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05 May 2019

Strengthening Enforcement Bodies (WD)

Author/Compiled by
Dörte Peters (seecon international gmbh)
Executive Summary

Enforcement bodies have a very important role in establishing and ensuring the effective application of other software tools in sustainable sanitation and water management (adapted from GWP 2003). Especially economic and command and control tools are based on laws that have been enacted. As laws, rules, structures and responsibilities as well as partnership agreements need to be adhered to, and there must be a sound body monitoring and enforcing them. The actual function of enforcement bodies should be set out in a clear legal framework reflecting water and sanitation policies. Here, we will explain the importance of enforcement bodies, focusing on their needs and principles and showing the negative effect of corruption. Some concluding tips help to strengthen institutional (enforcement) bodies.

Advantages
pre-condition for successful implementation of many other tools, especially economic and command and control tools, legal framework
sound enforcement bodies gain trust of community
might heighten transparency and accountability in local governance
important part of any institutional framework
transparency of law enforcement in sanitation and water management leads to public awareness and might have an educational impact
Disadvantages
problems with corruption possible, mistrust of community
need for financial resources to pay enforcement bodies and their actions and equipment
process to strengthen enforcement bodies can take much time
not working without sound legal framework
need of good leadership
requires soundly educated staff
Factsheet Block Title
Policies and Laws: Framework for Compliance and Enforcement
Factsheet Block Body

Formulating and/or changing policies and legal frameworks is an important step when creating an enabling environment for sustainable sanitation and water management. Especially economic and command and control are based on laws that have been enacted.But those laws for the assertion of economic and command and control tools are not working independently. Their enforcement is as important as their formulation itself. Laws can therefore be seen as the framework for compliance and enforcement,as well as for all economic and command and control tools. None of those tools will work without the implementation of the others: On the one hand, economic and command and control tools are based on laws and need a sound institution enforcing them, because otherwise these tools are worthless. On the other hand, enforcement bodies need economic and command and control tools based on laws as statutes for their work, because otherwise they might be misled to act corruptly and arbitrarily.

The specific functions of enforcement bodies are determined by local government policy and the legal framework of sanitation and water management (see also bundling and unbundling of functions). Those functions include the assertion of command and control tools based on laws. Usually, they are in the local government sector, but they may subcontract specific activities (e.g. monitoring and testing of samples) to NGOs or private companies (see also privatisation). It is important that they can act without day-to-day political interference (adapted from GWP 2003).

Enforcement is a regulatory role, which may be brought out through a legal notice, a direction, or a court order. It also includes the regulation of activities beneficial to sustainable sanitation and water management. Enforcement functions may include responsibilities to identify particular types of offences, e.g. the non-compliance of certain agreements by a partnership contractor. The functions also include to investigate certain matters, gather evidence, take direct remedial actions, confiscate certain things (e.g. licences) and initiate proceedings for prosecution. The legislation sets out the range and limits of monetary penalties for specified offences, and provisions for appeal. (adapted from HANNAM n.y.)

Enforcement bodies may be financed through central government or other funds, or by user fees or fines for non-compliance. If the latter, the terms need to be very clear to avoid a potential risk of conflict of interest (adapted from GWP 2003) (see also financing, and water pricing).

The enforcement of laws is as important as their implementation itself. Source: Clipart n.y.
The enforcement of laws is as important as their implementation itself. Source: Clipart n.y.
Factsheet Block Title
Compliance and Enforcement Actors
Factsheet Block Body

(Adapted from U.S. EPA 2006)

Different actors can be included in compliance and enforcement:

  • Offender: This might be a company from a partnership not acting in the way the contract says, or a single person, a part of the local government, or even a police officer/official inspector violating a law concerning sanitation and water management.
  • Local government: Local councils have the ability to investigate and take enforcement action on certain sustainable sanitation and water management issues. In some cases, the same body, e.g. the local government, undertakes regulation and enforcement, in others there is a separation.
  • Police are normally the executive of the government. They have the power to take action over complaints about non-compliance of laws.
  • Private agencies/inspectors can be subcontracted to enforce compliance in specific areas of sanitation and water management. They might just be responsible for the monitoring or promotion of compliance, or have more responsibilities like tools to regulate or enforce compliance, or to penalise non-compliance.
  • Community: While the community does not directly enforce the provisions, it plays a crucial role in providing key information to the enforcement actor, for example details of potential offences. Also, the community can be a supporter of enforcement through social control and participatory monitoring and evaluation. For example, sanitation and water management laws can allow citizens to sue offenders for failing to comply with the law, and/or the government/private agency for failing to fulfil its duties under the law. Such provisions are an important means of enlisting citizen participation. (adapted from HANNAM n.y.)
  • NGOs can report non-compliance to the enforcement actors. They might also play a role in monitoring and reporting incorrect behaviour of enforcement bodies. They can also put pressure on potential offenders.

