solution finder

07 May 2019

Monitoring and evaluation (safe water business)

Author/Compiled by
Andrea van der Kerk (IRC)
Vera van der Grift (IRC)
Reviewed by
Jeske Verhoeven (IRC)
Raphael Graser (Antenna Foundation)
Fanny Boulloud (Antenna Foundation)
monitoring and evaluation
Executive Summary

“What gets measured gets done” (Drucker, 1954)

Monitoring is the routine to collect data and information on activities and operations (e.g. from customers, markets etc.). Evaluation is then used to analyse the compiled data and to compare the actual results of a business or project against the set strategic plans. Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) helps an entrepreneur, NGO or government to track how effective and efficient resources are used and whether one is on track to meet its set goals.

This tool provides information on how a safe water business can implement and improve its monitoring and evaluation scheme. Hands-on insights are provided through an overview of M&E activities of businesses documented in the Safe Water program phase II also.

The corresponding case study highlights in particular what crucial role M&E plays in TARA’s chlorine flask business in India.

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What is Monitoring & Evaluation about?
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Monitoring is the routine collection of high-priority data and information on activities and operations (e.g. from customers, markets etc.). Monitoring helps the entrepreneur to track how effective and efficient the business is using its resources towards operations and whether the business is on track to meet its objectives. For safe water businesses, monitoring can for instance entail record keeping such as sales or operational reporting, profit and loss reporting, and tracking of commercial or financial records. For measuring impact also other data are needed such as figures on (continuous) product use, health data, and medical expenses over time etc. (PATH, 2011). Collecting these data can be costly and time consuming. However, this investment can also pay off, the data collection can for instance help to convince investors (KUSTERS ET AL., 2011) and generate revenue from carbon credits (for more information on carbon credits see factsheet on carbon credits).

Evaluation is used to compare actual project results against strategic plans. Unlike monitoring, evaluation is not done on a routine basis but done at specific times (i.e. monthly, bi-yearly, yearly etc.). Evaluation refers to a range of activities that are undertaken to determine if the project activities had the desired impact. There are several types of evaluations that may be appropriate for social businesses: formative evaluations, outcome evaluations, impact evaluations (PATH, 2011).

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Why is M&E useful for safe water businesses?
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Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) are important for a safe water businesses in several ways:

  • An M&E system helps the entrepreneur to understand the market and customers’ needs, to inform the management and adapt business strategies accordingly where needed.
  • A well-established M&E system can also help the entrepreneur to determine whether he/she is accomplishing the desired social/health/market impact. This includes monitoring effective and/or continuous use of household water treatment products (HWTS), for instance to apply for carbon finance, to attract social impact investors and/or to meet (inter)national drinking water quality standards.
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For whom is M&E relevant and useful?
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M&E is useful for any kind of safe water business throughout the business life cycle from blueprint to scale. M&E helps to steer and adapt sales and marketing strategies, improve the business model and attract investors. The same relevance has M&E also for NGOs implementing a market based safe water approach and governments that are looking for specific measurement methods for safe water implementation.

For investors M&E is also relevant in terms of understanding how social enterprises do measure their impact.

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How can M&E be used in practice? Lessons learnt from safe water businesses
Factsheet Block Body

The businesses in the Safe Water Program Phase II are at different monitoring stages. Some have only collected basic information about their customers, water quality in the target area and the number of products they sell. These data were used to develop the sales strategy. To improve their business model and fine-tune their sales strategy, some businesses collect information about the performance of their retailers, the actual use of the product and the water quality at the point of use. Finally, there are some businesses such as Hydrologic who aim to estimate the impact of the use of the product on the customer’s health and economic situation.

M&E stages safe water businesses. Source: IRC & Antenna (2018)
M&E stages safe water businesses. Source: IRC & Antenna, 2018

This is required for instance to acquire carbon finance (for more information see factsheet on carbon credits) and attract impact investors (see section 6). The figures below show these different stages of the M&E of safe water businesses; from the first stage of informing sales and marketing strategies to improving the business model as such and to assess impact and attract investors through being able to outline its company’s social impact.

