solution finder

09 May 2019

Greywater Towers

Author/Compiled by
Niels Sacher (Xavier University)
Robert Gensch (Xavier University)
Executive Summary

A greywater tower is a circular bag, which is filled with soil, ash and/or compost mixture and a gravel column at the centre. It is used to treat and reuse greywater - water that has been used for bathing, washing clothes and utensils. Vegetables are planted in holes cut in the sides of the bag and each day the available greywater from a household is poured directly on the gravel column making grow the vegetables.

Advantages
Minimal space required
Little investment costs and maintenance labour
Can be implemented close to the source/household
Contribution to household food security and alleviation of food shortages and poverty
Reduction of environmental degradation, eutrophication of water sources and health hazards
Reuse of valuable water and nutrient resources
Good for elder people, as they do not need to bend down
Disadvantages
Difficult to estimate the effective need for greywater and not very adapted for large fluctuations
Unpleasant odours may appear
Some space for setting up the greywater towers close to the housing is required
Difficult in countries with a cold climate that do not have a continues growing season
In Out

Greywater

Treated Water, Food Products

Factsheet Block Title
Introduction
Factsheet Block Body

Greywater (the wastewater from bath, laundry and kitchen) accounts for around 50 to 80% of the residential wastewater with manageable contamination levels. It therefore offers great potential for reuse in agriculture, particularly in areas where water is scarce. Greywater towers are low-cost solutions that allow for the reuse of the water and nutrient content in greywater and productively using it for gardening purposes.

Greywater towers are cylindrical and made out of simple plastic bags or clothes, reinforced with wooden poles, filled with a soil mix (soil, ash and/or compost/vermicompost) and anchored into the soil. Vegetables are grown in holes cut in the sides of the bag. Each day, the available greywater is poured into the bag. The soapy water contains nutrient on which vegetables can grow successfully. The soapy water can be cleared out of the system by pouring two buckets of clean water into the column once a week.

Factsheet Block Title
Basic Design Principles
Factsheet Block Body

For the construction of a greywater tower, a circle has to be marked out on the ground with a diameter of around 80 cm. The bottom layer of the tower has to be dug out and the wooden side poles need to be firmly planted into the ground. A shade cloth will be wrapped around the poles and the resulting cylinder will be filled with gravel in the middle and the soil mix all around. The backfill has to be well mixed before applying it. A bucket with its bottom removed can be placed at the bottom in the middle of the tower to increase stability and improve the flow regime. Small stones should be packed in the bucket to increase weight. To prevent fast flow of the water through the bucket and to achieve even water distribution, small stones (provided they are evenly packed) should be used. Once the bucket is filled up with stones, it is backfilled with the soil mixture. Then, the bucket can be removed (and reused), leaving the stones in position. The soil should be humid but not too wet, when packing the tower. The soil should be evenly distributed as compacted water will not let water flow through. The procedure of placing the bucket, filling it with stones, backfill it and then remove the bucket has to be repeated for each soil layer until the top layer of the greywater tower (around 1 m in height).

Step-by-step instruction to construct a greywater tower. Source: SHEWA et al. (2009)
Step-by-step instruction to construct a greywater tower. Source: SHEWA et al. (2009)

 

Greywater towers are ideal for leafy crops such as spinach. Ideally the planting holes should not be one above the other but staggered diagonally, providing more space for root development. Different crops which use the soil in a complementary way should be grown to facilitate biological control of disease and pests. Tomatoes and onions can be planted on the top of the tower. Garlic and onions are also useful to prevent plant diseases and pests. If crops require trellises this can be provided by extending the vertical uprights and joining them with wire or string.

Factsheet Block Title
Operation and Maintenance
Factsheet Block Body

One of the main advantages of the method is that little labour for construction and little operation and maintenance is required. Once people have become familiar with the towers, they are easily maintained. The towers can be positioned right at the back door so that it is easy to pour the wastewater into the tower.

It is difficult to predict how much water is required, and the necessary experience will usually come over time. In the beginning it is recommended to apply around 20 L per day and fine-tune it according to the exact water demand. If water forms a puddle around the bottom of the tower, too much water is being applied. A possible answer to this problem would be to make a second tower.

