solution finder

07 May 2019

Distribution process: retailers or mobile sales force

Author/Compiled by
Raphael Graser (Antenna Foundation)
Executive Summary

Safe water enterprises have a multitude of options to deliver products and services. Important is to thoroughly reflect how the delivery shall look like and whether it is executed in-house, by outsourcing or pursuing a mixed approach. This factsheet provides different insights on what aspects to consider when developing and implementing a distribution strategy and discusses advantages and disadvantages that are coming along with the 3 approaches.

The case studies of TARA in India and Spouts of Water in Uganda provide distinct insights on how distribution processes can be designed and implemented.

Factsheet Block Title
What is a distribution process about?
Factsheet Block Body

In the business model canvas (see factsheet on business model development) the distribution process is understood as the channels and customer relationships where the value proposition is delivered to the specific customer segment. At the end of any distribution process - often-called 'last mile distribution' to reach the end-customer, a water business will have to make a decision whether to distribute the water product, service or HWTS product itself, to outsource this task or to pursue a mixed approach. Both options come with advantages as well as disadvantages INCLUSIVE BUSINESS ACTION NETWORK, 2016; HEIERLI, 2008). Based on the observed businesses cases under the Safe Water Program Phase II, every firm not only struggled with its last mile delivery, but also the consequences of initially outsourcing this process. This handout presents different options for the last mile delivery and how to overcome struggles to reach the end-customer.

Factsheet Block Title
Why are distribution processes relevant?
Factsheet Block Body

Safe water businesses can opt to provide safe water or household water treatment solution (HWTS) products through different distribution mechanisms. Multiple aspects can influence how the most effective and appropriate distribution system will look like:

1. the choice of water purification technology

2. the production process

3. the point of purification and

4. the available infrastructure or local circumstances

These aspects have to be considered in order to reliably and successfully cater safe water or HWTS to your BoP customers (ASHOKA, 2014).

Factsheet Block Title
Who is this distribution factsheet interesting for?
Factsheet Block Body

The tool caters towards businesses that are about to launch their product or water service. It addresses also social enterprises experiencing difficulties with last mile delivery of their product or service.

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Factsheet Block Title
How can your company improve its last mile distribution process?
Factsheet Block Body

Businesses have to decide whether to distribute HWTS or safe water by in-house staff, by outsourcing it to a third party or by pursuing a mixed approach. The table below provides an overview of the 3 approaches and discusses their respective advantages and disadvantages. These insights will help a safe water enterprise to conceptualise or remodel its distribution process.

 

 

Outsourcing

Mixed

In-house

Description

The distribution of HWTS products or safe water delivery services is sourced out to a third-party contractor.

The distribution is partly executed through a distribution system developed by the enterprise itself and through a third-party partnership.

The safe water enterprise is setting up an in-house distribution network, training sales force or setting up its own retail shops or water kiosks.

Example

The locally produced safe water product is sold through an existing retail company or pharmacies for example.

The safe water products are sold through an existing retail system and by door-to-door delivery executed by in-house trained staff.

Safe water kiosks are set up, water is treated and directly sold through a company’s own staff.

Advantages

  • Less front or field employees required
  • Cost efficiency as no sales infrastructure has to be set up
  • Benefitting from existing distribution network, customer base and experience
  • Cost efficiency and control
  • Medium level of customer relationship & feedback
  • Sufficient knowledge about the marketing and sales process, to re-educate the distribution partner
  • Possible to reach different customer segments due to dual distribution strategy
  • Control over education and marketing process
  • Better monitoring of sales and distribution process
  • High level of customer relationship & feedback possible
  • Clear responsibility of the company itself
  • Clear incentive system can be developed and directly managed
  • Value can be fully captured by the enterprise

Disadvantages

  • Low level of customer relationship & feedback
  • Cost for monitoring external sales staff (retailers, similar)
  • Incentive setting for external sales people is difficult
  • No direct control of performance
  • Captured value has to be shared
  • Costs and time -intensive partnership development process
  • Cost for monitoring external and internal sales staff
  • Incentive setting for external sales people is difficult
  • Performance depends on partner company also

 

  • Cost to monitor own sales people
  • Distribution network as to be built from scratch
  • Cost intensive
  • Knowledge intensive
  • Trial and error necessary

Overview of advantages and disadvantages of safe water distribution methods. Source: Antenna, 2018

 

In order to cater safe water products and services to the BoP there is a variety of last mile distribution methods that have been established and successfully executed over time. These methods can be used as single method or in combination and executed in-house, by a third party or mixed. An overview of last mile distribution methods can be found subsequently in Table 2:

Delivery process

Description

Illustration

Door-to-door delivery

A network of door-to-door sales forces or microfranchisees promotes and sells one or multiple products from one company (e.g. health, energy, agriculture). For more information please see tool on social marketing.

