solution finder

14 June 2019

Nationalisation (WD)

Author/Compiled by
Dörte Peters (seecon international gmbh)
Executive Summary

The nationalisation of sanitation and water management is one option for (local) governments to cope with the increasing problem of lacking sanitation and water services. For the public sector, nationalising the utilities means facing the following responsibilities: operational viability, conductive policy environment and legal framework, legitimacy and accountability, financial sustainability and independent, functional regulatory system (MONTEMAYOR 2005).

Advantages
Often leads to increasing participation
Can be a solution when privatisation has shown to be ineffective
Investment decisions in the public interest (serving poor etc.)
Adaptation of policies and legal framework
Disadvantages
High costs and efforts for local government
Process of restructuring the public sector needs time
Accountability and legitimacy important but problems with corruption possible
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Introduction
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Nationalisation is one option when building an institutional framework for sustainable sanitation and water management. More information about building an institutional framework might help to get an overview of what else can be done. In general, sanitation and water management can be in private hands (see also privatisation), in public hands ― which will be discussed below ― or it is a mixture of both, like with public private partnerships (adapted from THE WORLD BANK 2006).

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Problems with Water and Sanitation Management
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(Adapted from THE WORLD BANK 2006)

“In many developing countries, the delivery of water services is unsatisfactory. Many households do not receive water from the main utility, even though they would be prepared to pay for the service. Others are connected, but get water for only a few hours a day. Even fewer are connected to a sewer network. Often the water is not safe to drink and the wastewateris not properly treated” (THE WORLD BANK 2006).

The most serious obstacles ― under both public and private operation ― to achieving a local government’s goals in water and sanitation management are:

  • Water and sanitation services are critical to all consumers.
  • They are often provided under conditions of natural monopoly; one well-run firm can supply the services at a lower cost than two or more well-run firms.
  • The investments required to provide the services are often long-lived and irreversible; once made, they cannot be reversed should the returns to the investment prove less than expected.

 

The biggest challenge for local governments is to address these problems. One possibility to do so might be the (re-)nationalisation of parts (or all parts) of the sanitation and water management sector or the improvement of the status quo of state-run water and sanitation utilities. Also, nationalisation might be an answer when privatisation has shown to be ineffective in the specific region. Therefore, the key question needs to be: How to improve and expand the public sanitation and water service delivery (adapted from HALL 2005)?

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Possible (Positive) Outcomes of Nationalisation
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A (re-)nationalisation of the water and sanitation sector has the following four main benefits:

  • Operating performance: The incentive to act in the public interest (e.g. through future elections or public protest) might motivate the public provider to operate more efficiently than its private counterpart, which might be stronger led by profit incentives.
  • Investment decisions:As the public provider is not profit driven, investment decisions in sanitation and water management are usually made in the public interest (e.g. serving the unconnected poor, not focusing on areas that promise high profit margins).
  • Participation: Participation of community members (e.g. their integration in decisions about sanitation and water management issues like investment decisions) leads to higher accountability and transparency of the whole water and sanitation sector, and also to a better self-esteem of the community members.
  • Policies and legal framework: The responsibility of the local government/ authorities for the water and sanitation sector puts the issue directly on the political agenda, which leads to a positive change in sanitation and water management policies and the legal framework.

 

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Models of Nationalisation
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(Adapted from BALANYA et al. n.y.)

There are many different models of nationalisation in sanitation and water management, of which the most important are listed below:

  • People-centred, participatory public models(see down below Porto Alegre in Brazil): improved public water supply through increased citizen and user participation as well as other democratic reforms.
  • Worker’s co-operatives(water workers): co-operatives organised by workers, including the self-employed, who are at the same time the members and owners of the water and sanitation enterprise. Principal purpose of worker's co-operatives is to provide employment and business opportunities to its members and manage it in accordance with cooperative principles.
  • Community control: mobilising the community's own capacities and local resources for improved sanitation and water services.
  • Public-Public Partnerships (PUPs): see down below.

 

A Public-Public Partnership (in opposition to a public private partnership) is the “collaboration between two or more public authorities or organisations, based on solidarity, to improve the capacity and effectiveness of one partner in providing public water or sanitation services. […] Neither partner expects a commercial profit, directly or indirectly” (HALL et al. 2009). The partners may come from within the same country or from different countries. In PUPs, the aim is to address common causes of public service failure and secure affordable water and sanitation services for all.

