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2018 أبريل 27

إحراق الغاز الحيوي

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المُدخلات

Biogas

المُخرَجات

المؤلف*
Eawag المعهد الفيدرالي السويسري لعلوم وتقنيات المياه
ترجمة وتعريب مؤسسة بناء
المُلخص التنفيذي

يُستخدم الغاز الحيوي بنفس مبدأ أي وقود غازي آخر، وعندما يتم إنتاجه في مفاعلات الغاز الحيوي المنزلية، فإنه يكون مناسبًا جدًا للطهي. بالإضافة إلى ذلك، يُعتبر توليد الكهرباء خيارًا ذا قيمة عندما يتم إنتاج الغاز الحيوي في هواضم لاهوائية كبيرة.

تتغير متطلبات المنازل من الطاقة بشكلٍ كبير، وتتأثر بعادات الطهي والأكل (بمعنى، قد تتطلب حبيبات القمح الصلدة والذرة وقتًا أطول لطهيها، لذلك فإنها تحتاج إلى طاقة كبيرة، وذلك مقارنةً بطهي الخضروات الطازجة واللحوم). يحتوي الغاز الحيوي على نسبة من الميثان تبلغ 55 - 75% في المتوسط، والذي يضمن محتوى من الطاقة بمقدار 6-6.5 كيلو واط ساعة/م3.

 

المزايا
مصدر طاقة مجاني.
يحد من تلوث الهواء في الأماكن المغلقة، وكذلك يُقلّل من إزالة الغابات Deforestation (إذا كان الحطب والفحم يستخدمان سابقًا)
يتطلب مهارات منخفضة في التشغيل والصيانة.
العيوب
قد لا يفي بجميع متطلبات الطاقة.
لا يمكنه أن يحل محل جميع أنواع الطاقة الأخرى.
لا يمكن تخزينه بسهولة (كثافة الطاقة المُنتَجَة ضئيلة بالنسبة للحجم)، لذلك يجب استخدامه بشكلٍ مستمر ومتتابع.
المُدخلات المُخرَجات

الغاز الحيوي

التشغيل والصيانة

 

عادة ما يكون الغاز الحيوي مشبعًا ببخار الماء، الأمر الذي يؤدي إلى تكثيفه. لمنع الانسدادات والتآكل يجب تفريغ المياه المتجمعة بشكلٍ دوري عن طريق مصائد المياه المُرَكِّبة لهذا الغرض. ويجب أن يتم متابعة أنابيب الغاز، والوصلات، والأجهزة بشكلٍ منتظم من قِبَل الأشخاص المدرّبين. عند استخدام الغاز الحيوي في المُحركات، فمن الضرورى أولًا تقليل كبريتيد الهيدروجين، لأنه يشكّل أحماضًا تآكلية (مسببة للتآكل) عند خلطه بالمياه المتكثّفة. أما تقليل نسبة ثاني أكسيد الكربون المتواجدة بالغاز فتتطلب مجهودات تشغيلية إضافية وموارد مالية. وبما أن عملية إزالة ثاني أكسيد الكربون CO2 Scrubbing لا تُعد ضرورية عند استخدام الغاز الحيوي في الطهي، فإنه نادرًا ما يُنصح بذلك في البلدان النامية.

Factsheet Block Title
اعتبارات التصميم
Factsheet Block Body

يُمكن تحديد كمية الغاز المطلوبة بناءً على نوعية الطاقة المستهلكة سابقًا، على سبيل المثال: كيلوجرام واحد من الحطب يعادل تقريبًا 200 لتر من الغاز الحيوي، وكيلوجرام واحد من روث البقر المُجَفَّف يعادل 100 لتر من الغاز الحيوي، وكيلوجرام واحد من الفحم النباتي يعادل 500 لتر من الغاز الحيوي.

يتراوح استهلاك الفرد من الغاز الحيوي لطهي وجبة واحدة ما بين 150-300 لتر، ويتطلب غلي لتر واحد من الماء إلى حوالي 30 - 40 لترًا من الغاز الحيوي، ويتطلب طهي نصف كيلوجرام من الأرز إلى 120 - 140 لترًا، و 160 -190 لترًا لطهي نصف كيلوجرام من الخضراوات.

