حالات دراسية

Rapid Assessment of CRS Experience With Arborloos in East Africa

This rapid assessment reviewed sanitation activities by Catholic Relief Services in East Africa, in particular the promotion of the Arborloo – an innovative latrine designed to help achieve sustainable and scalable sanitation improvements in rural Ethiopia, South Sudan, Kenya and Uganda. The assessment explored the factors affecting Arborloo acceptance and sustainability, the scope and approaches for scaling up the latrine in these countries and in Tanzania, as well as opportunities to foster links between community and school sanitation.

HERBERT, P. (2010): Rapid Assessment of CRS Experience With Arborloos in East Africa. Baltimore: Catholic Relief Service URL [Accessed: 09.01.2019]

Ecosan in Niassa

Water Aid (Moçambique) has spent about one year supporting the Government’s efforts to revive a sanitation programme in the Niassa Province, northern Moçambique. This report documents the achieved experiences of this project.

BRESLIN, N. (2000): Ecosan in Niassa. (= Water Aid Mozambique Report No. 1 ). Maputo: Water Aid Mocaambique

Application of Ecological Sanitation and Permaculture Techniques. Food and Water Security for Indigenous Tribes and Rural areas in Brazil

This paper describes a demonstration project carried out in an indigenous tribe in Brazil. The project comprised the implementation of arborloo-type toilets and banana tree circles with greywater irrigation.

GALBIATI, A. F. SILVA, G. C. da MARCOS, V. G. AFFONSO, M. V. G. PAULO, P. L. (2007): Application of Ecological Sanitation and Permaculture Techniques. Food and Water Security for Indigenous Tribes and Rural areas in Brazil . Brazil: Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul

Practical Experiences in implementing Ecological Sanitation during Extreme Dry Regimes

This presentation of WAND-Foundation provides information on experiences achieved in the field of implementing various technologies of ecological sanitation in the Philippines. It contains a variety of local technologies (including arborloos), financing mechanisms and emerging opportunities.

SAYRE, E. WAND (2008): Practical Experiences in implementing Ecological Sanitation during Extreme Dry Regimes . Philippines: Water, Agroforestry, Nutrition and Development Foundation

Promoting Ecological Sanitation in Ethiopia through the Arborloo Latrine

The ArborLoo is successful in Ethiopia because: its design addresses past obstacles to sanitation; its construction is simplified, reducing financial outlay and construction costs; it emphasizes marketing and participatory efforts; and it increases the output of additional organic fertilisers.

CRS (2012): Promoting Ecological Sanitation in Ethiopia through the Arborloo Latrine. Baltimore: Catholic Relief Services (CRS) URL [Accessed: 22.02.2012]

How We Made an Arborloo Which Can be Upgraded to VIP

The Arborloo is the simplest ecological toilet and is an effective way of starting low cost sanitation programmes. It also demonstrates how valuable the nutrients in human excreta can be. This presentation gives an insight into the following aspects: - What is anArborloo? - What is an Arborloo? - Stages in life of the Arborloo - Planting trees on or near Arborloo pits - Stages in the construction of the Arborloo - Vent pipes - Construction of the Blair VIP

SHANGWA, A. MORGAN, P. (2008): How We Made an Arborloo Which Can be Upgraded to VIP. The Chisungu Primary School Water and Sanitation project. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 19.06.2013]

Ecological Sanitation in Malawi

This illustrative presentation on ecological sanitation in Malawi, focuses on the concept of ecological sanitation, types of eco-toilets and basic methods of recycling nutrient from human excreta.

MORGAN, P. (2010): Ecological Sanitation in Malawi. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 31.05.2019]

Available Sanitation Technologies for Rural and Peri-Urban Africa

The presentation allows for a good overview on existing types of pit latrines in Africa, but also on other types of sanitation technologies such as the conventional flush toilet, the pour flush toilet, and the urine diversion dehydration toilet (UDDT).

MORGAN, P. (2007): Available Sanitation Technologies for Rural and Peri-Urban Africa. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 20.06.2013]

Experiments with Ecological Sanitation and Pit Emptying in Maputaland, South Africa

This document describes the experimental design of ecological sanitation and pit-emptying trials in Maputaland, South Africa. It describes the situation found at field visits in 2000 and 2003.