In general, the objectives of PUPs are to improve the capacity of the assisted partner. There are a range of specific objectives involved in PUPs. These can be divided into five broad categories (HALL et al. 2009):

  • training and developing human resources (workforce)
  • technical support on a wide range of issues
  • improving efficiency and building institutional capacity
  • financing water services
  • improving participation/ democratisation

 

PUPs have a number of advantages over other partnerships based on commercial objectives (HALL et al. 2009):

  • Mutual understanding of public sector objectives and ethos
  • Non-commercial relationship, low risk to municipality/community
  • Transparency and accountability
  • Many public partners to choose from, north and south
  • Possibility of reinvesting 100% of available financial resources into the system
  • Long-term gain in capacity-building
  • Local control over objectives,methods
  • Can involve local civil society, workforce
  • Partners which have benefited from a PUP can become supporting partners to other cities

 

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Anti-Privatisation and Re-Nationalisation
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Some complaints against the progressive privatisation of the water and sanitation sector have arisen during the last decade, because the privatisation wave induced by the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank in the 1990s was in some cases not as successful as it was first hoped to be. Privatisation was expected to bring greater efficiency and lower prices, attract greater volumes of investment, especially in developing countries, and extend water and sanitation to the unconnected poor. Nowadays,failures of privatisation are ample evidence to some experts, that the water needs of the poor should not be left in the hands of profit-driven, trans-national water corporations (adapted from HALL 2005). This is why a growing anti-privatisation movement is fighting for the re-nationalisation of water and sanitation utilities where privatisation failed.

One example of a failing privatisation is Metro Manila (adapted from MONTEMAYOR 2005): Seven years after the utility was privatised in 1997 in Metro Manila, coverage, pricing, service obligations, non-revenue water, water quality and other targets stipulated in the Concession Agreement remained unmet. The two private concessionaires, Maynilad Water Services, Inc. and Manila Water Company Inc. did not reach their targets, both companies place unconnected individuals at an estimated one million and inflation of water prices was very high. This development lead to protests (see picture below).

Protests against the privatisation in Manila. Source: CR (2014)
Protests against the privatisation in Manila. Source: CR (2014)

 

In some cases, where privatisation failures are leading to wide public protest and huge problems in water and sanitation service delivery, a re-nationalisation might be a possible solution to improve it. Therefore, the next chapter lists key steps to enable the environment for nationalisation.

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Key Steps to Enable the Environment for Nationalisation
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(Adapted from MONTEMAYOR 2005)

Any public entity that seeks to replace private concessionaires must meet several requirements:

Operational Viability

  • Need of financial resources to fund a clear-cut capital expenditure programme that especially targets poorest areas for expansion and most vulnerable sections of the pipe network for rehabilitation.
  • Need of institutional capacity to implement service obligation targets.It must be demonstrated that a public agency/ corporation can provide skilled, service-oriented and accountable personnel (see also building an institutional framework).
  • A system of incentives for good performance and clear punitive measures for unmet performance targets must be institutionalised (see also strengthening enforcement bodies).

 

Conducive Policy Environment and Legal Framework

  • A broad national policy to provide universal water coverage aligned with the MDGs and general poverty reduction targets.
  • Individual water agencies, government departments and local government units need to be motivated by a clear, co-ordinated push towards water provision, especially for the poor.
  • Legislation for the rules and regulations that will govern a public water utility, including performance standards and penalties for the non-fulfilment of such.There is likewise a need for legislation creating a new, independent regulatory system (see also creating policies and a legal framework).

 

Legitimacy and Accountability

  • Social preparation, continuing education and dialogue to develop consensus and commitment towards responsibilities, rights and obligations concerning water (see also school campaigns and SSWM in school curriculums).
  • Community participation in water resource management, prevention of leakages and illegal connexions and even collective maintenance of a water system can be encouraged through field personnel who can interact with, dispense and collect information from residents concerning water issues.
  • Higher tariffs may be needed to invest in improvements for the many unserved and badly served areas (see also water pricing). People must become confident that the money they will infuse into a public company (via taxes and via cross-subsidisation) will not be stolen by corrupt officials and equally corrupt public works contractors (see also water corruption).
  • Transparency in the technical and financial processes of the utility.Public access to the utility’s books, capital expenditures maps, price indexes, audits, regulatory procedures, etc. should be ensured. This transparency will enable greater and more meaningful participation of communities, organisations, local government officials, and other stakeholders in policy and decision-making.
  • A clear responsibility and accountability chain.An alternative structure should indicate the responsible personnel for specific areas of water administration such as coverage issues, service issues, repairs, metering and billing, etc. Ideally, there should be locally assigned personnel to respond to communities’ queries and concerns.

