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05 May 2019

Water Pricing - General

Author/Compiled by
Martina Ricato (seecon international gmbh)
Executive Summary

In July 2010, the UN general assembly proclaimed access to safe drinking water and sanitation as a human right. At the same time, water and sanitation are also economic goods. There is a need to get a balance of these two aspects of water. Pricing water fairly and equally is important to sustain and extend the water and sanitation system. In many countries, consumers pay too little for water services. Revenue from water charges does not even cover operation and maintenance of water utilities, let alone (re)investment for the infrastructure. Water and wastewater tariffs determine the level of revenues that service providers receive from users in centralised or semi-centralised systems for the appropriate treatment, purification and distribution of freshwater, and the subsequent collection, treatment and discharge of wastewater. Here, we will introduce water pricing as an important economic instrument for improving water use efficiency, enhancing social equity and securing financial sustainability of water utilities and operators.

Advantages
Provide incentives for efficient water use and for water quality protection
Charges send appropriate price signals to users about the relationship between water use and water scarcity
Pricing water provides funds for necessary infrastructure development and expansion
Water pricing ensures at the medium-long term that water services can be provided to all citizens at an affordable price
Disadvantages
There is disagreement over the objectives of water pricing and tariff design
Tariff setting is a political process rife with controversy
Tariff setting process is often not transparent
Tariff design is a complex process that need high volume of data
Water tariffs are often difficult to understand for consumer
Factsheet Block Title
Water and Wastewater Tariffs
Factsheet Block Body

A water tariff is the price assigned to water supplied by a public utility generally for both freshwater supply and wastewater treatment. The term is also often applied to wastewater tariffs. Water and wastewater tariffs determine the conditions of service and the monthly bills for water users in various categories and classes. Tariffs are often set by a regulatory agency for the appropriate catchment, purification and distribution of freshwater, and the subsequent collection, treatment and discharge of wastewater.

Wastewater tariffs can be a fixed percentage of water tariffs, or can be set separately.Water charges often contain some elements to address poverty. Connexion fees to a network, or installation costs for pumps are generally charged separately (CARDONE & FONSECA 2004).

Tariff setting practises vary widely around the world, and there is no consensus on which tariff structure best balances the objectives of the utility, consumers, and society (WHITTINGTON 2002).

Factsheet Block Title
Why Setting a Tariff on Water?
Factsheet Block Body

(Adapted from ROGERS et al. 2001)

Often, consumers pay too little for the water and sanitation services they get. People are not aware of the real costs of providing water and sanitation services because these have been historically heavily subsidised from governments. This is because water is a social good and it was considered a cheap and abundant resource. However, with population growth and much larger communities requiring access to water services, the availability of freshwater is decreasing dramatically in many regions of the world.

Water tariffs are economic instruments that help tackling both challenges of providing water and sanitation services to all citizens at an affordable price and the conservation of water resources.

Proper water tariffs provide incentives to improve sustainable water and sanitation services and to use water resources more efficiently:

  • Tariffs generate revenues to recover specific costs (e.g. operation and maintenance costs)
  • Tariffs generate funds for necessary infrastructure development and expansion as well as for wastewater treatment, hence assuring water quality protection.
  • Charges send appropriate price signals to users about the relationship between water use and water scarcity
  • Having to pay for water can encourage people to reduce wasting water
  • Subsidising tariffs for low-income groups ensure that poor households also have sufficient and affordable water services.

 

Adequate water tariffs allow cost recovery, which is very important to assure well functioning water and sanitation systems. “The figure shows the downward spiral resulting from poor cost recovery. In essence, low levels of cost recovery from users and other sources, lead to insufficient income for the effective and efficient operation and management of the service. This implies a poor ability to invest in the sector, whether through human investment or capital investment. As a result, poor service ensues, leading to the dissatisfaction of users thus decreasing to pay, which, on top of already poor cost recovery levels, further exacerbates the system” (CARDONE & FONSECA 2004).