ولقد أوضحت الاختبارات في نيبال وتنزانيا أن معدلات استهلاك الغاز الحيوي في الأفران المنزلية بحوالي 300 -400 لتر/ساعة. وهذا يعتمد على تصميم الفرن وعلى محتوى الميثان الموجود في الغاز الحيوي.

يمكن افتراض معدلات الاستهلاك الآتية (لتر/ساعة) لاستخدام الغاز الحيوي:

  المواقد المنزلية: 200 - 450 لترًا/ساعة

  مواقد التصنيع: 1000 - 3000 لتر/ساعة

الثلاجة (حجم 100 لتر( اعتماداً على درجة الحرارة الخارجية: 30 - 75 لترًا/ساعة

  مصباح الغاز، المكافيء لمصباح كهربائي 60 واط: 120 - 150 لترًا/ساعة

  محرك يعمل بالغاز الحيوي/الديزل: 420 لترًا/ساعة )لكل حصان(

  توليد كيلو واط من الكهرباء بمخلوط الغاز الحيوي/ الديزل: 700 لتر/ساعة

ماكينة حقن البلاستيك (15جم، 100 وحدة( بمخلوط الغاز الحيوي/الديزل: 140 لترًا/ساعة

بالمقارنة مع الغازات الأخرى، فإن الغاز الحيوي يحتاج إلى هواء أقل للاحتراق. ومن ثم، فإن الأجهزة التقليدية التي تعمل بالغاز العادي يجب تعديلها عند استخدامها في عملية إحراق الغاز الحيوي (مثل: زيادة حجم منافث الغاز وثقوب الموقد).

ويجب تقليل المسافة التي يقطعها الغاز لتجنب التسريب وفقدان الغاز القابلَين للحدوث. كما يجب تركيب صمامات التنقيط لتصريف الماء المتكثف والذي يتجمع عند النقاط الأكثر انخفاضًا بأنبوب الغاز.

 

Factsheet Block Title
المُلاءَمَة
Factsheet Block Body

تصل نسبة الكفاءة الحرارية عند استخدام الغاز الحيوي في المواقد إلى 55%، بينما تصل إلى 24% عند استخدامه في المحركات و3% فقط عند استخدامه في المصابيح. وكفاءة مصباح الغاز الحيوي هي فقط نصف كفاءة مصباح الكيروسين. وتعد أفضل الطرق فاعليةً في استخدام الغاز الحيوي هي استخدامه في توليد الطاقتين الكهربائية والحرارية معًا، حيث تصل نسبة الكفاءة حينها إلى 88%، ولكن هذا يُتاح فقط في حالة التجهيزات الكبيرة وبشرط أن يتم استخدام الحرارة الناتجة والاستفادة منها. أما فيما يخص الاستخدام المنزلي، فإن أفضل طريقة لاستخدام الغاز الحيوي هي الطهي.

 

Factsheet Block Title
الجوانب الصحية / القبول
Factsheet Block Body

 

 بشكلٍ عام، يفضّل الناس استخدام الغاز الحيوي في الطهي، وذلك لإمكانية تشغيله وإطفائه بشكلٍ فوري (بالمقارنة مع استخدام الخشب والفحم)، كما أن الغاز الحيوي يحترق بدون دخان، وبذلك فهو لا يسبّب تلوث الهواء في الأماكن المغلقة. وقد لا يتلاءم الغاز الحيوي المتولد من البُراز مع بعض الثقافات. بفرض أنه تم بناء محطة الغاز الحيوي وتم تشغيلها وصيانتها (مثل تصريف المياه المُتكاثفة) بشكلٍ جيد، فسوف تتضاءل حينها أخطار التسرب، والانفجارات، وغيرها من التهديدات الخطرة على صحة الإنسان.

 

المراجع

الاستخدام الامثل لمياة الصرف الصحى فى المجمعات السكنية إنتاج البيوغاز وإعادة استخدام المياة المعالجة بحى الاندلس للاسكان الشعبى

عماد سعد سعيد بلال (2004): الاستخدام الامثل لمياة الصرف الصحى فى المجمعات السكنية إنتاج البيوغاز وإعادة استخدام المياة المعالجة بحى الاندلس للاسكان الشعبى . السودان: جامعة الخرطوم /السودان

Biogas cooking stoves for villages on the fringes of the tiger reserve in Ranthambhore Park

The Ranthambhore National Park in Rajasthan, India, is the home of the endangered Indian tiger, and the demand for fuelwood for cooking in surrounding villages puts great pressure on the park's trees. The Prakratik Society has installed 250 biogas digesters in villages on the park's fringes. The digesters use cattle manure to produce biogas for cooking, and thus save fuelwood.