 

Financial Sustainability

  • Financing remains a problematic issue for public alternatives. The following have been suggested as sources of alternative financing: co-financing between national and local governments; the corporatisation of water authorities, securitisation (floating municipal/city bonds for water system projects), etc.
  • Cross subsidies and tariff adjustments.A form of socialised billing can be implemented by private concessionaires, where the first ten cubic metres of water is charged at the lowest rate, with prices increasing progressively after certain volume levels are breached (see also water pricing and financing (see PPT)).

 

Independent, Functional Regulatory System

  • The need for regulation cannot be over-emphasised, even within a public setting. Regulation is necessary to ensure the consistent delivery of service obligations, to determine “efficient” pricing, to conserve water, to extract professionalism from managerial staff, and to ensure the financial viability of the utility (especially when public subsidies are involved).
  • Regulators of public water utilities should have equity as an additional and explicit objective that might conflict with the regulatory function of devising “efficient” pricing patterns.
  • Subsidies for water connexions and even usage can have a significant impact on poverty reduction. Regulators of a public utility can be guided by such a principle and enforce a universal service obligation on connexion, while balancing usage-related and other fixed charges.

 

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Example: Porto Alegre in Brazil
Factsheet Block Body

(Adapted from HALL 2005; VIERO 2003; HALL et al. 2002)

Porto Alegre in Brazil is one example for a well working people-centred, participatory public model for water supply and sanitation. The comparatively low rate of infant death (Porto Alegre: 13.8 deaths per thousand births, national: 65 deaths per thousand births) stands in direct correlation with improvements in the levels of water and sanitation demonstrated in the following.

  • DMAE as an autonomous municipal organisation:The Departamento Municipal de Água e Esgoto (DMAE – Municipal Department of Water and Sanitary Sewage) is wholly owned by the municipality of Porto Alegre. Despite this, DMAE enjoys separate legal personality from the city council, operational autonomy and financial independence.
  • Participatory Budgeting:The Participatory Budget process is a form of direct democracy, allowing citizens to participate in the neighbourhood they live in or within a particular thematic area and choose which of their priorities the municipality should implement.
  • Participatory Budgeting in water and sanitation:The Participatory Budget takes place in the 16 neighbourhoods in which the city is divided. Citizens meet to vote on what of their priorities the available resources should be invested.
  • Transparency and participation:All decision-making processes are effectively open, the weekly and the investment planning process of the Participatory Budget system itself.
  • Performance, efficiency and service delivery: Positive outcomes range from an increase of service coverage and sewerage services to an increase of wastewater treatment. The DMAE employs over 2.000 workers, runs an educational program for illiterate workers and training courses for technical, administrative and operational issues.

 

Applicability

Nationalisation is only applicable if the local government has the capacity and capability to lead the water and sanitation sector properly. Therefore, the government should be clearly structured, or accept help from a partner within a PUP.

Library References

Reclaiming Public Water. Achievements, Struggles and Visions from Around the World

This publication takes a different perception and presents case studies on different forms of public water management — be they successful examples of publicly managed water provision or also cases where the public water provision needs to be improved. Furthermore, it also presents the struggle for people-centred public water and ways forward for improving public water services.

BALANYA, B. ; BRENNAN, B. ; HOEDEMAN, O. ; KISHIMOTO, S. (2005): Reclaiming Public Water. Achievements, Struggles and Visions from Around the World. Amsterdam: Transnational Institute (TNI) and Corporate Europe Observatory (CEO) URL [Accessed: 27.10.2010]

Introduction

HALL, D. (2005): Introduction. In: BALANYA, B. ; BRENNAN, B. ; HOEDEMAN, O. ; KISHIMOTO, S. (2005): Reclaiming Public Water. Achievements, Struggles and Visions from Around the World. Amsterdam: . URL [Accessed: 11.01.2010]

Public Public Partnerships (PUPs) in Water

This publication describes how public-public partnerships in the water sector can be a valid method to improve efficiency, accountability and service quality. Most of the water utilities worldwide are public – i.e., also most of the skills and knowledge is public. Utilities can thus complement lacking competences of one another and thus improve service quality.