Feeding a greywater tower. Source: SHEWA et al. (2009)
Feeding a greywater tower. Source: SHEWA et al. (2009)

 

Applicability

Greywater towers provide a simple and low-cost method to treat and reuse greywater for gardening and food production and are particularly recommended in water-scarce areas.

In the peri-urban areas of many cities in developing countries, greywater is far too often discharged untreated on the soil or into ground and surface water sources. This results in bad smell and stagnant water, risk for malaria, diarrhoea and other waterborne diseases. The reuse of greywater directly by the household, which is continuously producing vegetables (in warm climates) is a simple and sustainable solution for greywater treatment offering a solution not only for a cleaner and healthier environment but also for improving the household food security and livelihood situation.

Library References

Tower gardens

The paper gives a brief overview on the topics of greywater and greywater gardens including a short manual on how to construct a greywater tower as well as information on suitable crops.

IWRM (2008): Tower gardens. South Africa: Department of Water Affairs and Forestry’s Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) URL [Accessed: 19.05.2010]

Greywater use in peri-urban households in Kitgum, Uganda. Kampala, Uganda

This study was undertaken within the ROSA project (Resource oriented Sanitation concepts in peri‐urban areas in Africa) in order to understand greywater characteristics and to demonstrate a low cost reuse option involving direct application of untreated greywater to small so called “greywater towers” at household level in peri‐urban settlements in Kitgum Town Council.

KULABAKO, R. ; KINOBE, J. ; MUJUNGA, J. ; OLWENYI, S. ; SLEYTR, K. (2009): Greywater use in peri-urban households in Kitgum, Uganda. Kampala, Uganda. In: Sustainable Sanitation Practice: Volume 1 , 16-24 . URL [Accessed: 19.05.2010]

Arba Minch town ROSA project. Project Booklet. Resource Oriented Sanitation concepts for peri-urban areas in Africa

The ROSA project has been working on promoting resource oriented sanitation systems that focus on implementation of simple, cost effective and affordable sanitation units and carrying out research on these pilot units. This booklet attempts to provide practical information about the activities carried out by Arba Minch town ROSA project including information on the implementation and testing of greywater towers.

ROSA (2006): Arba Minch town ROSA project. Project Booklet. Resource Oriented Sanitation concepts for peri-urban areas in Africa. Ethiopia: Arba Minch University URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019]

Greywater Use for Agricultural Irrigation in Urban and Peri-Urban Areas

Presentation on the use of greywater for agricultural irrigation in the South African context with special focus on a study comparing the irrigation of plants with nutrient solution, grey water and tap water.

SALUKAZANA, L. JACKSON, S. RODDA, N. SMITH, M. GOUNDEN, T. MACLEOD N. BUCKLEY, C. (n.y): Greywater Use for Agricultural Irrigation in Urban and Peri-Urban Areas. Kwazulu-Natal: University of Kwazulu-Natal

Greywater Tower, The Arba Minch town ROSA project experience. Poster for the 34th WEDC International Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2009

Poster for the 34th WEDC conference with several pictures that illustrate the step-by-step construction of greywater towers.

SHEWA, W. A. (2009): Greywater Tower, The Arba Minch town ROSA project experience. Poster for the 34th WEDC International Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2009. Arba Minch, Ethiopia: Arba Minch Town ROSA project Office PDF

Greywater Tower, Arba Minch, Ethiopia. Draft

Greywater towers were selected as one of the methods that can be adopted to treat and safely reuse greywater for Arba Minch town and eight such units were constructed. Awareness about the unit has been raised in the community of Arba Minch and promising demand has been created.

SHEWA, W.A. GELETA, B.G. (2009): Greywater Tower, Arba Minch, Ethiopia. Draft. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019]

Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM)

The paper is divided in two main parts: The first part puts forward a strong case for applying IWRM globally and defines the IWRM concept and process. The second part provides additional advice and guidance on how IWRM could be implemented in different conditions.