Cycle of water poverty and pathways to change. Source: CARDONE & FONSECA (2004)
Cycle of water poverty and pathways to change. Source: CARDONE & FONSECA (2004)

 

Factsheet Block Title
Water Tariffs - a Controversial Topic
Factsheet Block Body

(Adapted from CARDONE & FONSECA 2004)

Pricing water is a very controversial topic and there is plenty of disagreement about the “right” way of pricing it. Some of the most discussed topics are:

  • Water tariffs are a powerful management tool to achieve various objectives in the water and sanitation sector. However setting tariffs is a political process that is rife with controversy. Research has shown that low tariffs are set largely for political, rather than practical, purposes. Free water is often used as a campaign promise, for political gain. In India for example, this has lead to the situation that the agricultural sector, which uses approx. 90% of all water, receives a large share of it for free. This political interference has been found to be a significant barrier to effective cost recovery (see also policies and legal framework).

 

The picture shows a politician who promises free water to gain votes by the elections. Source: WSP (2001)
The picture shows a politician who promises free water to gain votes by the elections. Source: WSP (2001)

 

  • Tariff structures are often complex and difficult to understand for consumers. People are not generally aware about the costs of providing water and sanitation services, it is difficult for them to judge what a “fair” or appropriate price to pay is. Moreover, it must be considered that poor without access to public water network are already paying a high proportion of their incomes either in excessive charges for poor quality water from water vendors, or in lost productivity through time taken by women to collect water from distant sources. Many poor would be willing and able to pay for appropriate low-cost services, if they were shown to be convenient and reliable (CARDONE & FONSECA 2004).
  • There is disagreement over the objectives of water pricing and tariff design. Tariff setting practises affects the goals of different stakeholders in conflicting ways: consumers need affordable and equal water services whereas utilities require stable revenues for cost recovery and economic efficiency. A tariff structure alone cannot cover all the needs.
  • Often, there is a lack of empirical data about how the application of different tariff structures affects water use for different consumer classes and whether or not price changes would affect customers' decisions to connect (or stay connected) to the water distribution system.
  • There are no market tests for different water tariff structures.Consumers are usually not involved in the design and setting of tariff structures and they cannot reject inappropriate tariff structures because these are typically set by the regulatory agency (WHITTINGTON 2006).

 

Factsheet Block Title
Regulatory Environment and Main Stakeholders
Factsheet Block Body

(Adapted from LE BLANC 2008)

Water and wastewater tariffs need to be set, and from time to time, revisited and adapted. The process is often complex and can involve some or all the stakeholders mentioned below. Outside consulting firms, lending institutions and political leaders may be involved as well. The tariff may be determined by a formula embodied in national legislation (e.g. Ukraine), which may also be administered and regulated by a national regulatory body (e.g. Colombia).

At the national level, the following entities usually have a say in defining the environment in which water and sanitation management take place:

  • The state, through ministries in charge of water and sanitation, and sometimes through ministries in charge of social programmes (mostly for the subsidy aspect),
  • The regulating agency, which may be part of the sector ministry or independent,
  • Intermediate levels of government, which may intervene for example in the implementation of water subsidies,
  • Municipalities, which are typically responsible for basic service provision in their jurisdictions, and may own local utility companies.
  • Water utility companies (public or private);
  • Alternative providers (communities, private sector entities);
  • Consumers (households, agricultural, commercial and industrial), directly or through intermediaries, e.g. community representatives.

 

Factsheet Block Title
Water and Wastewater Tariff Design
Factsheet Block Body

Water and wastewater tariffs are usually designed as a single part tariff or as a combination of two tariff structures. Charges can be set depending or not from the volume of water consumed. In the first case water metering is needed. A briefly overview of water and wastewater tariffs generally adopted by water utilities is given below:

  • Fixed charge: the monthly water bill is independent of the volume consumed.
  • Uniform volumetric tariff: is a volumetric charge with a rate proportional to water consumption (metering is needed). All units (cubic meters) are priced the same rate, independently of total consumption.
  • Increasing block tariff: is a step-wise volumetric charge (metering is needed). With this tariff the unit charge is constant over a specific range of water use block) and then increases as the consume increases.
  • Decreasing block tariff: is the opposite of the increasing block tariff: the rate per unit of water is high for the initial (lower) block of consumption and decreases as the volume of consumption increases.
  • Two parts tariffs: have a fixed charge component plus a variable charge depending on the volume of water consumed (e.g. increasing block or uniform tariff). Two parts tariffs are widely promoted by the World Bank, aim at recovering costs and achieving economic efficiency. The fixed part usually corresponds to the fixed costs of production and administration and the proportional part can be adjusted to the marginal cost (OLIVER 2006).