 

tipTip: the Path M&E Toolkit includes a hands-on approach and tools to help safe water entrepreneurs to develop an M&E framework including monitoring plans, indicator definition and templates to demonstrate social impact.

From tracking sales to measuring impact and costs per M&E intervention. Source: IRC & Antenna (2018)
From tracking sales to measuring impact and costs per M&E intervention. Source: IRC & Antenna, 2018

 

1. M&E methodologies and costs involved

The figure above shows that at every stage additional data is being collected for M&E compared to the previous stage. This comes with extra costs for data collection such as software, staff time, equipment (smart phones, tablets), water quality tests, transportation, etc. The businesses in the Safe Water Program Phase II are using various methods to collect data, ranging from paper-based registries to mobile-based data collection (see the figures below). A sales tracking system that, preferably, integrates real-time data in an online platform is aspired by most businesses in the Safe Water Program Phase 2 to steer management and directly address problems. Hydrologic in Cambodia is the only business that currently has such a system. With this system (i.e. Taroworks) sales agents process sales data via tablets and the management can access these data real-time on an online platform. Spring Health and TARA are piloting similar platforms (see subsequent case studies for more information).

The costs of the various methods are difficult to compare, as the businesses are selling different products and services, in very different contexts. MinErgy is for instance spending about USD 290-340 per year on M&E including staff time. Whereas Hydrologic spends yearly about USD 25,000 a year plus 0.5 FTE (full-time equivalent) staff time on its M&E. The household surveys that Hydrologic does with this budget to collect data on the impact of their product, allows them to generate about USD 540,000 on carbon finance each year (excluding 15% costs for carbon consultant services) (see factsheet on carbon credits for more information).

Overview of M&E methodologies and costs from the social businesses ECCA, TARA, PakoSwiss, Spring Health, Hydrologic, Tinkisso and MinErgy. Source: IRC & Antenna (2018)
Overview of M&E methodologies and costs from the social businesses ECCA, TARA, PakoSwiss, Spring Health, Hydrologic, Tinkisso and MinErgy. Source: IRC & Antenna, 2018

 

2. Indicators suggested by WHO

tipTip: For businesses that sell HWTS products, the WHO M&E Toolkit for HWTS (WHO, 2012) provides guidance to measure a number of these indicators such as product use and water quality. It includes 20 indicators specifically designed for HWTS M&E. The indicators are grouped as per the following 5 categories:

  1. reported and observed use;
  2. correct, consistent use and storage;
  3. knowledge and behaviour;
  4. other environmental health interventions;
  5. water quality.
HWTS indicators suggested by WHO. Source: WHO (2012)
HWTS indicators suggested by WHO. Source: WHO, 2012

 

The WHO Toolkit is not specifically tailored to businesses but (some of) the indicators (shown in the figure above), resources and survey samples can be useful for safe water companies too. Impact indicators are not included, but monitoring the indicators gives an indication of the potential health benefits of the product. At a minimum, WHO suggests that all M&E efforts aim to know if households use HWTS selected indicators 1-4, which concern self-reported use and observations (see also WFP, 2002). The decision tree shown below helps businesses to identify which indicators to measure.

Decision tree to decide which WHO indicators to measure. Source: WHO (2012)
Decision tree to decide which WHO indicators to measure. Source: WHO, 2012

 

3. Which indicators do impact investors want to see?

Impact investments are investments made into companies, organisations, and funds with the intention to generate measurable social and environmental impact alongside a financial return. These impact investors can be banks, pension funds, insurance companies, NGOs, family foundations, government investors and development finance institutions, etc. Well-known impact investors include for instance funds and banks such as Grassroots Business Fund, Acumen and Root Capital.

It can be interesting for safe water entrepreneurs to attract impact investors to generate extra revenue to grow their business. The entrepreneurs do need to show that the business is generating measurable social and/or environmental impact. Collecting data on a regular basis is therefore essential. It is difficult to say which data impact investors want to see in general, because this depends on the investor’s profile and intentions. In the IRIS catalogue you can find which performance indicators leading impact investors use to measure social, environmental, and financial success. This catalogue, hosted by Global Impact Investors Network (GIIN), can also be filtered for specific topics such as water. It also includes several user profiles and a practical guideline.