ASHDEN (2004): Biogas cooking stoves for villages on the fringes of the tiger reserve in Ranthambhore Park. The Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy URL [Accessed: 22.09.2010]

Domestic biogas for cooking and sanitation

The Biogas Sector Partnership (BSP) in Nepal managed the installation of over 124,000 domestic biogas plants in Nepal between 1992 and 2005. The plants use cattle manure to provide biogas for cooking and lighting. In addition, about 75% of the plants incorporate toilets.

ASHDEN (2005): Domestic biogas for cooking and sanitation. London: The Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy URL [Accessed: 13.04.2010]

Evaluation of Biogas Sanitation Systems in Nepalese Prisons. Summary Presentation of Evaluation Results

10 to 20m3 biogas digesters were installed in three different prisons and fed with human excreta and kitchen waste. Pathogen requirement were only partially fulfilled and slurry application as fertilizer needs further investigation and promotion.

EAWAG ; SANDEC (2009): Evaluation of Biogas Sanitation Systems in Nepalese Prisons. Summary Presentation of Evaluation Results. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 27.04.2010]

Biogas Stove Design

This document was orginially presented for MSc Course on "Renewable Energy and the Environment” at the University of Reading. It present basic therotical principals for the technical design of biogas burners.

FULFORD, D. (1996): Biogas Stove Design. A short course. Kingdom Bioenergy Ltd.; University of Reading URL [Accessed: 06.01.2011]

Feasability Study for a National Domestic Biogas Programme in Burkina Faso

This feasibility study resumes the current situation in Burkina Faso regarding social aspects, water and energy issues, agricultural and livestock sector activities, sanitation and environmental topics. It analyses the technical feasibility of currently available biogas digester designs for standardization and massive dissemination in the context of Burkina Faso. Also an outline of a National Domestic Biogas Programme is presented.

GTZ (2007): Feasability Study for a National Domestic Biogas Programme in Burkina Faso. German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 21.04.2010]

Biogas Digest Volume II

This information service on biogas technology has been developed and produced on the order of the GTZ project Information and Advisory Service on Appropriate Technology (ISAT). It contains information on the application of biogas and product development.

KOSSMANN, W. POENITZ, U. HABERMEHL, S. HOERZ, T. KRAEMER, P. KLINGLER, B. KELLNER, C. WITTUR, T. VON KLOPOTEK, F. KRIEG, A. EULER, H. (1999): Biogas Digest Volume II. Biogas - Application and Product Development. Eschborn: GTZ URL [Accessed: 09.05.2014]

Research on Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Solid Waste at Household Level in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Decentralized anaerobic digestion is a promising technology to handle the large organic fraction of the municipal solid waste (e.g. kitchen waste) with the additional benefit of producing biogas as well as fertilizer. This paper evaluates the suitability of the ARTI Compact biogas system as a decentralised low-tech treatment option for the organic fraction of household waste in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

LOHRI (2009): Research on Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Solid Waste at Household Level in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. (= Bachelor Thesis ). Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW) URL [Accessed: 05.05.2010]

Technology Review of Biogas Sanitation

This document provides an overview and introduction on biogas sanitation (anaerobic digestion) for blackwater or for brown water, or excreta treatment for reuse in developing countries. The main technologies discussed are biogas settlers (BSs), biogas septic tanks, anaerobic baffled reactor (ABRs), anaerobic filter (AFs) and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors (UASBs).

MANG, H.-P. LI, Z. (2010): Technology Review of Biogas Sanitation. (= Technology Review ). Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 17.06.2013]

Minnesota\'92s Potential for Electricity Production Using Manure Biogas Resources

This report is a basic assessment of the feasibility and potential for using animal wastes in anaerobic methane digesters to create electricity in Minnesota. Anaerobic methane digesters use bacteria to partially break down animal wastes, creating methane, which can be used for making electricity.