 

Price of water versus the quantity of water used for selected tariffs. The graph shows how the price of water to the consumer changes as the quantity of water used increases for some of these tariff structures. Source: WHITTINGTON (2006)
Price of water versus the quantity of water used for selected tariffs. The graph shows how the price of water to the consumer changes as the quantity of water used increases for some of these tariff structures. Source: WHITTINGTON (2006)

 

Monthly water bill versus the quantity of water used for selected tariff structures. The figure illustrates how the customer’s monthly water bill varies as the quantity of water used increases for selected tariff structures. Source: WHITTINGTON (2006)
Monthly water bill versus the quantity of water used for selected tariff structures. The figure illustrates how the customer’s monthly water bill varies as the quantity of water used increases for selected tariff structures. Source: WHITTINGTON (2006)

 

Applicability

Water tariffs are applicable at different levels: they can be set either at the service provider level or by national (or local) governments.Tariffs can be categorised in consumer categories and classes and they can be designed within a policy framework that addresses the needs of the poor (CARDONE & FONSECA 2004). Policy makers need to decide which objectives have the highest priority, and where possible, use a range of instruments. Involvement of local communities in the tariff setting process is important to identify the real local needs, the costs of providing a good quality service, and the best ways to recover the costs incurred (CARDONE & FONSECA 2004).

Library References

Water Tariff Design in Developing Countries: Disadvantages of Increasing Block Tariffs and Advantages of Uniform Price with Rebate Designs

BOLAND, J.J. WHITTINGTON, D. (2000): Water Tariff Design in Developing Countries: Disadvantages of Increasing Block Tariffs and Advantages of Uniform Price with Rebate Designs. Ottawa, ON, Canada: IDRC Research Paper URL [Accessed: 20.07.2010]

Financing and Cost Recovery

This paper provides an excellent overview on financing and cost recovery for the water supply and sanitation services sector in rural and low-income urban areas of developing countries. The document contains also case studies and mini reviews of best publications on financing and cost recovery.

CARDONE, R. FONSECA, C. (2003): Financing and Cost Recovery. Delft (The Netherlands): IRC (International Water and Sanitation Centre). Thematic Overview Paper 7. URL [Accessed: 03.05.2019]

A Framework for Analyzing Tariffs and Subsidies in Water Provision to Urban Households

This paper aims to present a basic conceptual framework for understanding the main practical issues and challenges relating to tariffs and subsidies in the water sector in developing countries. The paper introduces the basic economic notions relevant to the water sector; presents an analytical framework for assessing the need for and evaluating subsidies; and discusses the recent evidence on the features and performance of water tariffs and subsidies in various regions, with a special focus on Africa. The discussion is limited to the provision of drinking water to urban households in developing countries.

BLANC, D. le (2008): A Framework for Analyzing Tariffs and Subsidies in Water Provision to Urban Households . New York: DESA Working Paper n°63 URL [Accessed: 20.07.2010]

Water is an Economic Good: How to use Prices to Promote Equity, Efficiency, and Sustainability

This paper focuses on the role of prices in the water sector and how they can be used to promote equity, efficiency, and sustainability.

ROGERS, P. ; SILVA, R. de ; BATHIA, R. (2001): Water is an Economic Good: How to use Prices to Promote Equity, Efficiency, and Sustainability. In: Water Policy : Volume 4 , 1–17. URL [Accessed: 03.05.2019]

Review of Current Practices in Determining User Charges and Incorporation of Economic Principles of Pricing of Urban Water Supply

This report reviews current practices in determining user charges and researches how economic principles of pricing of urban water supply can be incorporates. It researches international practices in the UK, Australia and the Philippines and several cases in India.