HALL, D. LOBINA, E. CORRAL, V. HOEDEMAN, O. TERHORST, P. PIGEON, M. KISHIMOTO, S. (2009): Public Public Partnerships (PUPs) in Water. Public Services International (PSI), Transnational Institute (TNI) and Public Services International Research Unit (PSIRU) URL [Accessed: 11.01.2010]

Water in Porto Alegre, Brazil – Accountable, Effective, Sustainable and Democratic

This case study describes the successful example of public water operation in Porto Alegre, Brazil.

HALL, D. LOBINA, E. VIERO, O.M. MALTZ, H. (2002): Water in Porto Alegre, Brazil – Accountable, Effective, Sustainable and Democratic. Public Services International Research Unit (PSIRU) and Municipal Department of Water and Sanitary Sewage (DMAE) URL [Accessed: 11.01.2010]

Approaches to Private Participation in Water Services. A Toolkit

This toolkit by the World Bank leads through the whole planning and implementation phase. It offers both theoretical background material and practical guidelines for the process in a very detailed way, including stakeholder analysis and institutional and legal framework conditions.

THE WORLD BANK (2006): Approaches to Private Participation in Water Services. A Toolkit. Washington, DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/ The World Bank URL [Accessed: 15.04.2019]
Further Readings

Public Public Partnerships (PUPs) in Water

This publication describes how public-public partnerships in the water sector can be a valid method to improve efficiency, accountability and service quality. Most of the water utilities worldwide are public – i.e., also most of the skills and knowledge is public. Utilities can thus complement lacking competences of one another and thus improve service quality.

HALL, D. LOBINA, E. CORRAL, V. HOEDEMAN, O. TERHORST, P. PIGEON, M. KISHIMOTO, S. (2009): Public Public Partnerships (PUPs) in Water. Public Services International (PSI), Transnational Institute (TNI) and Public Services International Research Unit (PSIRU) URL [Accessed: 11.01.2010]

Approaches to Private Participation in Water Services. A Toolkit

This toolkit by the World Bank leads through the whole planning and implementation phase. It offers both theoretical background material and practical guidelines for the process in a very detailed way, including stakeholder analysis and institutional and legal framework conditions.

THE WORLD BANK (2006): Approaches to Private Participation in Water Services. A Toolkit. Washington, DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/ The World Bank URL [Accessed: 15.04.2019]

Reclaiming Public Water. Achievements, Struggles and Visions from Around the World

This publication takes a different perception and presents case studies on different forms of public water management — be they successful examples of publicly managed water provision or also cases where the public water provision needs to be improved. Furthermore, it also presents the struggle for people-centred public water and ways forward for improving public water services.

BALANYA, B. ; BRENNAN, B. ; HOEDEMAN, O. ; KISHIMOTO, S. (2005): Reclaiming Public Water. Achievements, Struggles and Visions from Around the World. Amsterdam: Transnational Institute (TNI) and Corporate Europe Observatory (CEO) URL [Accessed: 27.10.2010]
Case Studies

Water in Porto Alegre, Brazil – Accountable, Effective, Sustainable and Democratic

This case study describes the successful example of public water operation in Porto Alegre, Brazil.

HALL, D. LOBINA, E. VIERO, O.M. MALTZ, H. (2002): Water in Porto Alegre, Brazil – Accountable, Effective, Sustainable and Democratic. Public Services International Research Unit (PSIRU) and Municipal Department of Water and Sanitary Sewage (DMAE) URL [Accessed: 11.01.2010]

This module introduces the importance of market-based RRR solutions. At the end of this module you have identified key challenges in your local sanitation and waste management system and a RRR-related business idea.

Cover image Module  1

This module sheds light on the importance of studying the business environment and its components like waste supply, market demand, competition and the institutional framework. At the end of this module you have gained insights to evaluating the potential of your business idea.

Cover image Module  2

This module shows how a business idea can be turned into a business model while putting a specific focus on understanding the customer and designing products that meet their needs. At the end of this module you will have developed a business model and positioned your offer in the market.