MDCSEO (2003): Minnesota\'92s Potential for Electricity Production Using Manure Biogas Resources. Minnesota, USA: Minnesota Department of Commerce State Energy Office (MDCSEO) URL [Accessed: 09.04.2010]

Smart Sanitation Solutions

Smart Sanitation Solutions presents examples of low-cost household and community-based sanitation solutions that have proven effective and affordable. A wide range of innovative technologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatment and use of sanitation products that have already helped thousands of poor families to improve their lives is illustrated.

NWP (2006): Smart Sanitation Solutions. Examples of innovative, low-cost technologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatment and use of sanitation products. (= Smart water solutions ). Amsterdam: Netherlands Water Partnership (NWP) URL [Accessed: 13.04.2010]

Support Project to the Biogas Programme for the Animal Husbandry Sector in some Provinces of Vietnam

The Vietnamese and Netherlands Governments signed a Memorandum of Understanding for the implementation of a domestic biogas dissemination project in 10 provinces of Vietnam in January 2003. The project supports the agricultural sector in several provinces in Vietnam and uniquely joined Vietnams technical knowledge on fixed dome plant design and construction with Netherlands experience with large-scale dissemination of domestic biogas.

PBPO (2006): Support Project to the Biogas Programme for the Animal Husbandry Sector in some Provinces of Vietnam. (= BP I Final Report ). Hanoi: Provincial Biogas Project Office Hanoi URL [Accessed: 13.04.2010]

Biogas electricity production hits 17,272GWh a year in Europe

Biogas is a green energy using new technology. Undoubtedly, the produced kW cost is not yet a competitor against nuclear or fossil fuel energies, but the systems installed are more and more efficient, and their financial profitability is increasing. Marc Schaller reports.

SCHALLER, M. (2007): Biogas electricity production hits 17,272GWh a year in Europe. المُدخلات: Engineer Live: , 46-49 . URL [Accessed: 03.05.2010]

Links between Sanitation, Climate Change and Renewable Energies

This factsheet of Sustainable Sanitation Alliance describes the impact of greenhouse gases on climate change and focuses on the advantages of renewable energies. Therefore many different technologies like production of biogas or short-rotation-plantations are mentioned.

SUSANA (2009): Links between Sanitation, Climate Change and Renewable Energies. Eschborn. (= SuSanA fact sheet 09/2009 ). Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 05.09.2010]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. LUETHI, C. MOREL, A. ZURBRUEGG, C. SCHERTENLEIB, R. (2008): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG) and Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) URL [Accessed: 15.02.2010]

Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste in Developing Countries

This book published by Eawag/Sandec compiles existing and recently generated knowledge on anaerobic digestion of urban biowaste at small and medium scale with special consideration given to the conditions prevailing in developing countries. Written for actors working in the waste and renewable energy sector, the book is divided into two parts: Part 1 focuses on practical information related to the anaerobic digestion supply chain (substrate-, process-, and product chain), and Part 2 presents selected case studies from around the world.

VOEGELI, Y. LOHRI, C.R. GALLARDO, A. DIENER, S. ZURBRUEGG, C. EAWAG (2014): Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste in Developing Countries. Practical Information and Case Studies. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 03.03.2013]

Document 8, Data Management Document, Appendix S 06 - Energy Research

This document provided by Waste Refinery Australia Project Association Inc. contains information on biogas, different types of cogeneration (CHP) and district heating. Additionally there are also facts and information on hydronics and gas flare.

WRAPAI (2009): Document 8, Data Management Document, Appendix S 06 - Energy Research. Australia: Waste Refinery Australia Project Association Incorporated (WRAPAI)
قراءات أخرى

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic)

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. SCHERTENLEIB, R. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) PDF

Technology Review of Composting Toilets

This GIZ publication explains the design, use and operational requirements of composting toilets. Ample examples for composting toilets from around the world are included in the publication to show that these types of toilets have a wide range of applications under a variety of circumstances (for wealthy or poor people; for cold, hot, wet or dry climates; for urban or rural settings). The appendix contains a listing of suppliers.

BERGER, W. (2011): Technology Review of Composting Toilets. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) URL [Accessed: 06.02.2012]

Report on the Feasibility Study for a Biogas Support Programme in the Republic of Rwanda

This report presents the findings of a study conducted by Ministry of Agriculture (MININFRA) and SNV to assess the feasibility to set-up and implement a national programme on domestic biogas in Rwanda.