MORGAN, P. (2003): Experiments with Ecological Sanitation and Pit Emptying in Maputaland, South Africa. A Description of Visits Made in 2000 and 2003. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 20.06.2013]

The Arborloo Book for Ethiopia

This booklet describes how to make a toilet which is both low cost and easy to make. Builders and artisans are not required, once the householder has learned the basic methods of construction.

MORGAN, P. (2007): The Arborloo Book for Ethiopia. How to Make a Simple Pit Toilet and Grow Trees and Vegetables. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 20.06.2013]

An Ecological Approach to Sanitation in Uganda using Arborloo and Fossa Alterna

This paper gives an overview on arborloo and fossa alterna technologies referring to existing projects in Africa.

SMET, J. ACHIRO, B. MOMMEN, B. TURYAREEBA, P. LeaPPS (2008): An Ecological Approach to Sanitation in Uganda using Arborloo and Fossa Alterna. LeaPPS Case. Uganda: Learning for Practice and Policy on Household and School Sanitation and Hygiene (LeaPPS)

Ecological Sanitation in Malawi

This illustrative presentation on ecological sanitation in Malawi, focuses on the concept of ecological sanitation, types of eco-toilets and basic methods of recycling nutrient from human excreta.

MORGAN, P. (2010): Ecological Sanitation in Malawi. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 31.05.2019]

Lessons from a Low Cost Ecological Approach to Sanitation in Malawi

Low cost Ecological Sanitation programs in Malawi have led to the building of over 11,000 compost-producing toilets since 2003. While the toilets are affordable and simple to construct, the fact that they convert human waste into valuable odour-free compost, enables cost recovery for households and is a prime driver in popularizing EcoSan designs. This field note summarizes the lessons learned thus far in Malawi’s efforts to popularize ecological sanitation.

MORGAN, P. (2007): Lessons from a Low Cost Ecological Approach to Sanitation in Malawi. Washington: Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) URL [Accessed: 20.06.2013]

Ecological Sanitation in Southern Africa

This document describes the ecological sanitation situation in South Africa, focussing on the range of technological options, promotional methods and recycling methods and the problem areas.

MORGAN, P. (2005): Ecological Sanitation in Southern Africa. Many Approaches to a Varied Need. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) URL [Accessed: 21.06.2013]

The ROSA Project

The ROSA project stands for Resource-Oriented Sanitation concepts for peri-urban areas in Africa. This Sustainable Sanitation Practice (SSP) issue contains the following contributions: 1. Introduction to the ROSA Project, 2. From Pilot Units to Large-Scale Implementation - Ethiopia, 3. Implementation of UDDTs at Schools - Kenya, 4. Urban Agriculture for Sanitation Promotion, 5. Operation an Maintenance in Practice, 6. Experiences from Strategic Sanitation Planning, 7. Main Findings and Main Achievements.

MUELLEGGER, E. ; LANGEGRABER, G. ; LECHNER, M. (2010): The ROSA Project. (= Sustainable Sanitation Practice , 4 ). Vienna: Ecosan Club URL [Accessed: 01.07.2013]
مواد تدريبية

Arborloos Improved Hygiene Intervention increases Agricultural Production

This presentation by CRS contains a well-structured overview of the arborloo. The slides contain historical information as well as information on technological, economic and agricultural aspects.

SIMPSON, M. Holistic Innovations in Agriculture Programming (2009): Arborloos Improved Hygiene Intervention increases Agricultural Production. (pdf presentation). Washington, D.C.: Catholic Relief Service (CRS): East Africa Regional Office
مواد لنشر الوعي

Waste? Not

Critical article on conventional end-of-pipe wastewater approaches, introducing some alternatives such as biogas digester, arborloos or the fossa alterna.

TUHUS-DUBROW (2008): Waste? Not. المُدخلات: The Boston Globe: URL [Accessed: 21.02.2010]

Smart Sanitation Solutions

Smart Sanitation Solutions presents examples of low-cost household and community-based sanitation solutions that have proven effective and affordable. A wide range of innovative technologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatment and use of sanitation products that have already helped thousands of poor families to improve their lives is illustrated.

NWP (2006): Smart Sanitation Solutions. Examples of innovative, low-cost technologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatment and use of sanitation products. (= Smart water solutions ). Amsterdam: Netherlands Water Partnership (NWP) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019]

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