solution finder

25 April 2019

Bundling and Unbundling of Functions (WD)

Author/Compiled by
Dörte Peters (seecon international gmbh)
Executive Summary

The clear allocation of functions for the implementation of sustainable sanitation and water management is crucial for its outcomes. Overlapping functions and responsibilities lead to confusion, conflicts and thus to the slowdown of the process. Therefore, some existing functions and responsibilities might need to be bundled or unbundled to make sure they are well allocated and fixed in the sanitation and water management policies and in the legal framework. The goal of this factsheet is to describe how to bundle and unbundle functions and responsibilities on a local level, to make sure progress in sustainable sanitation and water management will thereby not be hampered.

Advantages
Clear definition of functions
Avoiding inefficiency and conflict
Heightens transparency
Better use of expertise
Includes capacities of each stakeholder
Disadvantages
A stakeholder platform is necessary to find out about optimal function allocation
The discussion of functions and responsibilities might lead to conflicts
Factsheet Block Title
Why to Bundle and Unbundle Functions
Factsheet Block Body

For implementing sustainable sanitation and water management on the local level, the allocation of functions and responsibilities between different institutional spheres and within organisations/institutions is crucial. A clear definition of roles and responsibilities of different stakeholders decreases overlapping and therefore increases the efficiency within a project. As bundling and unbundling of functions codetermines the success of the implementation of many interventions, it is one part of building an institutional framework to enable the environment for sustainable sanitation and water management (adapted from DFID 1998). When functions and responsibilities are not set out clearly, the progress of projects will be hampered and conflicts might appear between different stakeholders. (To avoid such conflicts see also stakeholder strategy plan).

Expenditure assignment is usually shared among different levels of government, civil society, and the private sector (see also privatisation). The main question to answer is “Who does what?” (HERMANN et al. 2000). Therefore, different aspects need to be analysed: the separation between public and private functions, the relationship between central and local governments,the allocation of functions among municipalities with different capacity, as well as the function of the civil society and of the private sector.

Too many cooks spoil the broth, if their functions and responsibilities are not clearly defined. Source: WSP (2009)
Too many cooks spoil the broth, if their functions and responsibilities are not clearly defined. Source: WSP (2009)
Factsheet Block Title
How to Bundle and Unbundle Functions
Factsheet Block Body

The question “Who does what?” is not always easy to answer, and a lot of issues need to be taken into account to analyse which allocation of tasks and responsibilities is expedient. As an efficient allocation of functions depends on the capacity of different stakeholders, the financial background, the policies and legal framework and on socio cultural issues, there is no general best practice, but you will find some tips to find the best solution for your case of function allocation down below.

 

Make a Stakeholder Analysis

At first, all sanitation and water management stakeholders ― especially key stakeholders ― should be identified (see also stakeholder identification). Their links with each other are also important to know. Generally, a stakeholder is an agency, organisation, group or individual whose (COULBY 2009):

  • Interests are affected by an issue or project
  • Activities strongly affect an issue or project
  • Power, money, technical expertise or organisational profile gives control over relevant implementation instruments
  • Information, resources, experience or expertise is required for strategy or policy-making on an issue

 

As water and sanitation are both social goods (to which people have a right) and economic goods, three broad groupings need to be involved (adapted from MORIARTY et al. 2007):

  • Main social groups (men, women, poorer, better-off) who have a right to water and sanitation
  • Main water-user groups (farmers, domestic users, industrial users, etc.)
  • Main institutional stakeholders including private sector water and sanitation providers, local NGO’s/ CBO’s, local government and politicians, legal representatives and enforcement bodies (see also strengthening enforcement bodies)

 

Try to make a diagram like the one down below, where you write down all stakeholders and mark their connect ions to each other.

Stakeholders and their connect ions to each other should be identified. Source: MORIARTY et al. (2007)
Stakeholders and their connect ions to each other should be identified. Source: MORIARTY et al. (2007)

 

Create a Stakeholder Platform

Invite all relevant stakeholders (representatives of each group) to a stakeholder platform to discuss the question of the allocation of sanitation and water management functions. The platform needs time to develop; maybe regular over months or even years are needed.

 

Identify Actual Functions

Find out the actual functions and responsibilities of each stakeholder in sustainable sanitation and water management. Make a difference between the functions and responsibilities he really holds (legal framework, contracts, unwritten laws, etc.) and the functions he thinks he holds. Note that all functions and responsibilities that might overlap or lead to confusion or conflict. This part should be done within a stakeholder platform. (For more information: stakeholder importance and influence and venn diagrams).

It is important to find out about all actual functions of each stakeholder to see conflict potential. Source: WSP (2009)
It is important to find out about all actual functions of each stakeholder to see conflict potential. Source: WSP (2009)

 

The function analysis can be carried out in workshops and with the actors and tasks matrix: Each row of the matrix represents a different actor involved in sanitation and water management, while each column identifies a key task and role. The matrix is filled in based on discussions with stakeholders in workshops. Afterwards, the main overlaps and gaps in the matrix can be compared and completed with the results of other groups. Some guiding questions for the workshops can be found below (MORIARTY et al. 2007):

  • Which tasks/ functions are performed by which actors?
  • What activities do the actors carry out in performing these tasks? How effective are they?
  • What gaps are there between tasks?
  • What overlaps are there between different actors/ tasks?
  • Is there a coordinated effort by actors to integrate their tasks?
  • What factors within the system have a positive or negative influence on task performance?
  • What information is held by which stakeholders that helps them to perform their tasks? Is it shared? If so, how?