GWP (2000): Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). (= TEC Background Papers , 4 ). Stockholm: Global Water Partnership
Further Readings

Tower gardens

The paper gives a brief overview on the topics of greywater and greywater gardens including a short manual on how to construct a greywater tower as well as information on suitable crops.

IWRM (2008): Tower gardens. South Africa: Department of Water Affairs and Forestry’s Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) URL [Accessed: 19.05.2010]

Greywater Management in Low and Middle-Income Countries, Review of Different Treatment Systems for Households or Neighbourhoods

This report compiles international experience in greywater management on household and neighbourhood level in low and middle-income countries. The documented systems, which vary significantly in terms of complexity, performance and costs, range from simple systems for single-house applications (e.g. local infiltration or garden irrigation) to rather complex treatment trains for neighbourhoods (e.g. series of vertical and horizontal-flow planted soil filters).

MOREL, A. DIENER, S. (2006): Greywater Management in Low and Middle-Income Countries, Review of Different Treatment Systems for Households or Neighbourhoods. (= SANDEC Report No. 14/06 ). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) URL [Accessed: 27.05.2019]

Introduction to Greywater Management

The report gives a comprehensive description of the main components in successful greywater management. Examples as well as recommendations are given for designing and dimensioning treatment systems.

RIDDERSTOLPE, P. (2004): Introduction to Greywater Management. (= EcoSanRes Publication Series, Report 2004-4 ). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute, EcoSanRes Programme URL [Accessed: 19.05.2010]

Arba Minch town ROSA project. Project Booklet. Resource Oriented Sanitation concepts for peri-urban areas in Africa

The ROSA project has been working on promoting resource oriented sanitation systems that focus on implementation of simple, cost effective and affordable sanitation units and carrying out research on these pilot units. This booklet attempts to provide practical information about the activities carried out by Arba Minch town ROSA project including information on the implementation and testing of greywater towers.

ROSA (2006): Arba Minch town ROSA project. Project Booklet. Resource Oriented Sanitation concepts for peri-urban areas in Africa. Ethiopia: Arba Minch University URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019]

Greywater Use for Agricultural Irrigation in Urban and Peri-Urban Areas

Presentation on the use of greywater for agricultural irrigation in the South African context with special focus on a study comparing the irrigation of plants with nutrient solution, grey water and tap water.

SALUKAZANA, L. JACKSON, S. RODDA, N. SMITH, M. GOUNDEN, T. MACLEOD N. BUCKLEY, C. (n.y): Greywater Use for Agricultural Irrigation in Urban and Peri-Urban Areas. Kwazulu-Natal: University of Kwazulu-Natal

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture

Volume III of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater deals with wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture and describes the present state of knowledge regarding the impact of wastewater-fed aquaculture on the health of producers, product consumers and local communities. It assesses the associated health risks and provides an integrated preventive management framework.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]

Wastewater Treatment and Use in Agriculture

This Irrigation and Drainage Paper is intended to provide guidance to national planners and decision-makers, agricultural and municipal managers, field engineers and scientists, health and agricultural field workers, wastewater treatment plant operators and farmers. Consequently, it covers a broad range of relevant material, some in considerable depth but some more superficially. It is meant to encourage the collection, treatment and use of wastewater in agriculture in a safe manner, with maximum advantage taken of this resource. Informal, unplanned and unorganized wastewater use is not recommended, nor is it considered adviseable from the health or agricultural points of view.

PESCOD, M.B. (1992): Wastewater Treatment and Use in Agriculture. (= FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper , 47 ). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) URL [Accessed: 25.10.2011]

Productive Sanitation and the Link to Food Security

This factsheet provides information on the link between sanitation and agriculture as well as related implications on health, economy and environment. It shows examples of treating and using treated excreta and wastewater in a productive way and describes the potential for urban agriculture and resource recovery in rural areas. Institutional and legal aspects, business opportunities and how to manage associated health risks are also discussed

GENSCH, R. DAGERSKOG, L. WINKLER, M. VEENHUIZEN, R. van DRECHSEL, P. (2011): Productive Sanitation and the Link to Food Security. Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019]

Development of Guidance for Sustainable Irrigation Use of Greywater In Gardens and Small-Scale Agriculture in South Africa

There are presently no formal guidelines for the use of greywater in South Africa. This paper presents the rationale and framework of a guidance document for the sustainable use of greywater to irrigate gardens and small-scale agriculture in South Africa, developed under the auspices of the Water Research Commission.