 

Factsheet Block Title
Principles of Enforcement Bodies
Factsheet Block Body

Enforcement bodies have to (adapted from NSW 2006):

  • act in the public interest
  • act consistently, impartially and fairly according to law
  • promote consistency through effective liaison with field staff and the adherence to policies and procedures
  • ensure not to discriminate on the basis of race, religion, sex, national origin or political association
  • ensure that enforcement action is taken against the right person for the right offence
  • ensure that all relevant evidence is placed before courts or appeal tribunals
  • make sanitation and water businesses aware of their legal obligations through the widest possible dissemination of information
  • make legislation available to industry
  • explain the benefits of compliance in sustainable sanitation and water management issues and discuss specific compliance failures or problems
  • provide advice on mechanisms that can be used to improve compliance
  • advise regulated parties of their right of appeal where provided by law; provide alleged offenders with an opportunity to discuss the circumstances of their case

 

Factsheet Block Title
What Enforcement Bodies Need
Factsheet Block Body

(Adapted from GWP 2003)

All the aspects shown below need to be considered before water and sanitation laws are enacted. Otherwise, the enforcement body might suffer from missing transparency, finances or statutes, which leads to water corruption and arbitrariness.

  • Sufficient staff of adequate capability in enforcement agencies to enforce regulations. The staff needs to be paid well to avoid corruption.
  • Statutes which are practical, enforceable and based on accurate knowledge of sustainable sanitation and water management.
  • Staff who are knowledgeable about good sustainable sanitation and water management practices and have appropriate scientific knowledge.
  • A sense of ownership on the part of stakeholders so that they accept the monitoring, enforcement and regulation procedures.
  • Adequate financial resources to support the staff, their education and operations, and transparency in financial management, to minimise regulatory capture.
  • Meaningful indicators for technical, economic and social issues and appropriate benchmarks.
  • Good leadership.
  • A programme of legal education and awareness building for the enforcement bodies and the general public.

 

When enforcement bodies work with missing transparency, finances or statues, officials might be misled to act corrupt. Source: BASATI (2010)
When enforcement bodies work with missing transparency, finances or statues, officials might be misled to act corrupt. Source: BASATI (2010)
Factsheet Block Title
Enforcement & Corruption
Factsheet Block Body

(Adapted from KLITGAART et al. 1996)

Enforcement actors are especially prone to corruption that will lead to inefficiency, injustice and inequity. Development processes like sustainable sanitation and water management are hampered by corruption, especially when enforcement officials are corrupt, so that nobody assures the implementation of intervention tools. Therefore, it is crucial for local (and national) governments to fight corruption. Some tips on how to do this are listed below:

  • Improve the positive incentives facing municipal officials. In many areas, pay levels have fallen so low that officials literally cannot feed their families without moonlighting or accepting side payments. Even more important is to strengthen the linkages between pay and performance, and promotion and performance, which in many cases have badly eroded.
    For the progress of any processes, it is important to fight corruption. Source: WSP (2006)
    For the progress of any processes, it is important to fight corruption. Source: WSP (2006)

 

  • Increase the effective penalties for corruption. Because of weak or corrupt investigatory, persecutory, and judicial systems, accusations of corruption seldom stick. If they do, the penalties are often minimal in practice (for example, the official is fired). As a result, the expected penalty for corruption does not deter. A key step is to strengthen the capacity and improve the incentives of the police, prosecutors, and judges. Local leaders can be creative in devising disincentives, such as firing or suspending employees, using the press to create publicity, inviting the denunciation of corrupt officials by professional groups, personnel transfers to less desirable jobs, and so forth.
  • Limit monopoly. Promote competition in the public and private sectors. Avoid monopoly granting regulations when possible.
  • Clarify official discretion. Simplify rules and regulations. Create “bright lines” that circumscribe duties and discretion. Help citizens learn how public systems are supposed to work (through brochures and manuals, help desks,and rules in ordinary language, publicity/media campaigns, the use of citizen-service-providers, etc.). Improve citizens’ oversight of what the local government is doing. Social control and pressure are helpful means against corruption.
  • Enhance accountability and transparency. Clear standards of conduct and rules of the game make accountability easier. So does openness in bidding, grant-giving, and aid projects. Accountability depends on internal auditors, accounting, ombudsmen, inspectorates, specialised elements of the police, and specialised prosecutors. But it also should involve citizens, unions, NGOs, the media, and business in a variety of ways, including citizen oversight boards, hot lines, external audits, inquiry commissions, and so forth. Local governments can help external actors by generating and disseminating more information about public service effectiveness. Finally, local governments should encourage the private sector to police its own participation in corrupt schemes of procurement, contracting, regulating, and so forth.