 

Overlaps and gaps of tasks need to be identified for the bundling and unbundling of sanitation and water management functions. Source: WSP (2003)
Overlaps and gaps of tasks need to be identified for the bundling and unbundling of sanitation and water management functions. Source: WSP (2003)

 

Identify Actors’ Capacities

As the key actors need the capacity to fulfil their future function/s properly, it is important to find out about their capacity, expertise and weakness and also about their resources. The potential of each stakeholder should be discussed, which can be done in workshops. The results can be discussed with other groups after the workshops have been finished. Therefore, the identified capacities and weaknesses should be summarised on flip chart papers, with mindmapping or the like.

 

Propose Future Functions

After finding out about capacities and weaknesses of each actor, a possible allocation of the future functions and tasks should be proposed (see also visioning, brainstorming and SWOT analysis), in dependence on overlapping and gaps defined in step 3. Key questions for the control of the new allocation of functions might be (adapted from ENGEL and SALOMON 1997):

  • Do the proposed functions fall within the scope of the current activities of the actors?
  • Does a relative consensus exist concerning the need to intervene and the need to carry out the interventions proposed by the team and the participating actors?
  • Do the relevant key actors see the functions as being in their interest (see also stakeholder interests)
  • Whose perceived interests might be negatively affected by the new allocation of functions?
  • Which of the key actors share a need for the perceived interventions? If they work alone, could they make changes?
  • Do the relevant key actors have the resources needed to implement the proposed interventions (financial, human, knowledge base, leadership, organisational capacities)?
  • Which of the key actors has actually expressed willingness to implement some or all of the proposed interventions?

 

Implementation

After the steps 1-5 have been finished, the new functions need to be implemented by the stakeholders in the allocation proposed before. It is very helpful to fix the new allocation of functions in policies to avoid conflict potential. Also, the new allocation of functions should be monitored by all stakeholders, to find out about upcoming problems early.

Applicability

Bundling and unbundling of functions and tasks has a very wide applicability. It can always help avoiding overlaps and gaps of functions and responsibilities and is therefore especially helpful if conflicts about functions and responsibilities exist.

Library References

Guidance Manual on Water Supply and Sanitation Programmes

This manual has been prepared as a tool to help improve DFID's (Department for International Developments, United Kingdom) support for water supply and sanitation projects and programmes in developing countries. Its particular focus is on how DFID assistance can best meet the needs of the urban and rural poor for water supply and sanitation services.

DFID (1998): Guidance Manual on Water Supply and Sanitation Programmes. London: Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC) for the Department for International Development (DFID) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2018]

The EMPOWERS Approach to Water Governance: Guidelines, Methods and Tools

The guideline provides information necessary to understand the EMPOWERS approach of water governance and explains in details how to use the approach for planning and implementation of water management and related issues.

MORIARTY, P. BATCHELOR, C. ABD-ALHADI, F. LABAN, P. FAHMY, H. (2007a): INWRDAM The EMPOWERS Approach to Water Governance: Guidelines, Methods and Tools. pdf presentation. Amman, Jordan: Inter-Islamic Network on Water Resources Development and Management (INWRDAM) URL [Accessed: 18.03.2010]
Further Readings

Guidance Manual on Water Supply and Sanitation Programmes

This manual has been prepared as a tool to help improve DFID's (Department for International Developments, United Kingdom) support for water supply and sanitation projects and programmes in developing countries. Its particular focus is on how DFID assistance can best meet the needs of the urban and rural poor for water supply and sanitation services.

DFID (1998): Guidance Manual on Water Supply and Sanitation Programmes. London: Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC) for the Department for International Development (DFID) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2018]

The EMPOWERS Approach to Water Governance: Guidelines, Methods and Tools

The guideline provides information necessary to understand the EMPOWERS approach of water governance and explains in details how to use the approach for planning and implementation of water management and related issues.

MORIARTY, P. BATCHELOR, C. ABD-ALHADI, F. LABAN, P. FAHMY, H. (2007a): INWRDAM The EMPOWERS Approach to Water Governance: Guidelines, Methods and Tools. pdf presentation. Amman, Jordan: Inter-Islamic Network on Water Resources Development and Management (INWRDAM) URL [Accessed: 18.03.2010]

The EMPOWERS Approach to Water Governance: Background and Key Concepts

The booklet provides an explanation of the conceptual background to the EMPOWERS approach to water governance and is a companion volume to the “EMPOWERS Approach to Water Governance: Guidelines, Methods and Tools”. It helps to develop a deeper understanding of the approach.