RODDA, N. CARDEN, K. ARMITAGE, N. PLESSIS, H.M. du (2011): Development of Guidance for Sustainable Irrigation Use of Greywater In Gardens and Small-Scale Agriculture in South Africa. Pretoria: Water Research Commission (WRC) URL [Accessed: 07.05.2019]
Case Studies

Greywater use in peri-urban households in Kitgum, Uganda. Kampala, Uganda

This study was undertaken within the ROSA project (Resource oriented Sanitation concepts in peri‐urban areas in Africa) in order to understand greywater characteristics and to demonstrate a low cost reuse option involving direct application of untreated greywater to small so called “greywater towers” at household level in peri‐urban settlements in Kitgum Town Council.

KULABAKO, R. ; KINOBE, J. ; MUJUNGA, J. ; OLWENYI, S. ; SLEYTR, K. (2009): Greywater use in peri-urban households in Kitgum, Uganda. Kampala, Uganda. In: Sustainable Sanitation Practice: Volume 1 , 16-24 . URL [Accessed: 19.05.2010]

Re-use of Greywater for Agricultural Irrigation

Study on the use of greywater for agricultural irrigation in the South African context with special focus on comparing the irrigation of plants with nutrient solution, greywater and tap water.

SALUKAZANA, L. JACKSON, S. RODDA, N. SMITH, M. GOUNDEN, T. MACLEOD, N. BUCKLEY, C. (n.y): Re-use of Greywater for Agricultural Irrigation. Kwazulu-Natal: University of Kwazulu-Natal URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]

Greywater Tower, Arba Minch, Ethiopia. Draft

Greywater towers were selected as one of the methods that can be adopted to treat and safely reuse greywater for Arba Minch town and eight such units were constructed. Awareness about the unit has been raised in the community of Arba Minch and promising demand has been created.

SHEWA, W.A. GELETA, B.G. (2009): Greywater Tower, Arba Minch, Ethiopia. Draft. (= SuSanA - Case Studies ). Eschborn: Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019]
Training Material

Tower gardens

The paper gives a brief overview on the topics of greywater and greywater gardens including a short manual on how to construct a greywater tower as well as information on suitable crops.

IWRM (2008): Tower gardens. South Africa: Department of Water Affairs and Forestry’s Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) URL [Accessed: 19.05.2010]

Greywater Tower, The Arba Minch town ROSA project experience. Poster for the 34th WEDC International Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2009

Poster for the 34th WEDC conference with several pictures that illustrate the step-by-step construction of greywater towers.

SHEWA, W. A. (2009): Greywater Tower, The Arba Minch town ROSA project experience. Poster for the 34th WEDC International Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2009. Arba Minch, Ethiopia: Arba Minch Town ROSA project Office PDF
Awareness Raising Material

This module introduces the importance of market-based RRR solutions. At the end of this module you have identified key challenges in your local sanitation and waste management system and a RRR-related business idea.

Cover image Module  1

This module sheds light on the importance of studying the business environment and its components like waste supply, market demand, competition and the institutional framework. At the end of this module you have gained insights to evaluating the potential of your business idea.

Cover image Module  2

This module shows how a business idea can be turned into a business model while putting a specific focus on understanding the customer and designing products that meet their needs. At the end of this module you will have developed a business model and positioned your offer in the market.

Cover image Module  3

This module focusses on planning the operations of a RRR related business. During this part RRR technologies will be introduced for different waste streams and tools for planning the production process. At the end of this module you will have blueprinted your production process and the required technology and production inputs.

Cover image Module  4

This module covers key aspects of financial planning and analysis. At the end of this module you will have forecasted your profits, cash flows, required investment and evaluated the financial viability of your business model.