 

Applicability

Effective capacity in regulation and enforcement is essential and this applies whether traditional regulatory instruments or innovative pricing and economic instruments are used. However, capacity in regulatory and enforcement bodies varies widely from region to region and stress on capacity building and support is essential (GWP 2003).

The legitimacy of the regulatory and enforcement body is critical in ensuring compliance of policies and laws (GWP 2003).

Library References

Enforcement Policy

This enforcement policy was published to provide clarity and certainty to individuals, companies and government agencies about the approach adopted by EPA in the enforcement of the Environment Protection Act. As it outlines the principles for fair and consistent enforcement, it is helpful to see what enforcement and its legislation should be like.

U.S. EPA (2006): Enforcement Policy. Victoria: Environment Protection Authority (EPA)

A Practical Approach to Dealing With Municipal Malfeasance. Urban Management Programme

As malfeasance or wrongdoing by public officials operates as a critical impediment to developing accountable and transparent urban management systems, which is essential for the efficient and equitable use and distribution of resources at local level, this paper has been prepared to help officials diagnose, investigate, and prevent various kinds of corrupt and illicit behaviour. It emphasises preventive measures rather than purely punitive or moralistic campaigns.

KLITGAART, R. MACLEAN-ABAROA, R. PARRIS, H.L. (1996): A Practical Approach to Dealing With Municipal Malfeasance. Urban Management Programme. (= Working Paper No. 7 ). Marrakech: UNDP/UNCHS/WORLD BANK URL [Accessed: 22.10.2010]

B1. Creating an organisational framework

The Toolbox by the Global Water Partnership offers a lot of information on institutional roles in the water sector. It offers two main informational sectors in this topic, one sector for creating an organisational framework and one for building institutional capacity.

GWP (2003): B1. Creating an organisational framework. In: Sharing knowledge for equitable, efficient and sustainable water resources management. Global Water Partnership (GWP), pp.35-57 URL [Accessed: 15.04.2019]
Further Readings

Enforcement Policy

This enforcement policy was published to provide clarity and certainty to individuals, companies and government agencies about the approach adopted by EPA in the enforcement of the Environment Protection Act. As it outlines the principles for fair and consistent enforcement, it is helpful to see what enforcement and its legislation should be like.

U.S. EPA (2006): Enforcement Policy. Victoria: Environment Protection Authority (EPA)

A Practical Approach to Dealing With Municipal Malfeasance. Urban Management Programme

As malfeasance or wrongdoing by public officials operates as a critical impediment to developing accountable and transparent urban management systems, which is essential for the efficient and equitable use and distribution of resources at local level, this paper has been prepared to help officials diagnose, investigate, and prevent various kinds of corrupt and illicit behaviour. It emphasises preventive measures rather than purely punitive or moralistic campaigns.

KLITGAART, R. MACLEAN-ABAROA, R. PARRIS, H.L. (1996): A Practical Approach to Dealing With Municipal Malfeasance. Urban Management Programme. (= Working Paper No. 7 ). Marrakech: UNDP/UNCHS/WORLD BANK URL [Accessed: 22.10.2010]
Case Studies
Awareness Raising Material

This module introduces the importance of market-based RRR solutions. At the end of this module you have identified key challenges in your local sanitation and waste management system and a RRR-related business idea.

Cover image Module  1

This module sheds light on the importance of studying the business environment and its components like waste supply, market demand, competition and the institutional framework. At the end of this module you have gained insights to evaluating the potential of your business idea.

Cover image Module  2

This module shows how a business idea can be turned into a business model while putting a specific focus on understanding the customer and designing products that meet their needs. At the end of this module you will have developed a business model and positioned your offer in the market.