DEKELVER, G. RUZIGANA, S. LAM, J. (2005): Report on the Feasibility Study for a Biogas Support Programme in the Republic of Rwanda. Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV) URL [Accessed: 09.04.2010]

Decentralised Composting for Cities of Low- and Middle-Income Countries – A User’s Manual

This book describes approaches and methods of composting on neighbourhood level in small-and middle-scale plants. It considers issues of waste collection, composting technologies, management systems, occupational health concerns, product quality, marketing and end-user demands.

DRESCHER, S. ZURBRUEGG, C. ENAYETULLAH, I. SINGHA, M.A.D. (2006): Decentralised Composting for Cities of Low- and Middle-Income Countries – A User’s Manual. Dhaka: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) and Waste Concern URL [Accessed: 16.08.2010]

Feasability Study for a National Domestic Biogas Programme in Burkina Faso

This feasibility study resumes the current situation in Burkina Faso regarding social aspects, water and energy issues, agricultural and livestock sector activities, sanitation and environmental topics. It analyses the technical feasibility of currently available biogas digester designs for standardization and massive dissemination in the context of Burkina Faso. Also an outline of a National Domestic Biogas Programme is presented.

GTZ (2007): Feasability Study for a National Domestic Biogas Programme in Burkina Faso. German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 21.04.2010]

Performance evaluation of a biogas stove for cooking in Nigeria

Journal article on a biogas digester, which was designed, constructed and its performance evaluated using a 3m3 continuous flow Indian type biogas plant at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria. Various technical drafts and mathematical and chemical formulas are shown.

ITODO, I. N. ; AGYO, G. E. ; YUSUF, P. (2007): Performance evaluation of a biogas stove for cooking in Nigeria. المُدخلات: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa: Volume 18 , 14-18. URL [Accessed: 09.04.2010]

Biogas Digest Volume II

This information service on biogas technology has been developed and produced on the order of the GTZ project Information and Advisory Service on Appropriate Technology (ISAT). It contains information on the application of biogas and product development.

KOSSMANN, W. POENITZ, U. HABERMEHL, S. HOERZ, T. KRAEMER, P. KLINGLER, B. KELLNER, C. WITTUR, T. VON KLOPOTEK, F. KRIEG, A. EULER, H. (1999): Biogas Digest Volume II. Biogas - Application and Product Development. Eschborn: GTZ URL [Accessed: 09.05.2014]

Research on Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Solid Waste at Household Level in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Decentralized anaerobic digestion is a promising technology to handle the large organic fraction of the municipal solid waste (e.g. kitchen waste) with the additional benefit of producing biogas as well as fertilizer. This paper evaluates the suitability of the ARTI Compact biogas system as a decentralised low-tech treatment option for the organic fraction of household waste in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

LOHRI (2009): Research on Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Solid Waste at Household Level in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. (= Bachelor Thesis ). Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW) URL [Accessed: 05.05.2010]

Technology Review of Biogas Sanitation

This document provides an overview and introduction on biogas sanitation (anaerobic digestion) for blackwater or for brown water, or excreta treatment for reuse in developing countries. The main technologies discussed are biogas settlers (BSs), biogas septic tanks, anaerobic baffled reactor (ABRs), anaerobic filter (AFs) and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors (UASBs).

MANG, H.-P. LI, Z. (2010): Technology Review of Biogas Sanitation. (= Technology Review ). Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH URL [Accessed: 17.06.2013]

Minnesota's Potential for Electricity Production Using Manure Biogas Resources

This report is a basic assessment of the feasibility and potential for using animal wastes in anaerobic methane digesters to create electricity in Minnesota. It covers an estimation of the electricity potential, the farm-size thresholds that warrant further investigation for a potential digester system, a quantification of the impact of incentives as well as a financial analysis.

MDC (2003): Minnesota's Potential for Electricity Production Using Manure Biogas Resources. Final Report. Minnesota: Minnesota Department of Commerce (MDC) and State Energy Office (SEO) URL [Accessed: 23.04.2010]

Feasibility of a national programme on domestic biogas in Bangladesh. Final report

This report presents the finding of a study conducted by the Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV) to assess the feasibility to set up and implement a national programme on domestic biogas in Bangladesh.