Cover image Module  5

This module enables you to set objectives and plan activities for the launch of your RRR business and identify potential financing sources. At the end of this module you will have developed an action plan for launch and identified appropriate financing sources.

Cover image Module  6

Week 1: Identify challenges in your local sanitation & waste management

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Further Readings

SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles

This AGUASAN publication illustrates how the water and nutrient cycles can be used as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system and aligning it with SDG 6.

BROGAN, J., ERLMANN, T., MUELLER, K. and SOROKOVSKYI, V. (2017): SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles. Using the water and nutrient cycles as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system - including workshop material. Bern (Switzerland): AGUASAN and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

Why shit matters [Video File]

TEDX TALKS (2019): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d4yD0kz34jg [Accessed: 28.03.2019]

"3 billion people worldwide live in cities without sewers or wastewater treatment plant infrastructure. This forces them to dump their waste into open waters, contaminating the drinking water for others downstream. Imagine if we could harness nutrients in wastewater instead of harming human and environmental health. Christoph Lüthi sees a renewable, locally produced and growing resource where others see only human waste. Watch his talk to learn why shit matters! "

Week 2: Identify RRR products and business opportunities

Download Materials
Further Readings

A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Week 1: Analyse waste supply

Download Materials
Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 2: Analyse market demand

Download Materials
Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3: Analyse your competition

Download Materials
Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 4: Analyse the institutional environment

Download Materials
Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 1: Meet the Business Model Canvas

Download Materials
Further Readings

A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Week 1: Plan your production process

Download Materials
Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Week 2: Understand the treatment process

Further Readings

Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings

LOHRI, C. R., DIENER, S., ZABALETA, I. MERTENAT, A. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2017): Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings. In: Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 81–130. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

Week 3A: Design technology systems for nutrient recovery

Further Readings

Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery

COFIE, O., NIKIEMA, J., IMPRAIM, R., ADAMTEY, N., PAUL, J. and KONÉ, D. (2016): Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 3. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Decentralized composting in India

DRESCHER, S. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2004): Decentralized composting in India. In: Harper et al. Sustainable Composting: Case Studies in Guidelines for Developing Countries. Loughborough (UK): Water Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), Loughborough University, Part2: Case Studies, Chapter 3, pp.15-27. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives

KARANJA, N., KWACH, H. and NJENGA, M. (2005): Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives. Nairobi (Kenya): UN-Habitat. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3B: Design technology systems for energy recovery

Further Readings

Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market

FERGUSON, H. (2012): Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market. London (UK): Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) International. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3C: Design technology systems for water recovery

Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Chapter 3 - Technology Selection

VEENSTRA, S., ALAERTS, G. and BIJLSMA, M. (1997): Chapter 3 - Technology Selection. In: Helmer, R. and Hespanhol, I. (Eds). Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles. London (UK): World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects

Volume I of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater focuses on policy, regulation and institutional arrangements. Accordingly, its intended readership is made up of policy-makers and those with regulatory responsibilities. It provides guidance on policy formulation, harmonisation and mainstreaming, on regulatory mechanisms and on establishing institutional links between the various interested sectors and parties. It also presents a synthesis of the key issues from Volumes II, III, and IV and the index for all four volumes as well as a glossary of terms used in all four volumes is presented in Annex 1.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 10.04.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture

Volume II of the Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater provides information on the assessment and management of risks associated with microbial hazards and toxic chemicals. It explains requirements to promote the safe use of wastewater in agriculture, including minimum procedures and specific health-based targets, and how those requirements are intended to be used. It also describes the approaches used in deriving the guidelines, including health-based targets, and includes a substantive revision of approaches to ensuring microbial safety.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019] PDF

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture

Volume III of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater deals with wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture and describes the present state of knowledge regarding the impact of wastewater-fed aquaculture on the health of producers, product consumers and local communities. It assesses the associated health risks and provides an integrated preventive management framework.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019] PDF

Week 3: Analyse financial viability

Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 1: Set objectives and plan activities for launch

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Further Readings

Week 2: Finance the launch

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Further Readings

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