TERI (2010): Review of Current Practices in Determining User Charges and Incorporation of Economic Principles of Pricing of Urban Water Supply. New Delhi: TERI URL [Accessed: 03.05.2019]

Municipal Water Pricing and Tariff Design: a Reform Agenda for South Asia

This paper describes the major elements of a package of pricing and tariff reforms that are needed in the municipal water supply sector in many South Asian cities. Keywords: Increasing block tariffs; Pro-poor policies; Seasonal tariffs; Subsidies; Tariff designs; Water pricing.

WHITTINGTON, D. (2003): Municipal Water Pricing and Tariff Design: a Reform Agenda for South Asia. In: Water Policy 5 : , 61–76. URL [Accessed: 20.07.2010]

Pricing Water and Sanitation Services. Human Development Report 2006. Human development office-occasional paper

The purpose of this paper is to provide the reader with a better understanding of the main issues involved in the design of W&S tariffs. Keywords: Costs of W&S services, objectives of tariff design, tariff options, subsidies, development paths of W&S services.

WHITTINGTON, D. (2006): Pricing Water and Sanitation Services. Human Development Report 2006. Human development office-occasional paper. New York: UNDP URL [Accessed: 03.05.2019]
Further Readings

Pricing Water and Sanitation Services. Human Development Report 2006. Human development office-occasional paper

The purpose of this paper is to provide the reader with a better understanding of the main issues involved in the design of W&S tariffs. Keywords: Costs of W&S services, objectives of tariff design, tariff options, subsidies, development paths of W&S services.

WHITTINGTON, D. (2006): Pricing Water and Sanitation Services. Human Development Report 2006. Human development office-occasional paper. New York: UNDP URL [Accessed: 03.05.2019]

Financing and Cost Recovery

This paper provides an excellent overview on financing and cost recovery for the water supply and sanitation services sector in rural and low-income urban areas of developing countries. The document contains also case studies and mini reviews of best publications on financing and cost recovery.

CARDONE, R. FONSECA, C. (2003): Financing and Cost Recovery. Delft (The Netherlands): IRC (International Water and Sanitation Centre). Thematic Overview Paper 7. URL [Accessed: 03.05.2019]

Providing Water to the Urban Poor in Developing Countries: The Role of Tariffs and Subsidies

This brief explores the role of water tariffs and subsidies as key instrument to achieve the objective of providing safe and affordable drinking water to residents of growing urban areas in developing countries.

BLANC, D. le (2007): Providing Water to the Urban Poor in Developing Countries: The Role of Tariffs and Subsidies. In: Sustainable Development Innovation Brief: Volume 4 URL [Accessed: 03.05.2019]

A Framework for Analyzing Tariffs and Subsidies in Water Provision to Urban Households

This paper aims to present a basic conceptual framework for understanding the main practical issues and challenges relating to tariffs and subsidies in the water sector in developing countries. The paper introduces the basic economic notions relevant to the water sector; presents an analytical framework for assessing the need for and evaluating subsidies; and discusses the recent evidence on the features and performance of water tariffs and subsidies in various regions, with a special focus on Africa. The discussion is limited to the provision of drinking water to urban households in developing countries.

BLANC, D. le (2008): A Framework for Analyzing Tariffs and Subsidies in Water Provision to Urban Households . New York: DESA Working Paper n°63 URL [Accessed: 20.07.2010]

International Statistics for Water Services

This short leaflet presents water international statistics for water services, e.g. major cities’ water bills, abstraction sources for drinking water supplies, or a large comparison of water cycle charges.

IWA SPECIALIST GROUP STATISTICS AND ECONOMICS (2010): International Statistics for Water Services. The Hague: International Water Association (IWA). [Accessed: 22.04.2012] PDF

Social Issues in the Provision and Pricing of Water Services. Executive Summary.

The main focus of the report (here: executive summary) is the affordability of water services in OECD countries, as well as the social measures currently in place aimed at resolving these affordability problems. The report also examines the potential role of the private sector in incorporating the social dimension into water pricing decisions, as well as issues related to making the transition towards higher levels of access to water services.