NES, W.J. BOERS, W. van UL-ISLAM, K. (2005): Feasibility of a national programme on domestic biogas in Bangladesh. Final report. Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV) URL [Accessed: 23.04.2010]

Smart Sanitation Solutions

Smart Sanitation Solutions presents examples of low-cost household and community-based sanitation solutions that have proven effective and affordable. A wide range of innovative technologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatment and use of sanitation products that have already helped thousands of poor families to improve their lives is illustrated.

NWP (2006): Smart Sanitation Solutions. Examples of innovative, low-cost technologies for toilets, collection, transportation, treatment and use of sanitation products. (= Smart water solutions ). Amsterdam: Netherlands Water Partnership (NWP) URL [Accessed: 13.04.2010]

Biogas

Factsheet on biogas and how it can be produced at farm level.

PACE Project (n.y): Biogas. (= Action Sheet , 66 ). The Pan African Conservation Education Project (PACE Project) URL [Accessed: 20.04.2010]

Support Project to the Biogas Programme for the Animal Husbandry Sector in some Provinces of Vietnam

The Vietnamese and Netherlands Governments signed a Memorandum of Understanding for the implementation of a domestic biogas dissemination project in 10 provinces of Vietnam in January 2003. The project supports the agricultural sector in several provinces in Vietnam and uniquely joined Vietnams technical knowledge on fixed dome plant design and construction with Netherlands experience with large-scale dissemination of domestic biogas.

PBPO (2006): Support Project to the Biogas Programme for the Animal Husbandry Sector in some Provinces of Vietnam. (= BP I Final Report ). Hanoi: Provincial Biogas Project Office Hanoi URL [Accessed: 13.04.2010]

BIOGAS and DEWATS, a perfect match?

The resources gained from DEWATS-linked biogas digesters (gas for cooking), when combined with adequate social interventions, have resulted in increased acceptance of the DEWATS installations by communities and institutions. Two case studies in Bangalore, India illustrate this approach of the Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA).

SINHA, S. KAZAGLIS, A. (n.y): BIOGAS and DEWATS, a perfect match?. Bremen: Bremen Overseas Research and Development Agency (BORDA) URL [Accessed: 13.04.2010]

Links between Sanitation, Climate Change and Renewable Energies

This factsheet of Sustainable Sanitation Alliance describes the impact of greenhouse gases on climate change and focuses on the advantages of renewable energies. Therefore many different technologies like production of biogas or short-rotation-plantations are mentioned.

SUSANA (2009): Links between Sanitation, Climate Change and Renewable Energies. Eschborn. (= SuSanA fact sheet 09/2009 ). Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 05.09.2010]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. LUETHI, C. MOREL, A. ZURBRUEGG, C. SCHERTENLEIB, R. (2008): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG) and Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) URL [Accessed: 15.02.2010]

Document 8, Data Management Document, Appendix S 06 - Energy Research

This document provided by Waste Refinery Australia Project Association Inc. contains information on biogas, different types of cogeneration (CHP) and district heating. Additionally there are also facts and information on hydronics and gas flare.

WRAPAI (2009): Document 8, Data Management Document, Appendix S 06 - Energy Research. Australia: Waste Refinery Australia Project Association Incorporated (WRAPAI)
حالات دراسية

Biogas cooking stoves for villages on the fringes of the tiger reserve in Ranthambhore Park

The Ranthambhore National Park in Rajasthan, India, is the home of the endangered Indian tiger, and the demand for fuelwood for cooking in surrounding villages puts great pressure on the park's trees. The Prakratik Society has installed 250 biogas digesters in villages on the park's fringes. The digesters use cattle manure to produce biogas for cooking, and thus save fuelwood.

ASHDEN (2004): Biogas cooking stoves for villages on the fringes of the tiger reserve in Ranthambhore Park. The Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy URL [Accessed: 22.09.2010]

Biogas plants providing sanitation and cooking fuel in Rwanda

The Kigali Institute of Science, Technology and Management (KIST) has developed and installed large-scale biogas plants in prisons in Rwanda to treat toilet wastes and generate biogas for cooking. After the treatment, the bio-effluent is used as fertiliser for production of crops and fuel wood.