Cover image Module  3

This module focusses on planning the operations of a RRR related business. During this part RRR technologies will be introduced for different waste streams and tools for planning the production process. At the end of this module you will have blueprinted your production process and the required technology and production inputs.

Cover image Module  4

This module covers key aspects of financial planning and analysis. At the end of this module you will have forecasted your profits, cash flows, required investment and evaluated the financial viability of your business model.

Cover image Module  5

This module enables you to set objectives and plan activities for the launch of your RRR business and identify potential financing sources. At the end of this module you will have developed an action plan for launch and identified appropriate financing sources.

Cover image Module  6

Week 1: Identify challenges in your local sanitation & waste management

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Further Readings

SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles

This AGUASAN publication illustrates how the water and nutrient cycles can be used as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system and aligning it with SDG 6.

BROGAN, J., ERLMANN, T., MUELLER, K. and SOROKOVSKYI, V. (2017): SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles. Using the water and nutrient cycles as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system - including workshop material. Bern (Switzerland): AGUASAN and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

Why shit matters [Video File]

TEDX TALKS (2019): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d4yD0kz34jg [Accessed: 28.03.2019]

"3 billion people worldwide live in cities without sewers or wastewater treatment plant infrastructure. This forces them to dump their waste into open waters, contaminating the drinking water for others downstream. Imagine if we could harness nutrients in wastewater instead of harming human and environmental health. Christoph Lüthi sees a renewable, locally produced and growing resource where others see only human waste. Watch his talk to learn why shit matters! "

Week 2: Identify RRR products and business opportunities

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Further Readings

A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Week 1: Analyse waste supply

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 2: Analyse market demand

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3: Analyse your competition

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 4: Analyse the institutional environment

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 1: Meet the Business Model Canvas

Download Materials
Further Readings

A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Week 1: Plan your production process

Download Materials
Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Week 2: Understand the treatment process

Further Readings

Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings

LOHRI, C. R., DIENER, S., ZABALETA, I. MERTENAT, A. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2017): Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings. In: Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 81–130. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

Week 3A: Design technology systems for nutrient recovery

Further Readings

Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery

COFIE, O., NIKIEMA, J., IMPRAIM, R., ADAMTEY, N., PAUL, J. and KONÉ, D. (2016): Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 3. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Decentralized composting in India

DRESCHER, S. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2004): Decentralized composting in India. In: Harper et al. Sustainable Composting: Case Studies in Guidelines for Developing Countries. Loughborough (UK): Water Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), Loughborough University, Part2: Case Studies, Chapter 3, pp.15-27. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives

KARANJA, N., KWACH, H. and NJENGA, M. (2005): Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives. Nairobi (Kenya): UN-Habitat. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3B: Design technology systems for energy recovery

Further Readings

Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market

FERGUSON, H. (2012): Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market. London (UK): Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) International. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3C: Design technology systems for water recovery

Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Chapter 3 - Technology Selection

VEENSTRA, S., ALAERTS, G. and BIJLSMA, M. (1997): Chapter 3 - Technology Selection. In: Helmer, R. and Hespanhol, I. (Eds). Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles. London (UK): World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects

Volume I of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater focuses on policy, regulation and institutional arrangements. Accordingly, its intended readership is made up of policy-makers and those with regulatory responsibilities. It provides guidance on policy formulation, harmonisation and mainstreaming, on regulatory mechanisms and on establishing institutional links between the various interested sectors and parties. It also presents a synthesis of the key issues from Volumes II, III, and IV and the index for all four volumes as well as a glossary of terms used in all four volumes is presented in Annex 1.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 10.04.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture

Volume II of the Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater provides information on the assessment and management of risks associated with microbial hazards and toxic chemicals. It explains requirements to promote the safe use of wastewater in agriculture, including minimum procedures and specific health-based targets, and how those requirements are intended to be used. It also describes the approaches used in deriving the guidelines, including health-based targets, and includes a substantive revision of approaches to ensuring microbial safety.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019] PDF

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture

Volume III of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater deals with wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture and describes the present state of knowledge regarding the impact of wastewater-fed aquaculture on the health of producers, product consumers and local communities. It assesses the associated health risks and provides an integrated preventive management framework.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019] PDF

Week 3: Analyse financial viability

Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 1: Set objectives and plan activities for launch

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Further Readings

Week 2: Finance the launch

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Further Readings

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