OECD (2002): Social Issues in the Provision and Pricing of Water Services. Executive Summary.. URL [Accessed: 20.07.2010]

Water is an Economic Good: How to use Prices to Promote Equity, Efficiency, and Sustainability

This paper focuses on the role of prices in the water sector and how they can be used to promote equity, efficiency, and sustainability.

ROGERS, P. ; SILVA, R. de ; BATHIA, R. (2001): Water is an Economic Good: How to use Prices to Promote Equity, Efficiency, and Sustainability. In: Water Policy : Volume 4 , 1–17. URL [Accessed: 03.05.2019]

Municipal Water Pricing and Tariff Design: a Reform Agenda for South Asia

This paper describes the major elements of a package of pricing and tariff reforms that are needed in the municipal water supply sector in many South Asian cities. Keywords: Increasing block tariffs; Pro-poor policies; Seasonal tariffs; Subsidies; Tariff designs; Water pricing.

WHITTINGTON, D. (2003): Municipal Water Pricing and Tariff Design: a Reform Agenda for South Asia. In: Water Policy 5 : , 61–76. URL [Accessed: 20.07.2010]

Sanitation surcharges collected through water bills: a way forward for financing pro-poor sanitation?

This discussion paper is a situation review of sanitation surcharge systems in African cities, focusing on systems designed to raise revenues for improving sanitation in low-income districts. The review considers existing pro-poor surcharge systems in Lusaka and Ouagadougou; systems that cannot currently be considered pro-poor, in Dakar, Beira, and Antananarivo; and the special case of Maputo, where there is ongoing debate about how a surcharge might be introduced.

WSUP (2012): Sanitation surcharges collected through water bills: a way forward for financing pro-poor sanitation?. Discussion paper. London: Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP) URL [Accessed: 22.04.2019]
Case Studies

Review of Current Practices in Determining User Charges and Incorporation of Economic Principles of Pricing of Urban Water Supply

This report reviews current practices in determining user charges and researches how economic principles of pricing of urban water supply can be incorporates. It researches international practices in the UK, Australia and the Philippines and several cases in India.

TERI (2010): Review of Current Practices in Determining User Charges and Incorporation of Economic Principles of Pricing of Urban Water Supply. New Delhi: TERI URL [Accessed: 03.05.2019]

International Statistics for Water Services

This short leaflet presents water international statistics for water services, e.g. major cities’ water bills, abstraction sources for drinking water supplies, or a large comparison of water cycle charges.

IWA SPECIALIST GROUP STATISTICS AND ECONOMICS (2010): International Statistics for Water Services. The Hague: International Water Association (IWA). [Accessed: 22.04.2012] PDF

Self-Supply as a Complementary Water Services Delivery Model in Ethiopia

Self-supply, where households invest to develop their own easily-accessible water supplies, is identified as an alternative service delivery model that is potentially complementary to more highly subsidised community-level provision. The approach is widespread in Ethiopia with family wells bringing additional benefits that are in line with wider government objectives, such as supporting small-scale irrigation. However, two recent studies show the current performance of traditional or family wells to be far below potential with most sources providing unsafe water in the absence of adequate protection.

BUTTERWORTH, J. ; SUTTON, S. ; MEKONTA, L. (2013): Self-Supply as a Complementary Water Services Delivery Model in Ethiopia. In: Water Alternatives: Volume 6 , 405-423. URL [Accessed: 08.03.2019] PDF

This module introduces the importance of market-based RRR solutions. At the end of this module you have identified key challenges in your local sanitation and waste management system and a RRR-related business idea.

Cover image Module  1

This module sheds light on the importance of studying the business environment and its components like waste supply, market demand, competition and the institutional framework. At the end of this module you have gained insights to evaluating the potential of your business idea.

Cover image Module  2

This module shows how a business idea can be turned into a business model while putting a specific focus on understanding the customer and designing products that meet their needs. At the end of this module you will have developed a business model and positioned your offer in the market.

Cover image Module  3

This module focusses on planning the operations of a RRR related business. During this part RRR technologies will be introduced for different waste streams and tools for planning the production process. At the end of this module you will have blueprinted your production process and the required technology and production inputs.