Door to door sales
Door-to-door sales in Nepal. Source: Antenna, 2014

Shared door-to-door delivery

Door-to-door sales forces are selling products from different companies and brands in a certain area.

Shared door-to-door sales
Shared door-to-door sales. Source:
Antenna, 2014

Local branch retailer

Products from a single brand or a single supplier are sold in a retail shop (e.g. franchise, branded kiosks, local branches).

local retailer
Local retailer selling Chlore C in Guinea.
Source: Antenna, 2015

Shared retail

Products from multiple companies and brands are displayed and sold in fixed retail locations (e.g. retail chains or small shops). Here a variety of products for different use and purposes can be sold.

Watasol shared retail
WATASOL and other products displayed in a Nepalese pharmacy. Source: Antenna, 2014

Institutional partnerships

Collaboration with a partnering organization. Can facilitate market entry as distribution can be built on existing knowledge and relationships (case study on smart partnering).

partnership
Partnership of Tinkisso-Antenna and
Unicef in Guinea. Source: Antenna, 2016

Microfranchising

Collaboration with local micro-entrepreneurs (women, self-help-groups etc.) leveraging “the basic concept of traditional franchising, but it is especially focused on creating opportunities for the world’s poorest people to own and manage their own businesses” (LEHR, 2011) Mixed form of distribution as training, sales material and basic salary is provided. Additional salary is based on commission. (Case study on distribution process)

microfranchisee selling aqua+
Microfranchisee selling Aqua+ in India.
Source: Antenna, 2017
Overview of last-mile distribution options (adapted from MIT DISTRIBUTION COMPASS, 2016, own illustration)
 

These insights can help your company develop and implement a distribution strategy. The accompanying case studies help you understand how other safe water business initiatives have been implementing their distribution process and what lessons learnt they acquired.

Factsheet Block Body

The case studies of TARA in India and Spouts of Water  in Uganda provide distinct insights on how distribution processes can be designed and implemented.

Library References

Marketing Safe Water Systems: Why it is so hard to get safe water to the poor – and so profitable to sell it to the rich

This book provides unique insights – from the varied perspectives of users, disseminators, producers and retailers – into the marketing challenges of point-of-use water treatment devices.

HEIERLI, U. (2008): Marketing Safe Water Systems: Why it is so hard to get safe water to the poor – and so profitable to sell it to the rich. Bern: Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) URL [Accessed: 18.05.2019]

Access to Safe Water for the Base of the Pyramid – Lessons Learned from 15 Case Studies

The book provides insights on how innovative approaches led by social entrepreneurs, NGOs, and corporations have proven that sustainable solutions could provide safe water at the Base of the Pyramid. To illustrate these findings 15 case studies are provided of innovative social enterprises active in Africa and Asia.

HYSTRA (2011): Access to Safe Water for the Base of the Pyramid – Lessons Learned from 15 Case Studies. Hybrid Strategies Consulting URL [Accessed: 16.04.2018] PDF

Evaluating the Sustainability of Ceramic Filters for Point-of-Use Drinking Water Treatment

This study evaluates the social, economic, and environmental sustainability of ceramic filters impregnated with silver nanoparticles for point-of-use (POU) drinking water treatment in developing countries.

REN, D. et al. (2013): Evaluating the Sustainability of Ceramic Filters for Point-of-Use Drinking Water Treatment. In: Environmental Science & Technology: Volume 47 Issue 19, 11206-11213. URL [Accessed: 16.04.2018]

Business Linkages: Supporting Entrepreneurship at the Base of the Pyramid

This paper presents the interesting results of the Roundtable Dialogue in Brazil in 2008 that brought together approximately 40 corporate business linkage practitioners and selected operational partners from civil society and the international development community to discuss supply, distribution, and sales models that foster entrepreneurship and enterprise development among those currently living in conditions of poverty.

JENKINS, B. ET AL. (2008): Business Linkages: Supporting Entrepreneurship at the Base of the Pyramid. Report of a Roundtable Dialogue June 10-12, 2008, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Washington DC: International Finance Corporation, International Business Leaders Forum, and the CSR Initiative at the Harvard Kennedy School URL [Accessed: 16.04.2018]

The last 500 feet

This essay discusses the question of the so-called last mile delivery and offers different insights and approaches to meet the basic needs of people in rural and remote areas through viable market-based approaches.

POLAK, P. (2013): The last 500 feet. URL [Accessed: 16.04.2018]

This module introduces the importance of market-based RRR solutions. At the end of this module you have identified key challenges in your local sanitation and waste management system and a RRR-related business idea.