Cover image Module  3

This module focusses on planning the operations of a RRR related business. During this part RRR technologies will be introduced for different waste streams and tools for planning the production process. At the end of this module you will have blueprinted your production process and the required technology and production inputs.

Cover image Module  4

This module covers key aspects of financial planning and analysis. At the end of this module you will have forecasted your profits, cash flows, required investment and evaluated the financial viability of your business model.

Cover image Module  5

This module enables you to set objectives and plan activities for the launch of your RRR business and identify potential financing sources. At the end of this module you will have developed an action plan for launch and identified appropriate financing sources.

Cover image Module  6

Week 1: Identify challenges in your local sanitation & waste management

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Further Readings

SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles

This AGUASAN publication illustrates how the water and nutrient cycles can be used as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system and aligning it with SDG 6.

BROGAN, J., ERLMANN, T., MUELLER, K. and SOROKOVSKYI, V. (2017): SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles. Using the water and nutrient cycles as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system - including workshop material. Bern (Switzerland): AGUASAN and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

Why shit matters [Video File]

TEDX TALKS (2019): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d4yD0kz34jg [Accessed: 28.03.2019]

"3 billion people worldwide live in cities without sewers or wastewater treatment plant infrastructure. This forces them to dump their waste into open waters, contaminating the drinking water for others downstream. Imagine if we could harness nutrients in wastewater instead of harming human and environmental health. Christoph Lüthi sees a renewable, locally produced and growing resource where others see only human waste. Watch his talk to learn why shit matters! "

Week 2: Identify RRR products and business opportunities

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Further Readings

A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Week 1: Analyse waste supply

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 2: Analyse market demand

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3: Analyse your competition

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 4: Analyse the institutional environment

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 1: Meet the Business Model Canvas

Download Materials
Further Readings

A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Week 1: Plan your production process

Download Materials
Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Week 2: Understand the treatment process

Further Readings

Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings

LOHRI, C. R., DIENER, S., ZABALETA, I. MERTENAT, A. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2017): Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings. In: Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 81–130. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

Week 3A: Design technology systems for nutrient recovery

Further Readings

Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery

COFIE, O., NIKIEMA, J., IMPRAIM, R., ADAMTEY, N., PAUL, J. and KONÉ, D. (2016): Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 3. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Decentralized composting in India

DRESCHER, S. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2004): Decentralized composting in India. In: Harper et al. Sustainable Composting: Case Studies in Guidelines for Developing Countries. Loughborough (UK): Water Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), Loughborough University, Part2: Case Studies, Chapter 3, pp.15-27. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives

KARANJA, N., KWACH, H. and NJENGA, M. (2005): Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives. Nairobi (Kenya): UN-Habitat. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3B: Design technology systems for energy recovery

Further Readings

Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market

FERGUSON, H. (2012): Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market. London (UK): Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) International. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3C: Design technology systems for water recovery

Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Chapter 3 - Technology Selection

VEENSTRA, S., ALAERTS, G. and BIJLSMA, M. (1997): Chapter 3 - Technology Selection. In: Helmer, R. and Hespanhol, I. (Eds). Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles. London (UK): World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects

Volume I of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater focuses on policy, regulation and institutional arrangements. Accordingly, its intended readership is made up of policy-makers and those with regulatory responsibilities. It provides guidance on policy formulation, harmonisation and mainstreaming, on regulatory mechanisms and on establishing institutional links between the various interested sectors and parties. It also presents a synthesis of the key issues from Volumes II, III, and IV and the index for all four volumes as well as a glossary of terms used in all four volumes is presented in Annex 1.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 10.04.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture

Volume II of the Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater provides information on the assessment and management of risks associated with microbial hazards and toxic chemicals. It explains requirements to promote the safe use of wastewater in agriculture, including minimum procedures and specific health-based targets, and how those requirements are intended to be used. It also describes the approaches used in deriving the guidelines, including health-based targets, and includes a substantive revision of approaches to ensuring microbial safety.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019] PDF

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture

Volume III of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater deals with wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture and describes the present state of knowledge regarding the impact of wastewater-fed aquaculture on the health of producers, product consumers and local communities. It assesses the associated health risks and provides an integrated preventive management framework.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019] PDF

Week 3: Analyse financial viability

Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 1: Set objectives and plan activities for launch

Download Materials
Further Readings

Week 2: Finance the launch

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Further Readings

Alternative Versions to