Cover image Module  4

This module covers key aspects of financial planning and analysis. At the end of this module you will have forecasted your profits, cash flows, required investment and evaluated the financial viability of your business model.

Cover image Module  5

This module enables you to set objectives and plan activities for the launch of your RRR business and identify potential financing sources. At the end of this module you will have developed an action plan for launch and identified appropriate financing sources.

Cover image Module  6

Week 1: Identify challenges in your local sanitation & waste management

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Further Readings

SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles

This AGUASAN publication illustrates how the water and nutrient cycles can be used as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system and aligning it with SDG 6.

BROGAN, J., ERLMANN, T., MUELLER, K. and SOROKOVSKYI, V. (2017): SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles. Using the water and nutrient cycles as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system - including workshop material. Bern (Switzerland): AGUASAN and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

Why shit matters [Video File]

TEDX TALKS (2019): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d4yD0kz34jg [Accessed: 28.03.2019]

"3 billion people worldwide live in cities without sewers or wastewater treatment plant infrastructure. This forces them to dump their waste into open waters, contaminating the drinking water for others downstream. Imagine if we could harness nutrients in wastewater instead of harming human and environmental health. Christoph Lüthi sees a renewable, locally produced and growing resource where others see only human waste. Watch his talk to learn why shit matters! "

Week 2: Identify RRR products and business opportunities

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Further Readings

A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Week 1: Analyse waste supply

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 2: Analyse market demand

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3: Analyse your competition

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 4: Analyse the institutional environment

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Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 1: Meet the Business Model Canvas

Download Materials
Further Readings

A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Week 1: Plan your production process

Download Materials
Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Week 2: Understand the treatment process

Further Readings

Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings

LOHRI, C. R., DIENER, S., ZABALETA, I. MERTENAT, A. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2017): Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings. In: Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 81–130. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

Week 3A: Design technology systems for nutrient recovery

Further Readings

Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery

COFIE, O., NIKIEMA, J., IMPRAIM, R., ADAMTEY, N., PAUL, J. and KONÉ, D. (2016): Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 3. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Decentralized composting in India

DRESCHER, S. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2004): Decentralized composting in India. In: Harper et al. Sustainable Composting: Case Studies in Guidelines for Developing Countries. Loughborough (UK): Water Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), Loughborough University, Part2: Case Studies, Chapter 3, pp.15-27. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives

KARANJA, N., KWACH, H. and NJENGA, M. (2005): Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives. Nairobi (Kenya): UN-Habitat. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3B: Design technology systems for energy recovery

Further Readings

Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market

FERGUSON, H. (2012): Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market. London (UK): Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) International. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3C: Design technology systems for water recovery

Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Chapter 3 - Technology Selection

VEENSTRA, S., ALAERTS, G. and BIJLSMA, M. (1997): Chapter 3 - Technology Selection. In: Helmer, R. and Hespanhol, I. (Eds). Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles. London (UK): World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects

Volume I of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater focuses on policy, regulation and institutional arrangements. Accordingly, its intended readership is made up of policy-makers and those with regulatory responsibilities. It provides guidance on policy formulation, harmonisation and mainstreaming, on regulatory mechanisms and on establishing institutional links between the various interested sectors and parties. It also presents a synthesis of the key issues from Volumes II, III, and IV and the index for all four volumes as well as a glossary of terms used in all four volumes is presented in Annex 1.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 10.04.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture

Volume II of the Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater provides information on the assessment and management of risks associated with microbial hazards and toxic chemicals. It explains requirements to promote the safe use of wastewater in agriculture, including minimum procedures and specific health-based targets, and how those requirements are intended to be used. It also describes the approaches used in deriving the guidelines, including health-based targets, and includes a substantive revision of approaches to ensuring microbial safety.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019] PDF

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture

Volume III of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater deals with wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture and describes the present state of knowledge regarding the impact of wastewater-fed aquaculture on the health of producers, product consumers and local communities. It assesses the associated health risks and provides an integrated preventive management framework.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019] PDF

Week 3: Analyse financial viability

Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 1: Set objectives and plan activities for launch

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Further Readings

Week 2: Finance the launch

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Further Readings

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