Cover image Module  1

This module sheds light on the importance of studying the business environment and its components like waste supply, market demand, competition and the institutional framework. At the end of this module you have gained insights to evaluating the potential of your business idea.

Cover image Module  2

This module shows how a business idea can be turned into a business model while putting a specific focus on understanding the customer and designing products that meet their needs. At the end of this module you will have developed a business model and positioned your offer in the market.

Cover image Module  3

This module focusses on planning the operations of a RRR related business. During this part RRR technologies will be introduced for different waste streams and tools for planning the production process. At the end of this module you will have blueprinted your production process and the required technology and production inputs.

Cover image Module  4

This module covers key aspects of financial planning and analysis. At the end of this module you will have forecasted your profits, cash flows, required investment and evaluated the financial viability of your business model.

Cover image Module  5

This module enables you to set objectives and plan activities for the launch of your RRR business and identify potential financing sources. At the end of this module you will have developed an action plan for launch and identified appropriate financing sources.

Cover image Module  6

Week 1: Identify challenges in your local sanitation & waste management

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Further Readings

SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles

This AGUASAN publication illustrates how the water and nutrient cycles can be used as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system and aligning it with SDG 6.

BROGAN, J., ERLMANN, T., MUELLER, K. and SOROKOVSKYI, V. (2017): SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles. Using the water and nutrient cycles as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system - including workshop material. Bern (Switzerland): AGUASAN and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

Why shit matters [Video File]

TEDX TALKS (2019): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d4yD0kz34jg [Accessed: 28.03.2019]

"3 billion people worldwide live in cities without sewers or wastewater treatment plant infrastructure. This forces them to dump their waste into open waters, contaminating the drinking water for others downstream. Imagine if we could harness nutrients in wastewater instead of harming human and environmental health. Christoph Lüthi sees a renewable, locally produced and growing resource where others see only human waste. Watch his talk to learn why shit matters! "

Week 2: Identify RRR products and business opportunities

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Further Readings

A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Week 1: Analyse waste supply

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 2: Analyse market demand

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3: Analyse your competition

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 4: Analyse the institutional environment

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 1: Meet the Business Model Canvas

Download Materials
Further Readings

A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Week 1: Plan your production process

Download Materials
Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Week 2: Understand the treatment process

Further Readings

Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings

LOHRI, C. R., DIENER, S., ZABALETA, I. MERTENAT, A. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2017): Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings. In: Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 81–130. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

Week 3A: Design technology systems for nutrient recovery

Further Readings

Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery

COFIE, O., NIKIEMA, J., IMPRAIM, R., ADAMTEY, N., PAUL, J. and KONÉ, D. (2016): Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 3. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Decentralized composting in India

DRESCHER, S. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2004): Decentralized composting in India. In: Harper et al. Sustainable Composting: Case Studies in Guidelines for Developing Countries. Loughborough (UK): Water Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), Loughborough University, Part2: Case Studies, Chapter 3, pp.15-27. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives

KARANJA, N., KWACH, H. and NJENGA, M. (2005): Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives. Nairobi (Kenya): UN-Habitat. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3B: Design technology systems for energy recovery

Further Readings

Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market

FERGUSON, H. (2012): Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market. London (UK): Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) International. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3C: Design technology systems for water recovery

Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Chapter 3 - Technology Selection

VEENSTRA, S., ALAERTS, G. and BIJLSMA, M. (1997): Chapter 3 - Technology Selection. In: Helmer, R. and Hespanhol, I. (Eds). Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles. London (UK): World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects

Volume I of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater focuses on policy, regulation and institutional arrangements. Accordingly, its intended readership is made up of policy-makers and those with regulatory responsibilities. It provides guidance on policy formulation, harmonisation and mainstreaming, on regulatory mechanisms and on establishing institutional links between the various interested sectors and parties. It also presents a synthesis of the key issues from Volumes II, III, and IV and the index for all four volumes as well as a glossary of terms used in all four volumes is presented in Annex 1.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 10.04.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture

Volume II of the Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater provides information on the assessment and management of risks associated with microbial hazards and toxic chemicals. It explains requirements to promote the safe use of wastewater in agriculture, including minimum procedures and specific health-based targets, and how those requirements are intended to be used. It also describes the approaches used in deriving the guidelines, including health-based targets, and includes a substantive revision of approaches to ensuring microbial safety.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019] PDF

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture

Volume III of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater deals with wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture and describes the present state of knowledge regarding the impact of wastewater-fed aquaculture on the health of producers, product consumers and local communities. It assesses the associated health risks and provides an integrated preventive management framework.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019] PDF

Week 3: Analyse financial viability

Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 1: Set objectives and plan activities for launch

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Further Readings

Week 2: Finance the launch

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Further Readings

Alternative Versions to