MORIARTY, P. BATCHELOR, C. LABAN, P. FAHMY, H. (2007b): INWRDAM The EMPOWERS Approach to Water Governance: Background and Key Concepts. Amman, Jordan: Inter-Islamic Network on Water Resources Development and Management (INWRDAM) URL [Accessed: 18.03.2010]
Training Material
Awareness Raising Material

This module introduces the importance of market-based RRR solutions. At the end of this module you have identified key challenges in your local sanitation and waste management system and a RRR-related business idea.

Cover image Module  1

This module sheds light on the importance of studying the business environment and its components like waste supply, market demand, competition and the institutional framework. At the end of this module you have gained insights to evaluating the potential of your business idea.

Cover image Module  2

This module shows how a business idea can be turned into a business model while putting a specific focus on understanding the customer and designing products that meet their needs. At the end of this module you will have developed a business model and positioned your offer in the market.

Cover image Module  3

This module focusses on planning the operations of a RRR related business. During this part RRR technologies will be introduced for different waste streams and tools for planning the production process. At the end of this module you will have blueprinted your production process and the required technology and production inputs.

Cover image Module  4

This module covers key aspects of financial planning and analysis. At the end of this module you will have forecasted your profits, cash flows, required investment and evaluated the financial viability of your business model.

Cover image Module  5

This module enables you to set objectives and plan activities for the launch of your RRR business and identify potential financing sources. At the end of this module you will have developed an action plan for launch and identified appropriate financing sources.

Cover image Module  6

Week 1: Identify challenges in your local sanitation & waste management

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Further Readings

SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles

This AGUASAN publication illustrates how the water and nutrient cycles can be used as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system and aligning it with SDG 6.

BROGAN, J., ERLMANN, T., MUELLER, K. and SOROKOVSKYI, V. (2017): SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles. Using the water and nutrient cycles as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system - including workshop material. Bern (Switzerland): AGUASAN and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

Why shit matters [Video File]

TEDX TALKS (2019): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d4yD0kz34jg [Accessed: 28.03.2019]

"3 billion people worldwide live in cities without sewers or wastewater treatment plant infrastructure. This forces them to dump their waste into open waters, contaminating the drinking water for others downstream. Imagine if we could harness nutrients in wastewater instead of harming human and environmental health. Christoph Lüthi sees a renewable, locally produced and growing resource where others see only human waste. Watch his talk to learn why shit matters! "

Week 2: Identify RRR products and business opportunities

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Further Readings

A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Week 1: Analyse waste supply

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 2: Analyse market demand

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3: Analyse your competition

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 4: Analyse the institutional environment

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 1: Meet the Business Model Canvas

Download Materials
Further Readings

A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Week 1: Plan your production process

Download Materials
Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Week 2: Understand the treatment process

Further Readings

Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings

LOHRI, C. R., DIENER, S., ZABALETA, I. MERTENAT, A. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2017): Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings. In: Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 81–130. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

Week 3A: Design technology systems for nutrient recovery

Further Readings

Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery

COFIE, O., NIKIEMA, J., IMPRAIM, R., ADAMTEY, N., PAUL, J. and KONÉ, D. (2016): Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 3. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Decentralized composting in India

DRESCHER, S. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2004): Decentralized composting in India. In: Harper et al. Sustainable Composting: Case Studies in Guidelines for Developing Countries. Loughborough (UK): Water Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), Loughborough University, Part2: Case Studies, Chapter 3, pp.15-27. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives

KARANJA, N., KWACH, H. and NJENGA, M. (2005): Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives. Nairobi (Kenya): UN-Habitat. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3B: Design technology systems for energy recovery

Further Readings

Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market

FERGUSON, H. (2012): Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market. London (UK): Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) International. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3C: Design technology systems for water recovery

Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Chapter 3 - Technology Selection

VEENSTRA, S., ALAERTS, G. and BIJLSMA, M. (1997): Chapter 3 - Technology Selection. In: Helmer, R. and Hespanhol, I. (Eds). Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles. London (UK): World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects

Volume I of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater focuses on policy, regulation and institutional arrangements. Accordingly, its intended readership is made up of policy-makers and those with regulatory responsibilities. It provides guidance on policy formulation, harmonisation and mainstreaming, on regulatory mechanisms and on establishing institutional links between the various interested sectors and parties. It also presents a synthesis of the key issues from Volumes II, III, and IV and the index for all four volumes as well as a glossary of terms used in all four volumes is presented in Annex 1.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 10.04.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture

Volume II of the Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater provides information on the assessment and management of risks associated with microbial hazards and toxic chemicals. It explains requirements to promote the safe use of wastewater in agriculture, including minimum procedures and specific health-based targets, and how those requirements are intended to be used. It also describes the approaches used in deriving the guidelines, including health-based targets, and includes a substantive revision of approaches to ensuring microbial safety.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019] PDF

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture

Volume III of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater deals with wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture and describes the present state of knowledge regarding the impact of wastewater-fed aquaculture on the health of producers, product consumers and local communities. It assesses the associated health risks and provides an integrated preventive management framework.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019] PDF

Week 3: Analyse financial viability

Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 1: Set objectives and plan activities for launch

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Further Readings

Week 2: Finance the launch

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Further Readings

Alternative Versions to