 

tipTip: on the Global Impact Investors Network website you can find more about impact investment, leading impact investors and performance indicators that they use to measure social, environmental, and financial success.

 

The case study of TARA provides further hands-on insights on how a safe water enterprise can leverage impact through a thorough M&E scheme.

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Library References
Further Readings

Participatory Impact Assessment

This guide aims to provide practitioners with a broad framework for carrying out project level Participatory Impact Assessments (PIA) of livelihoods interventions in the humanitarian sector.

CATLEY, A. BURNS, J. ABEBE, D. SUJI, O. (2008): Participatory Impact Assessment. A Guide for Practitioners. Tufts University URL [Accessed: 18.04.2018]

Outcome Mapping: a realistic alternative for planning, monitoring and evaluation

“Outcome Mapping” is a tool that is used during a process documentation for analysing information. This paper reviews Outcome Mapping principles to guide donors considering support for projects using this tool, and other decision-makers seeking methods to improve the effectiveness of aid policies and practice.

JONES, H. HEARN, S. (2009): Outcome Mapping: a realistic alternative for planning, monitoring and evaluation. London: Overseas Development Institute URL [Accessed: 10.11.2010]

Domestic Water Service Delivery Indicators and Frameworks for Monitoring, Evaluation, Policy and Planning: A Review

KAYSER, G. ; MORIARTY, P. ; FONSECA, C. ; BARTRAM, J. (2015): Domestic Water Service Delivery Indicators and Frameworks for Monitoring, Evaluation, Policy and Planning: A Review. In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health: Volume 10 , 4812-4835. URL [Accessed: 18.04.2018]

Impact toolkit

A broad collection of impact measurement tools and indicators designed to consolidate otherwise fragmented impact measurement and management (IMM) resources and direct users to those that are best tailored to their needs.

GLOBAL IMPACT INVESTORS NETWORK (2018): Impact toolkit. URL [Accessed: 18.04.2018]

Dynamics of Rural Innovation – A primer for emerging professionals

This publication provides the reader a broad overview of methodologies to innovate in rural contexts. One specific focus is given to how innovation processes can be started what importance monitoring and evaluation plays. Additionally are different case studies provided that highlight innovation processes in rural settings.

PYBURN, R. WOODHILL, J. (2014): Dynamics of Rural Innovation – A primer for emerging professionals. Arnhem: LM Publishers URL [Accessed: 18.04.2018] PDF

Monitoring and Evaluation of Rural Water Supply in Uganda: Implications for Achieving the Human Right to Water

This paper examines how monitoring and evaluation has been strengthened rural water supply programmes in Uganda in recent years and what various challenges are still remaining, considering their implications for realising the human right to water.

QUIN, A. BALFORS, B. KIELLÉN, M. (2016): Monitoring and Evaluation of Rural Water Supply in Uganda: Implications for Achieving the Human Right to Water. In: Riedel, E. ; Rothen, P. (2006): The Human Right to Water. 33-54. URL [Accessed: 18.04.2018]

WASH Toolkit

The WASH toolkit specifically focuses on setting up and integrating project monitoring and evaluation for water and sanitation projects in schools. The tool can be useful in setting up new M&E measures but also to reflect and improve on existing instruments already in place.

WATER AND SANITATION PROGRAMME (2012): WASH Toolkit. Washington: Water and Sanitation Programme URL [Accessed: 18.04.2018]

This module introduces the importance of market-based RRR solutions. At the end of this module you have identified key challenges in your local sanitation and waste management system and a RRR-related business idea.

Cover image Module  1

This module sheds light on the importance of studying the business environment and its components like waste supply, market demand, competition and the institutional framework. At the end of this module you have gained insights to evaluating the potential of your business idea.

Cover image Module  2

This module shows how a business idea can be turned into a business model while putting a specific focus on understanding the customer and designing products that meet their needs. At the end of this module you will have developed a business model and positioned your offer in the market.

Cover image Module  3

This module focusses on planning the operations of a RRR related business. During this part RRR technologies will be introduced for different waste streams and tools for planning the production process. At the end of this module you will have blueprinted your production process and the required technology and production inputs.