ASHDEN (2005): Biogas plants providing sanitation and cooking fuel in Rwanda. London: The Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy URL [Accessed: 13.04.2010]

Domestic biogas for cooking and sanitation

The Biogas Sector Partnership (BSP) in Nepal managed the installation of over 124,000 domestic biogas plants in Nepal between 1992 and 2005. The plants use cattle manure to provide biogas for cooking and lighting. In addition, about 75% of the plants incorporate toilets.

ASHDEN (2005): Domestic biogas for cooking and sanitation. London: The Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy URL [Accessed: 13.04.2010]

Clean cooking and income generation from biogas plants in Karnataka

SKG Sangha (SKG S) is a non-profit organisation that supplies biogas plants to households in rural areas of South India. The ‘Deenbandu’ design plants are built on-site by local masons and labourers trained by SKGS, with very high quality standards. Plants produce biogas by digesting cow dung, replacing all the fuel wood used for cooking.

ASHDEN (2007): Clean cooking and income generation from biogas plants in Karnataka. London: The Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy URL [Accessed: 14.03.2010]

Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste in Developing Countries

This book published by Eawag/Sandec compiles existing and recently generated knowledge on anaerobic digestion of urban biowaste at small and medium scale with special consideration given to the conditions prevailing in developing countries. Written for actors working in the waste and renewable energy sector, the book is divided into two parts: Part 1 focuses on practical information related to the anaerobic digestion supply chain (substrate-, process-, and product chain), and Part 2 presents selected case studies from around the world.

VOEGELI, Y. LOHRI, C.R. GALLARDO, A. DIENER, S. ZURBRUEGG, C. EAWAG (2014): Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste in Developing Countries. Practical Information and Case Studies. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 03.03.2013]

Pour-flush toilets with biogas plant at DSK Training Institute. Gujarat, India - Draft

The project described aimed at avoiding manual scavenging of faecal products and at improving the sanitation situation at the Navsarjan Vocational Training Institute. Now greywater is separately treated and reused in the garden while the urine and faeces (blackwater) are directly introduced into a biogas plant. Digested sludge is dried on basic drying beds and used as compost for the garden. UDDTs were also installed. The concept was implemented and evaluated for its social and cultural acceptability, sustainable and hygienic safety.

WAFLER, M. HEEB, J. STAUB, A. OLT, C. (2009): Pour-flush toilets with biogas plant at DSK Training Institute. Gujarat, India - Draft. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 25.04.2010]

Decentralised Wastewater Management at Adarsh College Badlapur, Maharashtra, India

This case study reports the development of an ecologically sound sanitation concept at the Adarsh Bidyaprasarak Sanstha's College of Arts & Commerce. In comprises separate urine collection and a DEWATS system for the treatment of black- and greywater consisting of biogas settler, an anaerobic baffled reactor, and anaerobic filter, a horizontal flow wetland and a polishing pond.

ZIMMERMANN, N. WAFLER, M. THAKUR, P. (2009): Decentralised Wastewater Management at Adarsh College Badlapur, Maharashtra, India. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 22.09.2010]
مواد تدريبية

Biogas Stove Design

This document was orginially presented for MSc Course on "Renewable Energy and the Environment” at the University of Reading. It present basic therotical principals for the technical design of biogas burners.

FULFORD, D. (1996): Biogas Stove Design. A short course. Kingdom Bioenergy Ltd.; University of Reading URL [Accessed: 06.01.2011]
مواد لنشر الوعي

SKG Sangha Film

Short film about SKG Sangha, a non-profit organisation that supplies biogas plants to households in rural areas of South India. The ‘Deenbandu’ design plants are built on-site by local masons and labourers trained by SKG Sangha, with very high quality standards. Plants produce biogas by digesting cow dung, replacing all the fuelwood used for cooking.

ASHDEN (2007): SKG Sangha Film. London: The Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy URL [Accessed: 15.03.2011]

Shaanxi Mothers, China Domestic biogas for cooking and lighting (Film)

Short film about the Shaanxi Mothers' Environmental Protection Volunteer Association (Shaanxi Mothers). It has installed 1.294 biogas plants in rural farming households in the Shaanxi Province of China since 1999. The plants produce biogas from pig and human waste.

ASHDEN (2006): Shaanxi Mothers, China Domestic biogas for cooking and lighting (Film). London: The Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy URL [Accessed: 15.03.2011]

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