Cover image Module  4

This module covers key aspects of financial planning and analysis. At the end of this module you will have forecasted your profits, cash flows, required investment and evaluated the financial viability of your business model.

Cover image Module  5

This module enables you to set objectives and plan activities for the launch of your RRR business and identify potential financing sources. At the end of this module you will have developed an action plan for launch and identified appropriate financing sources.

Cover image Module  6

Week 1: Identify challenges in your local sanitation & waste management

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Further Readings

SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles

This AGUASAN publication illustrates how the water and nutrient cycles can be used as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system and aligning it with SDG 6.

BROGAN, J., ERLMANN, T., MUELLER, K. and SOROKOVSKYI, V. (2017): SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles. Using the water and nutrient cycles as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system - including workshop material. Bern (Switzerland): AGUASAN and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

Why shit matters [Video File]

TEDX TALKS (2019): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d4yD0kz34jg [Accessed: 28.03.2019]

"3 billion people worldwide live in cities without sewers or wastewater treatment plant infrastructure. This forces them to dump their waste into open waters, contaminating the drinking water for others downstream. Imagine if we could harness nutrients in wastewater instead of harming human and environmental health. Christoph Lüthi sees a renewable, locally produced and growing resource where others see only human waste. Watch his talk to learn why shit matters! "

Week 2: Identify RRR products and business opportunities

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Further Readings

A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Week 1: Analyse waste supply

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 2: Analyse market demand

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3: Analyse your competition

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 4: Analyse the institutional environment

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 1: Meet the Business Model Canvas

Download Materials
Further Readings

A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Week 1: Plan your production process

Download Materials
Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Week 2: Understand the treatment process

Further Readings

Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings

LOHRI, C. R., DIENER, S., ZABALETA, I. MERTENAT, A. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2017): Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings. In: Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 81–130. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

Week 3A: Design technology systems for nutrient recovery

Further Readings

Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery

COFIE, O., NIKIEMA, J., IMPRAIM, R., ADAMTEY, N., PAUL, J. and KONÉ, D. (2016): Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 3. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Decentralized composting in India

DRESCHER, S. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2004): Decentralized composting in India. In: Harper et al. Sustainable Composting: Case Studies in Guidelines for Developing Countries. Loughborough (UK): Water Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), Loughborough University, Part2: Case Studies, Chapter 3, pp.15-27. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives

KARANJA, N., KWACH, H. and NJENGA, M. (2005): Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives. Nairobi (Kenya): UN-Habitat. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3B: Design technology systems for energy recovery

Further Readings

Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market

FERGUSON, H. (2012): Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market. London (UK): Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) International. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3C: Design technology systems for water recovery

Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Chapter 3 - Technology Selection

VEENSTRA, S., ALAERTS, G. and BIJLSMA, M. (1997): Chapter 3 - Technology Selection. In: Helmer, R. and Hespanhol, I. (Eds). Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles. London (UK): World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects

Volume I of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater focuses on policy, regulation and institutional arrangements. Accordingly, its intended readership is made up of policy-makers and those with regulatory responsibilities. It provides guidance on policy formulation, harmonisation and mainstreaming, on regulatory mechanisms and on establishing institutional links between the various interested sectors and parties. It also presents a synthesis of the key issues from Volumes II, III, and IV and the index for all four volumes as well as a glossary of terms used in all four volumes is presented in Annex 1.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 10.04.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture

Volume II of the Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater provides information on the assessment and management of risks associated with microbial hazards and toxic chemicals. It explains requirements to promote the safe use of wastewater in agriculture, including minimum procedures and specific health-based targets, and how those requirements are intended to be used. It also describes the approaches used in deriving the guidelines, including health-based targets, and includes a substantive revision of approaches to ensuring microbial safety.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019] PDF

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture

Volume III of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater deals with wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture and describes the present state of knowledge regarding the impact of wastewater-fed aquaculture on the health of producers, product consumers and local communities. It assesses the associated health risks and provides an integrated preventive management framework.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019] PDF

Week 3: Analyse financial viability

Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 1: Set objectives and plan activities for launch

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Further Readings

Week 2: Finance the launch

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Further Readings

Alternative Versions to